Zambia Population: 15,510,711

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 History
The territory of Northern Rhodesia was administered by the former British South Africa Company from 1891 until it was taken over by the UK in 1923. During the 1920s and 1930s, advances in mining spurred development and immigration. The name was changed to Zambia upon independence in 1964. In the 1980s and 1990s, declining copper prices, economic mismanagement, and a prolonged drought hurt the economy. Elections in 1991 brought an end to one-party rule and propelled the Movement for Multiparty Democracy (MMD) to government. The subsequent vote in 1996, however, saw increasing harassment of opposition parties and abuse of state media and other resources. The election in 2001 was marked by administrative problems, with three parties filing a legal petition challenging the election of ruling party candidate Levy MWANAWASA. MWANAWASA was reelected in 2006 in an election that was deemed free and fair. Upon his death in August 2008, he was succeeded by his vice president, Rupiah BANDA, who won a special presidential byelection later that year. The MMD and BANDA lost to the Patriotic Front (PF) and Michael SATA in the 2011 general elections. SATA, however, presided over a period of haphazard economic management and attempted to silence opposition to PF policies. SATA died in October 2014 and was succeeded by his vice president, Guy SCOTT, who served as interim president until special elections were held in January 2015. Edgar LUNGU won the presidential by election and will complete SATA's term, which expires in August 2016 when new presidential, as well as parliamentary and local elections, will be held.

 Geography
Landlocked; the Zambezi forms a natural riverine boundary with Zimbabwe; Lake Kariba on the Zambia-Zimbabwe border forms the world's largest reservoir by volume (180 cu km; 43 cu mi)
Location: Southern Africa, east of Angola, south of the Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 S, 30 00 E
Area: total: 752,618 sq km
land: 743,398 sq km
water: 9,220 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 6,043.15 km border countries (8): Angola 1,065 km, Botswana 0.15 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 2,332 km, Malawi 847 km, Mozambique 439 km, Namibia 244 km, Tanzania 353 km, Zimbabwe 763 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical; modified by altitude; rainy season (October to April)
Terrain: mostly high plateau with some hills and mountains
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: copper, cobalt, zinc, lead, coal, emeralds, gold, silver, uranium, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 31.7% arable land 4.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 26.9% forest: 66.3%
other: 2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,560 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: periodic drought; tropical storms (November to April)
Current Environment Issues: air pollution and resulting acid rain in the mineral extraction and refining region; chemical runoff into watersheds; poaching seriously threatens rhinoceros, elephant, antelope, and large cat populations; deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; lack of adequate water treatment presents human health risks
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Zambian(s)
adjective: Zambian
Ethnic groups: Bemba 21%, Tonga 13.6%, Chewa 7.4%, Lozi 5.7%, Nsenga 5.3%, Tumbuka 4.4%, Ngoni 4%, Lala 3.1%, Kaonde 2.9%, Namwanga 2.8%, Lunda (north Western) 2.6%, Mambwe 2.5%, Luvale 2.2%, Lamba 2.1%, Ushi 1.9%, Lenje 1.6%, Bisa 1.6%, Mbunda 1.2%, other 13.8%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Languages: Bembe 33.4%, Nyanja 14.7%, Tonga 11.4%, Lozi 5.5%, Chewa 4.5%, Nsenga 2.9%, Tumbuka 2.5%, Lunda (North Western) 1.9%, Kaonde 1.8%, Lala 1.8%, Lamba 1.8%, English (official) 1.7%, Luvale 1.5%, Mambwe 1.3%, Namwanga 1.2%, Lenje 1.1%, Bisa 1%, other 9.7%, unspecified 0.2% note: Zambia is said to have over 70 languages, although many of these may be considered dialects; all of Zambia's major languages are members of the Bantu family (2010 est.)
Religions: Protestant 75.3%, Roman Catholic 20.2%, other 2.7% (includes Muslim Buddhist, Hindu, and Baha'i), none 1.8% (2010 est.)
Population: 15,510,711 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 46.08% (male 3,590,466/female 3,556,756)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,550,183/female 1,552,706)
25-54 years: 28.65% (male 2,239,661/female 2,204,823)
55-64 years: 2.91% (male 211,039/female 240,156)
65 years and over: 2.35% (male 158,827/female 206,094) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 95.4%
youth dependency ratio: 89.7%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.7%
potential support ratio: 17.6% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 16.7 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 16.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.94% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 41.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 12.4 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 40.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.32% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: LUSAKA (capital) 2.179 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.2 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2013/14 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 224 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 62.9 deaths/1,000 live births male: 68.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 57.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 52.5 years male: 50.8 years
female: 54.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.67 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 40.8% (2007)
Health expenditures: 5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.17 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 2 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 85.6% of population
rural: 51.3% of population
total: 65.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 14.4% of population
rural: 48.7% of population
total: 34.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 55.6% of population
rural: 35.7% of population
total: 43.9% of population

