Tajikistan Population: 7,910,041

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 History
The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bolshevik control of the area was fiercely contested and not fully reestablished until 1925. Much of present-day Sughd province was transferred from the Uzbek SSR to the newly formed Tajik SSR in 1929. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992-97. Tajikistan endured several domestic security incidents in 2010-12, including a mass prison-break from a Dushanbe detention facility, the country's first suicide car bombing in Khujand, and armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Attention by the international community since the beginning of the NATO intervention in Afghanistan has brought increased economic and security assistance, which could create jobs and strengthen stability in the long term. Tajikistan joined NATO's Partnership for Peace in 2002, and became a member of the World Trade Organization in March 2013.

 Geography
Landlocked; mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
Location: Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan
Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 71 00 E
Area: total: 143,100 sq km
land: 141,510 sq km
water: 2,590 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land Boundaries: total: 3,651 km
border countries: Afghanistan 1,206 km, China 414 km, Kyrgyzstan 870 km, Uzbekistan 1,161 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: midlatitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrain: Pamir and Alay Mountains dominate landscape; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Syr Darya (Sirdaryo) 300 m
highest point: Qullai Somoniyon 7,495 m
Natural resources: hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use: arable land: 5.96%
permanent crops: 0.91%
other: 93.13% (2011)
Irrigated land: 7,421 sq km (2009)
Natural hazards: earthquakes; floods
Current Environment Issues: inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups: Tajik 79.9%, Uzbek 15.3%, Russian 1.1%, Kyrgyz 1.1%, other 2.6% (2000 census)
Languages: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business
Religions: Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
Population: 7,910,041 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.4% (male 1,343,251/female 1,296,192)
15-24 years: 20.4% (male 818,089/female 795,303)
25-54 years: 38.5% (male 1,501,713/female 1,541,413)
55-64 years: 4.6% (male 165,220/female 195,363)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 106,605/female 146,892) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 64.1 %
youth dependency ratio: 58.9 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 %
potential support ratio: 19.1 (2013)
Median age: total: 23.2 years
male: 22.7 years
female: 23.7 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.79% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 25.49 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 6.38 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.19 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 26.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.66% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: DUSHANBE (capital) 704,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.73 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 22.3 (2001 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 65 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 36.16 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 40.65 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 31.45 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 66.72 years
male: 63.63 years
female: 69.97 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.8 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 27.9% (2012)
Health expenditures: 6% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 2.01 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density: 5.2 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 92% of population
rural: 54% of population
total: 64% of population

unimproved:
urban: 8% of population
rural: 46% of population
total: 36% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 95% of population
rural: 94% of population
total: 94% of population

unimproved:
urban: 5% of population
rural: 6% of population
total: 6% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 9,100 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 8.6% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 15% (2005)
Education expenditures: 3.9% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.7%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.6% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)

note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Independence: 9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Constitution: 6 November 1994
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)

head of government: Prime Minister Oqil OQILOV (since 20 December 1999); First Deputy Prime Minister Matlubkhon DAVLATOV (since 5 January 2012)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (technically eligible for two terms); election last held on 6 November 2006 (next to be held in November 2013); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON 79.3%, Olimjon BOBOEV 6.2%, other 14.5%
Legislative branch: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly (upper chamber) or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members selected by local deputies, 8 appointed by the president; 1 seat reserved for the former president; members serve five-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives (lower chamber) or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members elected through constituencies, 22 members elected through party selection; members serve five-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 28 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2015); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 28 February 2010 (next to be held in February 2015)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 71%, IRPT 8.2%, CPT 7%, APT 5.1%, PER 5.1%, other 3.6%; seats by party - PDPT 55, IRPT 2, CPT 2, APT 2, PER 2
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, vice-president, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists 16 judicial positions) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all three courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no limit on terms, but last appointment must occur before the age of 65

subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Amir QARAQULOV] Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV] Islamic Revival Party of Tajikistan or IRPT [Muhiddin KABIRI] Party of Economic Reform or PER [Olimjon BOBOEV] People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON] Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOYIROV]
Political pressure groups and leaders: influential religious leader Akbar TURAJONZODA unregistered Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON] unregistered opposition group Guruhi-24 (Group-24) [Umarali QUVVATOV] Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV]
International organization participation: ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): crown surmounted by seven, five-pointed stars
National anthem: name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Suleiman YUDAKOV

