Samoa Population: 198,926

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 History
New Zealand occupied the German protectorate of Western Samoa at the outbreak of World War I in 1914. It continued to administer the islands as a mandate and then as a trust territory until 1962, when the islands became the first Polynesian nation to reestablish independence in the 20th century. The country dropped the "Western" from its name in 1997.

 Geography
Occupies an almost central position within Polynesia
Location: Oceania, group of islands in the South Pacific Ocean, about halfway between Hawaii and New Zealand
Geographic coordinates: 13 35 S, 172 20 W
Area: total: 2,831 sq km
land: 2,821 sq km
water: 10 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Rhode Island
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 403 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; rainy season (November to April), dry season (May to October)
Terrain: two main islands (Savaii, Upolu) and several smaller islands and uninhabited islets; narrow coastal plain with volcanic, rugged mountains in interior
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: hardwood forests, fish, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 12.4% arable land 2.8%; permanent crops 7.8%; permanent pasture 1.8% forest: 60.4%
other: 27.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: occasional typhoons; active volcanism volcanism: Savai'I Island (elev. 1,858 m), which last erupted in 1911, is historically active
Current Environment Issues: soil erosion, deforestation, invasive species, overfishing
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Samoan(s)
adjective: Samoan
Ethnic groups: Samoan 92.6%, Euronesians (persons of European and Polynesian blood) 7%, Europeans 0.4% (2001 census)
Languages: Samoan (Polynesian) (official), English
Religions: Protestant 57.4% (Congregationalist 31.8%, Methodist 13.7%, Assembly of God 8%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3.9%), Roman Catholic 19.4%, Mormon 15.2%, Worship Centre 1.7%, other Christian 5.5%, other 0.7%, none 0.1%, unspecified 0.1% (2011 est.)
Population: 198,926 note: prior estimates used official net migration data by sex, but a highly unusual pattern for 1993 lead to a significant imbalance in the sex ratios (more men and fewer women) and a seeming reduction in the female population; the revised total was calculated using a 1993 number that was an average of the 1992 and 1994 migration figures (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.04% (male 32,893/female 30,847)
15-24 years: 19.89% (male 20,302/female 19,258)
25-54 years: 35.95% (male 36,889/female 34,631)
55-64 years: 6.52% (male 6,602/female 6,364)
65 years and over: 5.6% (male 4,843/female 6,297) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 74%
youth dependency ratio: 64.9%
elderly dependency ratio: 9.1%
potential support ratio: 11% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 23.9 years
male: 23.7 years
female: 24.2 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.59% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 20.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 5.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -9.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 19.1% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.24% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: APIA (capital) 37,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 23.6 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2009 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 51 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 19 deaths/1,000 live births male: 22.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.7 years male: 70.8 years
female: 76.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.77 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 28.7% (2009)
Health expenditures: 7.2% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.45 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 99.3% of population
total: 99% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 0.7% of population
total: 1% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 93.3% of population
rural: 91.1% of population
total: 91.5% of population

unimproved:
urban: 6.7% of population
rural: 8.9% of population
total: 8.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 41.6% (2014)
Education expenditures: 5.1% of GDP (2008)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99.1%
female: 98.8% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 19.1% male: 15.6%
female: 25.3% (2012 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Independent State of Samoa
conventional short form: Samoa
local long form: Malo Sa'oloto Tuto'atasi o Samoa
local short form: Samoa
former: Western Samoa note: the name "Samoa" is composed of two parts, "sa" meaning sacred and "moa" meaning center, so the name can mean Holy Center; alternatively, it can mean "place of the sacred moa bird" of Polynesian mythology
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Apia
geographic coordinates: 13 49 S, 171 46 W
time difference: UTC+13 (18 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time) +1hr, begins last Sunday in September; ends first Sunday in April
Administrative divisions: 11 districts; A'ana, Aiga-i-le-Tai, Atua, Fa'asaleleaga, Gaga'emauga, Gagaifomauga, Palauli, Satupa'itea, Tuamasaga, Va'a-o-Fonoti, Vaisigano
Independence: 1 January 1962 (from New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Independence Day Celebration, 1 June (1962); note - 1 January 1962 is the date of independence from the New Zealand-administered UN trusteeship; it is observed in June
Constitution: several previous (preindependence); latest 1 January 1962; amended several times, last in 2015 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts with respect to fundamental rights of the citizen
Suffrage: 21 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: TUI ATUA Tupua Tamasese Efi (since 20 June 2007)

head of government: Prime Minister TUILA'EPA Lupesoliai Sailele Malielegaoi (since 1998); Deputy Prime Minister FONOTOE Pierre Lauofo (since 2011)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the chief of state on the prime minister's advice elections/appointments: chief of state indirectly elected by the Legislative Assembly to serve a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 20 July 2012 (next to be held in 2017); following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually appointed prime minister by the chief of state, approved by the Legislative Assembly

election results: TUI ATUA Tupua Tamasese Efi unanimously elected by the Legislative Assembly
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Legislative Assembly or Fono (49 seats; 47 members - traditional family chiefs or matai and 2 members - part-Samoan or non-Samoan - directly elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: election last held on 4 March 2016 (next election to be held no later than March 2021)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - HRPP 44, Tautua Samoa 3, independents 2
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Appeal (consists of the chief justice and 2 Supreme Court judges and meets once or twice a year); Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and several judges) judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the head of state upon the advice of the prime minister; other Supreme Court judges appointed by the Judicial Service Commission, a 3-member body chaired by the chief justice and includes the attorney general and an appointee of the Minister of Justice; judges normally appointed until retirement at age 68