unimproved:
urban: 44.4% of population
rural: 64.3% of population
total: 56.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 12.91% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,211,900 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 19,800 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 7.2% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 14.8% (2014)
Education expenditures: 1.1% of GDP (2008)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write English
total population: 63.4%
male: 70.9%
female: 56% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 15.2% male: 14.6%
female: 15.8% (2012 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Zambia
conventional short form: Zambia
former: Northern Rhodesia
etymology: name derived from the Zambezi River, which flows through the western part of the country and forms its southern border with neighboring Zimbabwe
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Lusaka
geographic coordinates: 15 25 S, 28 17 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 provinces; Central, Copperbelt, Eastern, Luapula, Lusaka, Muchinga, Northern, North-Western, Southern, Western
Independence: 24 October 1964 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 24 October (1964)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 24 August 1991, promulgated 30 August 1991; amended 1996, 2015 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Edgar LUNGU (since 25 January 2015); Vice President Inonge WINA (since 26 January 2015

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president from among members of the National Assembly elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)

election results: Edgar LUNGU reelected president; percent of vote - Edgar LUNGU (PF) 50.4%, Hakainde HICHILEMA (UPND) 47.6%, other 2.0%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly (164 seats; 156 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, and 8 appointed by the president; members serve 5-year terms); note - 6 additional electoral seats were added for the 11 August 2016 election, up from 150 electoral seats in the 2011 election

elections: last held on 11 August 2016 (next to be held in 2021)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PF 80, UPND 58, MMD 3, FDD 1, independent 14
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and deputy chief justices, and at least 11 judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president, vice-president, and 11 judges); note - the Constitutional Court began operation in June 2016 judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the 9-member Judicial Service Commission headed by the chief justice, and ratified by the National Assembly; judges normally serve until age 65

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Industrial Relations Court; subordinate courts (three levels, based on upper limit of money involved); Small Claims Court; local courts (2 grades, based on upper limit of money involved)
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Democracy and Development or ADD [Charles MILUPI] Forum for Democracy and Development or FDD [Edith NAWAKWI] Movement for Multiparty Democracy or MMD [Nevers MUMBA] Patriotic Front or PF [Edgar LUNGU] United Party for National Development or UPND [Hakainde HICHILEMA]
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, COMESA, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): African fish eagle; national colors: green, red, black, orange
National anthem: name: "Lumbanyeni Zambia" (Stand and Sing of Zambia, Proud and Free)
lyrics/music: multiple/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA

