Tanzania Population: 48,261,942

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 Background
Shortly after achieving independence from Britain in the early 1960s, Tanganyika and Zanzibar merged to form the nation of Tanzania in 1964. One-party rule ended in 1995 with the first democratic elections held in the country since the 1970s. Zanzibar's semi-autonomous status and popular opposition led to two contentious elections since 1995, which the ruling party won despite international observers' claims of voting irregularities. The formation of a government of national unity between Zanzibar's two leading parties succeeded in minimizing electoral tension in 2010.

 Geography
Kilimanjaro is the highest point in Africa and one of only two mountains on the continent that has glaciers (the other is Mount Kenya); bordered by three of the largest lakes on the continent: Lake Victoria (the world's second-largest freshwater lake) in the north, Lake Tanganyika (the world's second deepest) in the west, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) in the southwest
Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Indian Ocean, between Kenya and Mozambique
Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 35 00 E
Area: total: 947,300 sq km land: 885,800 sq km water: 61,500 sq km note: includes the islands of Mafia, Pemba, and Zanzibar

Size comparison: slightly larger than twice the size of California
Land Boundaries: total: 3,861 km border countries: Burundi 451 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 459 km, Kenya 769 km, Malawi 475 km, Mozambique 756 km, Rwanda 217 km, Uganda 396 km, Zambia 338 km
Coastline: 1,424 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: varies from tropical along coast to temperate in highlands
Terrain: plains along coast; central plateau; highlands in north, south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m highest point: Kilimanjaro 5,895 m (highest point in Africa)
Natural resources: hydropower, tin, phosphates, iron ore, coal, diamonds, gemstones, gold, natural gas, nickel
Land use: arable land: 12.25% permanent crops: 1.79% other: 85.96% (2011)
Irrigated land: 1,843 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: flooding on the central plateau during the rainy season; drought volcanism: limited volcanic activity; Ol Doinyo Lengai (elev. 2,962 m) has emitted lava in recent years; other historically active volcanoes include Kieyo and Meru
Current Environment Issues: soil degradation; deforestation; desertification; destruction of coral reefs threatens marine habitats; recent droughts affected marginal agriculture; wildlife threatened by illegal hunting and trade, especially for ivory
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Tanzanian(s) adjective: Tanzanian
Ethnic groups: mainland - African 99% (of which 95% are Bantu consisting of more than 130 tribes), other 1% (consisting of Asian, European, and Arab); Zanzibar - Arab, African, mixed Arab and African
Languages: Kiswahili or Swahili (official), Kiunguja (name for Swahili in Zanzibar), English (official, primary language of commerce, administration, and higher education), Arabic (widely spoken in Zanzibar), many local languages note: Kiswahili (Swahili) is the mother tongue of the Bantu people living in Zanzibar and nearby coastal Tanzania; although Kiswahili is Bantu in structure and origin, its vocabulary draws on a variety of sources including Arabic and English; it has become the lingua franca of central and eastern Africa; the first language of most people is one of the local languages
Religions: mainland - Christian 30%, Muslim 35%, indigenous beliefs 35%; Zanzibar - more than 99% Muslim
Population: 48,261,942 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 44.8% (male 10,913,552/female 10,715,034) 15-24 years: 19.4% (male 4,689,483/female 4,694,663) 25-54 years: 29.3% (male 7,095,382/female 7,060,506) 55-64 years: 3.5% (male 721,769/female 959,008) 65 years and over: 2.9% (male 610,252/female 802,293) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 92.5 % youth dependency ratio: 86.3 % elderly dependency ratio: 6.2 % potential support ratio: 16.2 (2013)
Median age: total: 17.3 years
male: 17 years female: 17.6 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.82% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 37.25 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 8.41 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 26.7% of total population (2011) rate of urbanization: 4.77% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: DAR ES SALAAM (capital) 3.207 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.75 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.6 note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 460 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 45.1 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 47.13 deaths/1,000 live births female: 43 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 60.76 years
male: 59.48 years female: 62.09 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.01 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 34.4% (2009/10)
Health expenditures: 6% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.01 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved: urban: 79% of population rural: 44% of population total: 53% of population unimproved: urban: 21% of population rural: 56% of population total: 47% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved: urban: 20% of population rural: 7% of population total: 10% of population unimproved: urban: 80% of population rural: 93% of population total: 90% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 5.6% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 1.4 million (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 86,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 5% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 16.7% (2005)