note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Nuriddin SHAMSOV
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Susan M. ELLIOTT
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
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 Economy
Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad, almost all of them in Russia, supporting families in Tajikistan through remittances. Less than 7% of the land area is arable. Cotton is the most important crop, and its production is closely monitored, and in many cases controlled, by the government. In the wake of the National Bank of Tajikistan's admission in December 2007 that it had improperly lent money to investors in the cotton sector, the IMF canceled its program in Tajikistan. A reform agenda is underway, according to which over half a billion dollars in farmer debt has been forgiven, and IMF assistance has been reinstated. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of a large aluminum plant, hydropower facilities, and small obsolete factories mostly in light industry and food processing. The civil war (1992-97) severely damaged the already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production. Tajikistan's economic situation remains fragile due to uneven implementation of structural reforms, corruption, weak governance, seasonal power shortages, and the external debt burden. Electricity output expanded with the completion of the Sangtuda-1 hydropower dam - finished in 2009 with Russian investment. The smaller Sangtuda-2, built with Iranian investment, began operating in 2012. The government of Tajikistan is pinning major hopes on the massive Roghun dam which, if finished according to Tajik plans, will be the tallest dam in the world and significantly expand electricity output. The World Bank is funding two feasibility studies for the dam (technical-economic, and social-environmental), scheduled to be completed in mid-2013. In January 2010, the government began selling shares in the Roghun enterprise to its population, ultimately raising over $180 million but Tajikistan will still need significant investment to complete the dam. According to numerous reports, many Tajik individuals and businesses were forced to buy shares. The coerced share sales finally ended in mid-2010 under intense criticism from donors, particularly the IMF. Food and fuel prices in 2011 increased to the highest levels seen since 2002 due in part to an increase in rail transport tariffs through Uzbekistan. Tajikistan imports approximately 60% of its food and 90% of that comes by rail. Uzbekistan closed one of the rail lines into Tajikistan in late 2011, hampering the transit of goods to and from the southern part of the country.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $18.04 billion (2012 est.) $16.78 billion (2011 est.) $15.63 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $7.592 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.5% (2012 est.) 7.4% (2011 est.) 6.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,300 (2012 est.) $2,200 (2011 est.) $2,100 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 13.4% of GDP (2012 est.) 17.4% of GDP (2011 est.) 16% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 81.5%
government consumption: 26.2%
investment in fixed capital: 16.6%
investment in inventories: 14.2%
exports of goods and services: 10.6%
imports of goods and services: -49.1% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 81.5%
government consumption: 26.2%
investment in fixed capital: 16.6%
investment in inventories: 14.2%
exports of goods and services: 10.6%
imports of goods and services: -49.1% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries: aluminum, cement, vegetable oil
Industrial production growth rate: 8% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 2.1 million (2012)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 47.9%
industry: 10.9%
services: 41.2% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 2.5% (2012 est.) 2.2% (2009 est.) note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higher
Population below poverty line: 39.6% (December 2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 24.3% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 32.6 (2006) 34.7 (1998)
Budget: revenues: $2.153 billion
expenditures: $2.026 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 28.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.8% (2012 est.) 12.4% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$401 million (2012 est.) -$303.9 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $1.803 billion (2012 est.) $1.739 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners: Turkey 30.5%, China 9.6%, Iran 7.7%, Afghanistan 6.5%, Kazakhstan 4.9%, Russia 4.3% (2012)
Imports: $4.029 billion (2012 est.) $3.54 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: China 42.3%, Russia 16.2%, Kazakhstan 10.1%, Turkey 5.7%, Iran 4.2% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $628.5 million (31 December 2012 est.) $532.4 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $3.418 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $3.323 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $1.8 billion (February 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $18.5 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $16.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar - 4.738 (2012 est.) 4.6102 (2011 est.) 4.379 (2010 est.) 4.1428 (2009) 3.4563 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 16.9 billion kWh (2012 est.) country comparison to the world: 77
Electricity - consumption: 15.9 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - exports: 1 billion kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - imports: 300.5 million kWh (2012 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 4.5 million kW (2012 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 91% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 215 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 80 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 12 million bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: NA bbl/day
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 45,810 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 225.2 bbl/day (2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 7,758 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 40 million cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 172 million cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 132.4 million cu m (2012 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 6.678 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 380,000 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 106
Cellular Phones in use: 6.324 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012

domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998 while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns

international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stations - 3 (2 Intelsat and 1 Orbita) (2011)
Broadcast media: state-run TV broadcaster transmits nationally on 4 stations and regionally on 4 stations; 11 independent TV stations broadcast locally and regionally; some households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via cable and satellite; state-run radio broadcaster operates Radio Tajikistan, Voice of Dushanbe, and several regional stations; a small number of independent radio stations (2010)
Internet country code: .tj
Internet hosts: 6,258 (2012)
Internet users: 700,000 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 24 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 131
Airports (paved runways): total 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2013)
Railways: total 680 km
broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 27,767 km
(2000)
Waterways: 200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)
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 Military
Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; males required to undergo compulsory military training between ages 16 and 55; males can enroll in military schools from at least age 15 (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,012,790
females age 16-49: 2,020,618 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,490,267
females age 16-49: 1,675,083 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 76,430
female: 74,038 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.5% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 2,300 (2012)
Illicit drugs: major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates
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