Tanzania Population: 52,482,726

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 History
Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the United Republic of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities. The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar's two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.

 Geography
Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya); bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest
Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 35 00 E
Area: total: 947,300 sq km
land: 885,800 sq km
water: 61,500 sq km

note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

Size comparison: more than six times the size of Georgia; slightly larger than twice the size of California
Land Boundaries: total: 4,161 km border countries (8): Burundi 589 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 479 km, Kenya 775 km, Malawi 512 km, Mozambique 840 km, Rwanda 222 km, Uganda 391 km, Zambia 353 km
Coastline: 1,424 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use: agricultural land: 43.7% arable land 14.3%; permanent crops 2.3%; permanent pasture 27.1% forest: 37.3%
other: 19% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,840 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (elev. 2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru
Current Environment Issues: soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Tanzanian(s)
adjective: Tanzanian
Ethnic groups: mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
Languages: Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
Religions: Christian 61.4%, Muslim 35.2%, folk religion 1.8%, other 0.2%, unaffiliated 1.4%

note: Zanzibar is almost entirely Muslim (2010 est.)
Population: 52,482,726 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.06% (male 11,678,349/female 11,444,708)
15-24 years: 19.71% (male 5,173,239/female 5,169,214)
25-54 years: 29.74% (male 7,840,941/female 7,767,797)
55-64 years: 3.5% (male 802,760/female 1,034,151)
65 years and over: 2.99% (male 668,102/female 903,465) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 93.8%
youth dependency ratio: 87.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 6.2%
potential support ratio: 16.1% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 17.6 years
male: 17.3 years
female: 17.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.77% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 36 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.8 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 31.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.36% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: DAR ES SALAAM (capital) 5.116 million; Mwanza 838,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.78 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.6 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 398 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 41.2 deaths/1,000 live births male: 43.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 39.1 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 62.2 years male: 60.8 years
female: 63.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.83 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 34.4% (2009/10)
Health expenditures: 5.6% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2012)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 77.2% of population
rural: 45.5% of population
total: 55.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 22.1% of population
rural: 56% of population
total: 46.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 31.3% of population
rural: 8.3% of population
total: 15.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 68.7% of population
rural: 91.7% of population
total: 84.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 4.69% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1,385,800 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 35,700 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 5.9% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 13.6% (2011)
Education expenditures: 3.5% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 70.6%
male: 75.9%
female: 65.4% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 8 years male: 8 years
female: 8 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 5.8% male: 4.5%
female: 7.2% (2013 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania
conventional short form: Tanzania
local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania
local short form: Tanzania
former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar note: the country's name is a combination of the first letters of Tanganyika and Zanzibar, the two states that merged to form Tanzania in 1964
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Dodoma; note - officially changed in 1996; serves as the meeting place for the National Assembly; de facto the capital remains in Dar es Salaam, the country's largest city and commercial center, and the site of the executive branch offices and diplomatic representation
geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 30 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Geita, Iringa, Kagera, Kaskazini Pemba (Pemba North), Kaskazini Unguja (Zanzibar North), Katavi, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Kusini Pemba (Pemba South), Kusini Unguja (Zanzibar Central/South), Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Mjini Magharibi (Zanzibar Urban/West), Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Njombe, Pwani (Coast), Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Singida, Tabora, Tanga
Independence: 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent on 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent on 10 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar on 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania on 29 October 1964
National holiday: Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 25 April 1977; amended many times, last in 2012; note - in 2012, the Tanzania Constitutional Review Commission was formed, and in June 2013, completed the first draft of a new constitution and a second version in December; a 640-member Constituent Assembly, formed in February 2014, passed a new constitution draft in October; a national referendum planned for April 2015 has been postponed (2016)
Legal system: English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President John MAGUFULI (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President John MAGUFULI, Dr. (since 5 November 2015); Vice President Samia SULUHU (since 5 November 2015); note - Prime Minister Kassim Majaliwa MAJALIWA (since 20 November 2015) has authority over the day-to-day functions of the government, is the leader of government busines in the National Assembly, and is head of the Cabinet