note: adopted 1964; the melody, from the popular song "God Bless Africa," is the same as that of Tanzania but with different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Palan MULONDA (since 8 January 2013)
chancery: 2419 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 265-9717 through 9719
FAX: [1] (202) 332-0826
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Eric T. SCHULTZ (since 12 December 2014)
embassy: Eastern end of Kabulonga Road, Ibex Hill, Lusaka
mailing address: P. O. Box 31617, Lusaka
telephone: [260] (211) 357-000
FAX: [260] ) (211) 357-224
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 Economy
Zambia has had one of the world’s fastest growing economies for the past ten years, with real GDP growth averaging roughly 6.7% per annum, though growth slowed in 2015 to just over 3%, due to falling copper prices, reduced power generation, and depreciation of the kwacha. Zambia’s lack of economic diversification and dependency on copper as its sole major export makes it vulnerable to fluctuations in the world commodities market and prices turned downward in 2015 due to declining demand from China; Zambia was overtaken by the Democratic Republic of Congo as Africa’s largest copper producer. Despite recent strong economic growth and its status as a lower middle-income country, widespread and extreme rural poverty and high unemployment levels remain significant problems, made worse by a high birth rate, a relatively high HIV/AIDS burden, and by market-distorting agricultural and energy policies. Economic policy inconsistency and poor budget execution in recent years has hindered the economy and contributed to weakness in the kwacha, which was Africa’s worst performing currency during 2015. Zambia has raised $7 billion from international investors by issuing separate sovereign bonds in September 2012, April 2014, and July 2015, significantly increasing the country’s public debt as a share of GDP. Poor management of water resources has also contributed to a power generation shortage, which has hampered industrial productivity and contributed to an increase in year-on-year inflation to 23% by March 2016. Zambia’s currency, the kwacha, also depreciated sharply against the dollar through 2015, before the central bank restricted lending.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $65.17 billion (2016 est.) $63.27 billion (2015 est.) $61.43 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $20.57 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2016 est.) 3% (2015 est.) 5% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,900 (2016 est.) $3,900 (2015 est.) $3,900 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 27% of GDP (2016 est.) 31.9% of GDP (2015 est.) 37.1% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 53%
government consumption: 21.7%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 43.8%
imports of goods and services: -45.7% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 53%
government consumption: 21.7%
investment in fixed capital: 26%
investment in inventories: 1.2%
exports of goods and services: 43.8%
imports of goods and services: -45.7% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: corn, sorghum, rice, peanuts, sunflower seeds, vegetables, flowers, tobacco, cotton, sugarcane, cassava (manioc, tapioca), coffee; cattle, goats, pigs, poultry, milk, eggs, hides
Industries: copper mining and processing, emerald mining, construction, foodstuffs, beverages, chemicals, textiles, fertilizer, horticulture
Industrial production growth rate: 0.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 7.116 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 85%
industry: 6%
services: 9% (2004)
Unemployment rate: 15% (2008 est.) 50% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line: 60.5% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 47.4% (2010)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 57.5 (2013) 50.8 (2004)
Budget: revenues: $3.418 billion
expenditures: $5.079 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 16.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 57.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 58.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 20.7% (2016 est.) 10.1% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$932 million (2016 est.) -$768 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $6.609 billion (2016 est.) $6.998 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: copper/cobalt, cobalt, electricity; tobacco, flowers, cotton
Exports - partners: China 25.5%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 13%, South Africa 6.4%, South Korea 4.9%, India 4.3% (2015)
Imports: $6.752 billion (2016 est.) $7.711 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, transportation equipment, petroleum products, electricity, fertilizer, foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners: South Africa 34.5%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 18.2%, Kenya 9.7%, China 7.3%, India 4.4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.046 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $2.968 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $9.27 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $8.88 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $3.004 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $4.009 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $2.817 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: Zambian kwacha (ZMK) per US dollar - 10.8 (2016 est.) 8.6 (2015 est.) 8.6 (2014 est.) 6.2 (2013 est.) 5.1 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 14 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 11 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 13 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.3 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 99.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 12,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 12,760 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 19,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 966.2 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 8,490 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3.5 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 11.558 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 77 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: among the best in sub-Saharan Africa

domestic: high-capacity microwave radio relay connects most larger towns and cities; several cellular telephone services in operation and network coverage is improving; domestic satellite system being installed to improve telephone service in rural areas; Internet

international: country code - 260; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean and 1 Atlantic Ocean), 3 owned by Zamtel (2010)
Broadcast media: state-owned Zambia National Broadcasting Corporation (ZNBC) operates 3 TV stations, is the principal local-content provider, and owns about 45% of multi-channel Zambia shares; several private TV stations and multi-channel subscription TV services are avai (2015)
Internet country code: .zm
Internet users: total: 3.164 million percent of population: 21% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 88 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 80

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 21 (2013)
Pipelines: oil 771 km (2013)
Railways: total 3,126 km

narrow gauge: 3,126 km 1.067-m gauge

note: includes 1,860 km of the Tanzania-Zambia Railway Authority (TAZARA) (2014)
Roadways: total 40,454 km
paved: 9,403 km
unpaved: 31,051 km (2005)
Waterways: 2,250 km (includes Lake Tanganyika and the Zambezi and Luapula rivers) (2010)
Ports and terminals:
river port(s): Mpulungu (Zambezi)
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 Military
Military branches: Zambian Defense Force (ZDF): Zambia Army, Zambia Air Force, Zambia National Service (support organization) (2015)
Military service age and obligation: national registration required at age 16; 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service (16 years of age with parental consent); no conscription; Zambian citizenship required; grade 12 certification required; mandatory HIV testing on enlistment; mandatory retirement for officers at age 65 (Army, Air Force) (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.55% of GDP (2012) 1.59% of GDP (2011) 1.55% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2004, Zimbabwe dropped objections to plans between Botswana and Zambia to build a bridge over the Zambezi River, thereby de facto recognizing a short, but not clearly delimited, Botswana-Zambia boundary in the river
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 19,293 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2015)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for moderate amounts of methaqualone, small amounts of heroin, and cocaine bound for southern Africa and possibly Europe; a poorly developed financial infrastructure coupled with a government commitment to combating money laundering make it an unattractive venue for money launderers; major consumer of cannabis
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