Education expenditures: 6.2% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write Kiswahili (Swahili), English, or Arabic
total population: 67.8% male: 75.5% female: 60.8% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 9 years
male: 9 years female: 9 years (2012)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 8.8%
male: 7.4% female: 10.1% (2006)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: United Republic of Tanzania conventional short form: Tanzania local long form: Jamhuri ya Muungano wa Tanzania local short form: Tanzania former: United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Dar es Salaam geographic coordinates: 6 48 S, 39 17 E time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time) note: legislative offices have been transferred to Dodoma, which is planned as the new national capital, and the National Assembly now meets there on a regular basis; the Executive Branch with all ministries and diplomatic representation remains located in Dar es Salaam
Administrative divisions: 30 regions; Arusha, Dar es Salaam, Dodoma, Geita, Iringa, Kagera, Kaskazini Pemba (Pemba North), Kaskazini Unguja (Zanzibar North), Katavi, Kigoma, Kilimanjaro, Kusini Pemba (Pemba South), Kusini Unguja (Zanzibar Central/South), Lindi, Manyara, Mara, Mbeya, Mjini Magharibi (Zanzibar Urban/West), Morogoro, Mtwara, Mwanza, Njombe, Pwani (Coast), Rukwa, Ruvuma, Shinyanga, Simiyu, Singida, Tabora, Tanga
Independence: 26 April 1964; Tanganyika became independent on 9 December 1961 (from UK-administered UN trusteeship); Zanzibar became independent on 10 December 1963 (from UK); Tanganyika united with Zanzibar on 26 April 1964 to form the United Republic of Tanganyika and Zanzibar; renamed United Republic of Tanzania on 29 October 1964
National holiday: Union Day (Tanganyika and Zanzibar), 26 April (1964)
Constitution: 25 April 1977; major revisions October 1984
Legal system: English common law; judicial review of legislative acts limited to matters of interpretation
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Mohammed Gharib BILAL (since 6 November 2010); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government head of government: President Jakaya KIKWETE (since 21 December 2005); Vice President Mohammed Gharib BILAL (since 6 November 2010) note: Zanzibar elects a president who is head of government for matters internal to Zanzibar; Ali Mohamed SHEIN elected to that office on 31 October 2010, sworn in 3 November 2010 cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president from among the members of the National Assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president and vice president elected on the same ballot by popular vote for five-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 31 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Jakaya KIKWETE elected president; percent of vote - Jakaya KIKWETE 61.2%, Willibrod SLAA 26.3%, Ibrahim LIPUMBA 8.1%, other 4.4%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Bunge (357 seats; 239 members elected by popular vote, 102 allocated to women nominated by the president, 5 to members of the Zanzibar House of Representatives; members serve five-year terms, up to 10 additional members appointed by the president, 1 seat reserved for the Attorney General); note - in addition to enacting laws that apply to the entire United Republic of Tanzania, the Assembly enacts laws that apply only to the mainland; Zanzibar has its own House of Representatives with jurisdiction exclusive to Zanzibar (the Zanzibar House of Representatives has 50 seats; members elected by universal suffrage to serve five-year terms) elections: last held on 31 October 2010 (next to be held in 2015) election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 259, CHADEMA 48, CUF 34, NCCR-M 4, other 7, Zanzibar representatives 5; Zanzibar House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CCM 28, CUF 22
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Appeal of the United Republic of Tanzania (consists of the chief justice and 14 justices); High Court of the United Republic for Mainland Tanzania (consists of the principal judge and 30 judges organized into commercial, land, and labor courts); High Court of Zanzibar (consists of the chief justice and NA judges) judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court justices appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Service Commission for Tanzania, a judicial body of high level judges and 2 members appointed by the national president; Court of Appeal and High Court judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 60 but can extended; High Court of Zanzibar judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the Judicial Commission of Zanzibar; judge tenure NA subordinate courts: Resident Magistrates Courts; Kadhi courts (for Islamic family matters); district and primary courts