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among members of the National Assembly elections/appointments: president and vice president directly elected on the same ballot by simple majority popular vote for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 25 October 2015 (next to be held in October 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: John MAGUFULI elected president; percent of vote - John MAGUFULI (CCM) 58.5%, Edward LOWASSA (CHADEMA) 40%, other 1.5%

note: Zanzibar elects a president as head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; election held on 25 October 2015 was annulled by the Zanzibar Electoral Commission and rerun on 20 March 2016; President Ali Mohamed SHEIN reelected; percent of vote - Ali Mohamed SHEIN 91.4%, Hamad Rashid MOHAMED 3%, other 5.6%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Parliament (Bunge) (357 seats; 239 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 102 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 5 indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the Zanzibar House of Representatives, 10 appointed by the president, and 1 seat reserved for the attorney general; members serve a 5-year term); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the National Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives or Baraza La Wawakilishi (81 seats; 50 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 15 women directly elected by proportional representation vote, 10 appointed by the Zanzibar president, 5 seats reserved for government appointed regional commissioners, and 1 seat for the attorney general; elected members serve a 5-year term)

elections: Tanzania National Assembly and Zanzibar House of Representatives elections last held on 25 October 2015 (next National Assembly election to be held in October 2020; next Zanzibar election NA; note the Zanzibar Electoral Commission annulled the 2015 election; no date for repoll announced as of early November)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA Zanzibar House of Representatives - election annulled
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Appeal of the United Republic of Tanzania (consists of the chief justice and 14 justices); High Court of the United Republic for Mainland Tanzania (consists of the principal judge and 30 judges organized into commercial, land, and labor courts); High Court of Zanzibar (consists of the chief justice and 10 justices) judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission for Tanzania, a judicial body of high level judges and 2 members appointed by the national president; Court of Appeal and High Court judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 60 but can be extended; High Court of Zanzibar judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Commission of Zanzibar; judges may serve until mandatory retirement at age 65

subordinate courts: Resident Magistrates Courts; Kadhi courts (for Islamic family matters); district and primary courts
Political parties and leaders: Civic United Front or CUF (Chama Cha Wananchi [Seif Shariff HAMAD, Secretary General] National Convention for Construction and Reform - Mageuzi or NCCR-M [James Francis MBATCA] Party of Democracy and Development or CHADEMA (Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo) [Freeman MBOWE] Revolutionary Party or CCM (Chama Cha Mapinduzi) [John MAGUFULI] Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Augustine MREMA] United Democratic Party or UDP [John Momose CHEYO] Note: in March 2014, four opposition parties (CUF, CHADEMA, NCCR-Mageuzi, and the National League for Democracy) united to form Umoja wa Katiba ya Wananchi (Coalition for the People's Constituion) or UKAWA; during local elections held in October, 2014, UKAWA entered one candidate representing the three parties united in the coalition
Political pressure groups and leaders: Economic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF Free Zanzibar Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA Tanzania Private Sector Foundation or TPSF Twaweza
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, EAC, EADB, EITI, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Uhuru (Freedom) torch, giraffe; national colors: green, yellow, blue, black
National anthem: name: "Mungu ibariki Afrika" (God Bless Africa)
lyrics/music: collective/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA

