Vatican City Population: 1,000

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 History
Popes in their secular role ruled portions of the Italian peninsula for more than a thousand years until the mid-19th century, when many of the Papal States were seized by the newly united Kingdom of Italy. In 1870, the pope's holdings were further circumscribed when Rome itself was annexed. Disputes between a series of "prisoner" popes and Italy were resolved in 1929 by three Lateran Treaties, which established the independent state of Vatican City and granted Roman Catholicism special status in Italy. In 1984, a concordat between the Holy See and Italy modified certain of the earlier treaty provisions, including the primacy of Roman Catholicism as the Italian state religion. Present concerns of the Holy See include religious freedom, threats against minority Christian communities in Africa and the Middle East, sexual misconduct by clergy, international development, interreligious dialogue and reconciliation, and the application of church doctrine in an era of rapid change and globalization. About 1.2 billion people worldwide profess Catholicism - the world's largest Christian faith.

 Geography
Landlocked; enclave in Rome, Italy; world's smallest state; beyond the territorial boundary of Vatican City, the Lateran Treaty of 1929 grants the Holy See extraterritorial authority over 23 sites in Rome and five outside of Rome, including the Pontifical Palace at Castel Gandolfo (the Pope's summer residence)
Location: Southern Europe, an enclave of Rome (Italy)
Geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 27 E
Area: total: 0.44 sq km
land: 0.44 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: about 0.7 times the size of the National Mall in Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: total: 3.4 km border countries (1): Italy 3.4 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; mild, rainy winters (September to May) with hot, dry summers (May to September)
Terrain: urban; low hill
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: none
Land use: agricultural land: 0% arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0% forest: 0%
other: 100% (urban area) (2011 est.)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: NA
International Environment Agreements: party to: Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: Air Pollution, Environmental Modification
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 People
Nationality: noun: none
adjective: none
Ethnic groups: Italians, Swiss, other
Languages: Italian, Latin, French, various other languages
Religions: Roman Catholic
Population: 1,000 (2015 est.)
Population growth rate: 0% (2014 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 100% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.03% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: VATICAN CITY (capital) 1,000 (2014)
Sex ratio:
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: The Holy See (Vatican City State)
conventional short form: Holy See (Vatican City)
local long form: La Santa Sede (Stato della Citta del Vaticano)
local short form: Santa Sede (Citta del Vaticano)
etymology: "holy" comes from the Greek word "hera" meaning "sacred"; "see" comes from the Latin word "sedes" meaning "seat," and refers to the episcopal chair; the term "Vatican" derives from the hill Mons Vaticanus on which the Vatican is located and which comes from the Latin "vaticinari" (to prophecy), referring to the fortune tellers and soothsayers who frequented the area in Roman times
Government type: ecclesiastical elective monarchy; self described as an "absolute monarchy"
Capital: name: Vatican City
geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 27 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: none
Independence: 11 February 1929; note - the three treaties signed with Italy on 11 February 1929 acknowledged, among other things, the full sovereignty of the Holy See and established its territorial extent; however, the origin of the Papal States, which over centuries varied considerably in extent, may be traced back to 754
National holiday: Election Day of Pope FRANCIS, 13 March (2013)
Constitution: history: previous 1929, 1963; latest adopted 26 November 2000, effective 22 February 2001 (Fundamental Law of Vatican City State); note - in October 2013, Pope Francis instituted a 9-member Council of Cardinal Advisors to reform the administrative apparatus of the Holy See (Roman Curia) to include writing a new constitution amendments: note - although the Fundamental Law of Vatican City State makes no mention of amendments, Article Four (drafting laws), states that this legislative responsibility resides with the Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State; draft legislation is submitted through the Secretariat of State and considered by the pope (2016)
Legal system: religious legal system based on canon (religious) law
Suffrage: election of the pope is limited to cardinals less than 80 years old
Executive branch: chief of state: Pope FRANCIS (since 13 March 2013)

head of government: Secretary of State Cardinal Pietro PAROLIN (since 15 October 2013); note - Head of Government of Vatican City is President Cardinal Giuseppe BERTELLO (since 1 October 2011)

cabinet: Pontifical Commission for the State of Vatican City appointed by the pope elections/appointments: pope elected by the College of Cardinals, usually for life or until voluntary resignation; election last held on 13 March 2013 (next to be held after the death or resignation of the current pope); Secretary of State appointed by the pope