Political parties and leaders: Chama Cha Demokrasia na Maendeleo (Party of Democracy and Development) or CHADEMA [Willibrod SLAA] Chama Cha Mapinduzi or CCM (Revolutionary Party) [Jakaya Mrisho KIKWETE] Civic United Front or CUF [Ibrahim LIPUMBA] Democratic Party or DP [Christopher MTIKLA] (unregistered) National Convention for Construction and Reform - Mageuzi or NCCR-M [Hashim RUNGWE] Tanzania Labor Party or TLP [Mutamwega MUGAHWYA] United Democratic Party or UDP [Fahma DOVUTWA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Economic and Social Research Foundation or ESRF Free Zanzibar Tanzania Media Women's Association or TAMWA
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, EAC, EADB, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Uhuru (Freedom) torch
National anthem: name: "Mungu ibariki Afrika" (God Bless Africa) lyrics/music: collective/Enoch Mankayi SONTONGA note: adopted 1961; the anthem, which is also a popular song in Africa, shares the same melody with that of Zambia, but has different lyrics; the melody is also incorporated into South Africa's anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Liberata Rutageruka MULAMULA chancery: 1232 22nd Street NW, Washington, DC 20037 telephone: [1] (202) 939-6125 FAX: [1] (202) 797-7408
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alfonso E. LENHARDT embassy: 686 Old Bagamoyo Road, Msasani, Dar es Salaam mailing address: P. O. Box 9123, Dar es Salaam telephone: [255] (22) 229-4000 FAX: [255] (22) 229-4970 or 4971
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 Economy
Tanzania is one of the world's poorest economies in terms of per capita income, however, it has achieved high overall growth rates based on gold production and tourism. Tanzania has largely completed its transition to a liberalized market economy, though the government retains a presence in sectors such as telecommunications, banking, energy, and mining. The economy depends on agriculture, which accounts for more than one-quarter of GDP, provides 85% of exports, and employs about 80% of the work force. The World Bank, the IMF, and bilateral donors have provided funds to rehabilitate Tanzania's aging economic infrastructure, including rail and port infrastructure that are important trade links for inland countries. Recent banking reforms have helped increase private-sector growth and investment, and the government has increased spending on agriculture to 7% of its budget. The financial sector in Tanzania has expanded in recent years and foreign-owned banks account for about 48% of the banking industry''s total assets. Competition among foreign commercial banks has resulted in significant improvements in the efficiency and quality of financial services, though interest rates are still relatively high, reflecting high fraud risk. All land in Tanzania is owned by the government, which can lease land for up to 99 years. Proposed reforms to allow for land ownership, particularly foreign land ownership, remain unpopular. Continued donor assistance and solid macroeconomic policies supported a positive growth rate, despite the world recession. In 2008, Tanzania received the world''s largest Millennium Challenge Compact grant, worth $698 million, and in December 2012 the Millennium Challenge Corporation selected Tanzania for a second Compact. Dar es Salaam used fiscal stimulus and loosened monetary policy to ease the impact of the global recession. GDP growth in 2009-12 was a respectable 6% per year due to high gold prices and increased production.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $75.07 billion (2012 est.) $70.26 billion (2011 est.) $66 billion (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $28.25 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.9% (2012 est.) 6.4% (2011 est.) 7% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,600 (2012 est.) $1,500 (2011 est.) $1,500 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 25.1% of GDP (2012 est.) 17.6% of GDP (2011 est.) 20.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 63.9% government consumption: 21.5% investment in fixed capital: 36.9% investment in inventories: 0.4% exports of goods and services: 40% imports of goods and services: -62.8% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 63.9% government consumption: 21.5% investment in fixed capital: 36.9% investment in inventories: 0.4% exports of goods and services: 40% imports of goods and services: -62.8% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, sisal, tea, cotton, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), cashew nuts, tobacco, cloves, corn, wheat, cassava (tapioca), bananas, fruits, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries: agricultural processing (sugar, beer, cigarettes, sisal twine); mining (diamonds, gold, and iron), salt, soda ash; cement, oil refining, shoes, apparel, wood products, fertilizer
Industrial production growth rate: 6.8% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 24.75 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80% industry and services: 20% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 36% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.8% highest 10%: 29.6% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 37.6 (2007) 34.6 (2000)
Budget: revenues: $5.571 billion expenditures: $6.706 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 19.7% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 36.4% of GDP (2012 est.) 40.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 16.1% (2012 est.) 12.7% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$3.946 billion (2012 est.) -$3.872 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $5.997 billion (2012 est.) $5.098 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: gold, coffee, cashew nuts, manufactures, cotton