note: adopted 1961; the anthem, which is also a popular song in Africa, shares the same melody with that of Zambia, but has different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Wilson MASILINGI (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 1232 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125
FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Virginia BLASER (since October 2016)
embassy: 686 Old Bagamoyo Road, Msasani, Dar es Salaam
mailing address: P.O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam
telephone: [255] (22) 229-4000
FAX: [255] (22) 229-4970 or 4971
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 Economy
Tanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income, but has achieved high growth rates based on its vast natural resource wealth and tourism. GDP growth in 2009-15 was an impressive 6-7% per year. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus measures and easier monetary policies to lessen the impact of the global recession. Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a market economy, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as telecommunications, banking, energy, and mining. The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 80% of the work force; agriculture accounts for 7% of government expenditures. All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular. The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry's total assets. Competition among foreign commercial banks has resulted in significant improvements in the efficiency and quality of financial services, though interest rates are still relatively high, reflecting high fraud risk. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment. The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging infrastructure, including rail and port, that provide important trade links for inland countries. In 2013, Tanzania completed the world's largest Millennium Challenge Compact grant, worth $698 million, and, in December 2014, the Millennium Challenge Corporation selected Tanzania for a second Compact. In late 2014, a highly publicized scandal in the energy sector involving senior Tanzanian officials resulted in international donors freezing nearly $500 million in direct budget support to the government. The Tanzanian shilling weakened in 2015 because of lower gold prices, election-related political risk, and outflows from emerging market currencies generally.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $150.6 billion (2016 est.) $140.6 billion (2015 est.) $131.4 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $46.7 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.2% (2016 est.) 7% (2015 est.) 7% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,100 (2016 est.) $2,900 (2015 est.) $2,800 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 21.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 22% of GDP (2015 est.) 21.9% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 62.3%
government consumption: 13.4%
investment in fixed capital: 36.5%
investment in inventories: -5.9%
exports of goods and services: 22.9%
imports of goods and services: -29.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 62.3%
government consumption: 13.4%
investment in fixed capital: 36.5%
investment in inventories: -5.9%
exports of goods and services: 22.9%
imports of goods and services: -29.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (manioc, tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries: agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); mining (diamonds, gold, and iron), salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer
Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 26.96 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80% industry and
services: 20% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 67.9% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8%
highest 10%: 29.6% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 37.6 (2007) 34.6 (2000)
Budget: revenues: $6.257 billion
expenditures: $8.084 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 13.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 36.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 34.7% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.2% (2016 est.) 5.6% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$4.121 billion (2016 est.) -$4.007 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $5.985 billion (2016 est.) $5.709 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
Exports - partners: India 21.4%, China 8.1%, Japan 5.1%, Kenya 4.6%, Belgium 4.3% (2015)
Imports: $9.976 billion (2016 est.) $9.843 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
Imports - partners: China 34.6%, India 13.5%, South Africa 4.7%, UAE 4.4%, Kenya 4.1% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.771 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $4.073 billion (31 December 2015 est.) note: excludes gold
Debt - external: $15.89 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $15.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $1.803 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.539 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $1.264 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar - 2,182.3 (2016 est.) 1,989.7 (2015 est.) 1,989.7 (2014 est.) 1,654 (2013 est.) 1,583 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 6.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 5 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 60 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.2 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 33.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 66.5% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 58,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 55,380 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 550 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 550 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 10 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 39.666 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 78 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service

domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and exceeds 75 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radi

international: country code - 255; landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: a state-owned TV station and multiple privately owned TV stations; state-owned national radio station supplemented by more than 40 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .tz
Internet users: total: 2.734 million percent of population: 5.4% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 166 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 4
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 156
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 24
914 to 1,523 m: 98
under 914 m: 33 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 311 km; oil 891 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
Railways: total 4,567 km

narrow gauge: 1,860 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,707 km 1.000-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 86,472 km
paved: 7,092 km
unpaved: 79,380 km (2010)
Waterways: (Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) are the principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; the rivers are not navigable) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 94

by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 66, carrier 4, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3

foreign-owned: 42 (Japan 1, Romania 1, Saudi Arabia 1, Syria 23, Turkey 13, UAE 3)

registered in other countries: 3 (Panama 2, UK 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar
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 Military
Military branches: Tanzania People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service (2007)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.13% of GDP (2012) 1.12% of GDP (2011) 1.13% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: dispute with Tanzania over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River; Malawi contends that the entire lake up to the Tanzanian shoreline is its territory, while Tanzania claims the border is in the center of the lake; the conflict was reignited in 2012 when Malawi awarded a license to a British company for oil exploration in the lake
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 177,335 (Burundi); 62,505 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2016)
Illicit drugs: targeted by traffickers moving hashish, Afghan heroin, and South American cocaine transported down the East African coastline, through airports, or overland through Central Africa; Zanzibar likely used by traffickers for drug smuggling; traffickers in the past have recruited Tanzanian couriers to move drugs through Iran into East Asia
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