election results: Jorge Mario BERGOGLIO, former Archbishop of Buenos Aires, elected Pope FRANCIS
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Pontifical Commission for Vatican City State or Pontificia Commissione per lo Stato della Citta del Vaticano (7 seats; members appointed by the pope to serve 5-year terms); last appointment session 1 June 2013
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Supreme Tribunal of the Apostolic Signatura (consists of the cardinal prefect, who serves as ex-officio president of the court, and 2 other cardinals of the Prefect Signatura); note - judicial duties were established by the Motu Proprio, papal directive, of Pope PIUS XII on 1 May 1946; most Vatican City criminal matters are handled by the Republic of Italy courts judge selection and term of office: cardinal prefect appointed by the pope; the other 2 cardinals of the court appointed by the cardinal prefect on a yearly basis

subordinate courts: Appellate Court of Vatican City; Tribunal of Vatican City
Political parties and leaders: none
Political pressure groups and leaders: none (exclusive of influence exercised by church officers)
International organization participation: CE (observer), IAEA, Interpol, IOM, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), OAS (observer), OPCW, OSCE, Schengen Convention (de facto member), SICA (observer), UN (observer), UNCTAD, UNHCR, Union Latina (observer), UNWTO (observer), UPU, WIPO, WTO (observer)
National symbol(s): crossed keys beneath a papal tiara; national colors: yellow, white
National anthem: name: "Inno e Marcia Pontificale" (Hymn and Pontifical March); often called The Pontifical Hymn
lyrics/music: Raffaello LAVAGNA/Charles-Francois GOUNOD

note: adopted 1950
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Apostolic Nuncio Archbishop Christophe PIERRE (since 27 June 2016)
chancery: 3339 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 333-7121
FAX: [1] (202) 337-4036
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kenneth Francis HACKETT (since 21 October 2013)
embassy: American Embassy to the Holy See, Via Sallustiana, 49, 00187 Rome, Italy
mailing address: Unit 5660, Box 66, DPO AE 09624-0066
telephone: [39] (06) 4674-3428
FAX: [39] (06) 575-8346
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 Economy
The Holy See is supported financially by a variety of sources, including investments, real estate income, and donations from Catholic individuals, dioceses, and institutions; these help fund the Roman Curia (Vatican bureaucracy), diplomatic missions, and media outlets. Moreover, an annual collection taken up in dioceses and from direct donations go to a non-budgetary fund, known as Peter's Pence, which is used directly by the pope for charity, disaster relief, and aid to churches in developing nations. Donations increased between 2010 and 2011. The separate Vatican City State budget includes the Vatican museums and post office and is supported financially by the sale of stamps, coins, medals, and tourist mementos; by fees for admission to museums; and by publication sales. Its revenues increased between 2010 and 2011 because of expanded opening hours and a growing number of visitors. However, the Holy See has not escaped the financial difficulties engulfing other European countries; in 2012, it started a spending review to determine where to cut costs to reverse its 2011 budget deficit of $20 million. The Holy See generated a modest surplus in 2012 before recording a $32 million deficit in 2013, driven primarily by the decreasing value of gold. Most public expenditures go to wages and other personnel costs; the incomes and living standards of lay workers are comparable to those of counterparts who work in the city of Rome. In February 2014, Pope FRANCIS created the Secretariat of the Economy to oversee financial and administrative operations of the Holy See, part of a broader campaign to reform the Holy See’s finances.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $NA
Agriculture - products:
Industries: printing; production of coins, medals, postage stamps; mosaics, staff uniforms; worldwide banking and financial activities
Labor force: 2,885 (December 2011)
Labor force - by occupation: note: essentially services with a small amount of industry; nearly all dignitaries, priests, nuns, guards, and the approximately 3,000 lay workers live outside the Vatican
Population below poverty line: NA%
Budget: revenues: $308 million
expenditures: $326.4 million (2011)
Taxes and other revenues: NA%
Fiscal year: calendar year
Exports:
Exports - commodities:
Imports:
Imports - commodities:
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.885 (2015 est.) 0.7525 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.) 0.78 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
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 Communications
Telephone system: general assessment: automatic digital exchange

domestic: connected via fiber-optic cable to Telecom Italia network

international: country code - 39; uses Italian system (2015)
Broadcast media: the Vatican Television Center (CTV) transmits live broadcasts of the Pope's Sunday and Wednesday audiences, as well as the Pope's public celebrations; CTV also produces documentaries; Vatican Radio is the Holy See's official broadcasting service broadcast (2008)
Internet country code: .va
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 Transportation
Roadways:
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of Italy; ceremonial and limited security duties performed by Pontifical Swiss Guard
Military branches: Pontifical Swiss Guard Corps (Corpo della Guardia Svizzera Pontificia) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: Pontifical Swiss Guard Corps (Corpo della Guardia Svizzera Pontificia): 19-30 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; must be Roman Catholic, a Swiss citizen, with a secondary education (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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