Exports - partners: India 14.1%, China 11%, Japan 6.1%, Germany 5%, UAE 4.9% (2012)
Imports: $10.33 billion (2012 est.) $9.828 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: consumer goods, machinery and transportation equipment, industrial raw materials, crude oil
Imports - partners: China 21.1%, India 16.1%, Kenya 6.6%, South Africa 5.6%, UAE 4.8% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $4.053 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $3.726 billion (31 December 2011 est.) note: excludes gold
Debt - external: $11.58 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $10.04 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $1.539 billion (31 December 2011) $1.264 billion (31 December 2010) $1.293 billion (31 December 2008)
Exchange rates: Tanzanian shillings (TZS) per US dollar - 1,583 (2012 est.) 1,572.1 (2011 est.) 1,409.3 (2010 est.) 1,320.3 (2009) 1,178.1 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 4.489 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 120
Electricity - consumption: 3.589 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2008 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 957,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 39.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 60.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 43,310 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 32,680 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 780 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 780 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 6.513 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 7.566 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 161,100 (2011) country comparison to the world: 132
Cellular Phones in use: 25.666 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: telecommunications services are marginal; system operating below capacity and being modernized for better service; small aperture terminal (VSAT) system under construction domestic: fixed-line telephone network inadequate with less than 1 connection per 100 persons; mobile-cellular service, aided by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly and in 2011 exceeded a subscriber base of 50 telephones per 100 persons; trunk service provided by open-wire, microwave radio relay, tropospheric scatter, and fiber-optic cable; some links being made digital international: country code - 255; landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Indian Ocean, 1 Atlantic Ocean) (2010)
Broadcast media: a state-owned TV station and multiple privately owned TV stations; state-owned national radio station supplemented by more than 40 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .tz
Internet hosts: 26,074 (2012)
Internet users: 678,000 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 166 (2013) country comparison to the world: 34
Airports (paved runways): total 10
over 3,047 m: 2 2,438 to 3,047 m: 2 1,524 to 2,437 m: 4 914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 156
over 3,047 m: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 24 914 to 1,523 m: 98 under 914 m: 33 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 311 km; oil 891 km; refined products 8 km (2013)
Railways: total 3,689 km
narrow gauge: 969 km 1.067-m gauge; 2,720 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 91,049 km
paved: 6,578 km unpaved: 84,471 km (2007)
Waterways: (Lake Tanganyika, Lake Victoria, and Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) are the principal avenues of commerce with neighboring countries; the rivers are not navigable) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 94
by type: bulk carrier 6, cargo 66, carrier 4, chemical tanker 1, container 1, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 10, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 3 foreign-owned: 42 (Japan 1, Romania 1, Saudi Arabia 1, Syria 23, Turkey 13, UAE 3) registered in other countries: 3 (Panama 2, UK 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Dar es Salaam, Zanzibar
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 Military
Military branches: Tanzania People's Defense Force (Jeshi la Wananchi la Tanzania, JWTZ): Army, Naval Wing (includes Coast Guard), Air Defense Command (includes Air Wing), National Service (2007)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 9,985,445 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 5,860,339 females age 16-49: 5,882,279 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 512,294 female: 514,164 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.9% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Tanzania still hosts more than a half million refugees, more than any other African country, mainly from Burundi and the Democratic Republic of the Congo, despite the international community's efforts at repatriation; disputes with Malawi over the boundary in Lake Nyasa (Lake Malawi) and the meandering Songwe River remain dormant
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 63,330 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 35,343 (Burundi) (2012)
Illicit drugs: targeted by traffickers moving hashish, Afghan heroin, and South American cocaine transported down the East African coastline, through airports, or overland through Central Africa; Zanzibar likely used by traffickers for drug smuggling; traffickers in the past have recruited Tanzanian couriers to move drugs through Iran into East Asia
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