subordinate courts: District Court; Magistrates' Courts; Land and Titles Courts; village fono or village chief councils
Political parties and leaders: Human Rights Protection Party or HRPP [Sailele Malielegaoi TUILA'EPA] Samoa Christian Party or TCP [Tuala Tiresa MALIETOA] Samoa Progressive Political Party or SPPP [Toalepaiali'i Toesulusulu S'iueva POSE II] Tautua Samoa [Leatinu'u Salole LESA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, C, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Southern Cross constellation (five, five-pointed stars); national colors: red, white, blue
National anthem: name: "O le Fu'a o le Sa'olotoga o Samoa" (The Banner of Freedom)
lyrics/music: Sauni Liga KURESA

note: adopted 1962; also known as "Samoa Tula'i" (Samoa Arise)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Aliioaiga Feturi ELISAIA (since 4 December 2003)
chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400J, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 599-6196 through 6197
FAX: [1] (212) 599-0797
consulate(s) general: Pago Pago (American Samoa)
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: the US does not have an embassy in Samoa; the US Ambassador to New Zealand is accredited to Samoa
embassy: Accident Corporation Building, 5th Floor, Matafele, Apia
mailing address: P. O. Box 3430, Matafele, Apia
telephone: [685] 21436/21631/21452/22696
FAX: [685] 22030
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 Economy
The economy of Samoa has traditionally been dependent on development aid, family remittances from overseas, tourism, agriculture, and fishing. It has a nominal GDP of $780 million. Agriculture, including fishing, employs roughly two-thirds of the labor force and furnishes 90% of exports, featuring fish, coconut oil, nonu products, and taro. The manufacturing sector mainly processes agricultural products. One factory in the Foreign Trade Zone employs 1,000 people to make automobile electrical harnesses for an assembly plant in Australia, and accounts for 65% of total exports. Industry accounts for nearly 15% of GDP while employing less than 6% of the work force. The service sector accounts for nearly three-quarters of GDP and employs approximately 50% of the labor force. Tourism is an expanding sector accounting for 25% of GDP; 132,000 tourists visited the islands in 2013. The country is vulnerable to devastating storms. In September 2009, an earthquake and the resulting tsunami severely damaged Samoa and nearby American Samoa, disrupting transportation and power generation, and resulting in about 200 deaths. In December 2012, extensive flooding and wind damage from Tropical Cyclone Evan killed four people, displaced over 6,000, and damaged or destroyed an estimated 1,500 homes on Samoa's Upolu Island. The Samoan Government has called for deregulation of the country's financial sector, encouragement of investment, and continued fiscal discipline, while at the same time protecting the environment. Foreign reserves are relatively healthy and inflation is low, but external debt is approximately 55% of GDP. Samoa became the 155th member of the WTO in May 2012, and graduated from least developed country (LDC) status in January 2014.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.046 billion (2016 est.) $1.015 billion (2015 est.) $999.1 million (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $876 million (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3% (2016 est.) 1.6% (2015 est.) 1.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,400 (2016 est.) $5,300 (2015 est.) $5,200 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Agriculture - products: coconuts, nonu, bananas, taro, yams, coffee, cocoa
Industries: food processing, building materials, auto parts
Industrial production growth rate: 6.4% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 49,180 (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 65%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $233 million
expenditures: $271.8 million (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 26.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: June 1 - May 31
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2% (2016 est.) 0.7% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$29 million (2016 est.) -$31 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $24 million (2013 est.) $27.5 million (2014 est.)
Exports - commodities: fish, coconut oil and cream, nonu, copra, taro, automotive parts, garments, beer
Exports - partners: American Samoa 57.1%, Australia 17.2% (2015)
Imports: $325.3 million (2013 est.) $341.3 million (2014 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, industrial supplies, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Fiji 22.6%, NZ 18.8%, China 15.8%, South Korea 7.9%, Australia 6%, US 5.6%, Singapore 5.2% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $139.4 million (31 December 2015 est.) $140.7 million (31 December 2014 est.)
Debt - external: $447.2 million (31 December 2013 est.) $450.2 million (31 December 2014 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: tala (SAT) per US dollar - 2.575 (2016 est.) 2.5609 (2015 est.) 2.5609 (2014 est.) 2.3318 (2013 est.) 2.29 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 100 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 100 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 45,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 71.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 28.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 1,688 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 200,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 113,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 57 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity roughly 60 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 685; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: state-owned TV station privatized in 2008; 4 privately owned television broadcast stations; about a half-dozen privately owned radio stations and one state-owned radio station; TV and radio broadcasts of several stations from American Samoa are available (2009)
Internet country code: .ws
Internet users: total: 50,000 percent of population: 25.4% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 4 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 3

under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Roadways: total 2,337 km
paved: 332 km
unpaved: 2,005 km (2001)
Merchant marine: total 2

by type: cargo 1, passenger/cargo 1

foreign-owned: 1 (NZ 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Apia
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 Military
Samoa has no formal defense structure or regular armed forces; informal defense ties exist with NZ, which is required to consider any Samoan request for assistance under the 1962 Treaty of Friendship
Military branches: no regular military forces; Samoa Police Force
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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