Tajikistan Population: 8,330,946

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 History
The Tajik people came under Russian rule in the 1860s and 1870s, but Russia's hold on Central Asia weakened following the Revolution of 1917. Bands of indigenous guerrillas (called "basmachi") fiercely contested Bolshevik control of the area, which was not fully reestablished until 1925. Tajikistan was first created as an autonomous republic within Uzbekistan in 1924, but the USSR designated Tajikistan a separate republic in 1929 and transferred to it much of present-day Sughd province. Ethnic Uzbeks form a substantial minority in Tajikistan, and ethnic Tajiks an even larger minority in Uzbekistan. Tajikistan became independent in 1991 following the breakup of the Soviet Union, and experienced a civil war between regional factions from 1992 to 1997. Tajikistan has endured several domestic security incidents since 2010, including armed conflict between government forces and local strongmen in the Rasht Valley and between government forces and criminal groups in Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Oblast. In September 2015, government security forces rebuffed attacks led by a former high-ranking official in the Ministry of Defense. President Emomali RAHMON, who came to power during the civil war, used the attacks to ban the main opposition political party in Tajikistan. RAHMON further strengthened his position by having himself designated “Leader ofthe Nation” and removing term limits on himself through constitutional amendments in a referendum on May 2016. The country remains the poorest in the former Soviet sphere. Tajikistan became a member of the World Trade Organization in March 2013. However, its economy continues to face major challenges, including dependence on remittances from Tajikistanis working in Russia, pervasive corruption, and the opiate trade in neighboring Afghanistan.

 Geography
Landlocked; highest point, Qullai Ismoili Somoni (formerly Communism Peak), was the tallest mountain in the former USSR
Location: Central Asia, west of China, south of Kyrgyzstan
Geographic coordinates: 39 00 N, 71 00 E
Area: total: 144,100 sq km
land: 141,510 sq km
water: 2,590 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Wisconsin
Land Boundaries: total: 4,130 km border countries (4): Afghanistan 1,357 km, China 477 km, Kyrgyzstan 984 km, Uzbekistan 1,312 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: mid-latitude continental, hot summers, mild winters; semiarid to polar in Pamir Mountains
Terrain: mountainous region dominated by the Trans-Alay Range in the north and the Pamirs in the southeast; western Fergana Valley in north, Kofarnihon and Vakhsh Valleys in southwest
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: hydropower, some petroleum, uranium, mercury, brown coal, lead, zinc, antimony, tungsten, silver, gold
Land use: agricultural land: 34.7% arable land 6.1%; permanent crops 0.9%; permanent pasture 27.7% forest: 2.9%
other: 62.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 7,420 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: earthquakes; floods
Current Environment Issues: inadequate sanitation facilities; increasing levels of soil salinity; industrial pollution; excessive pesticides
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Environmental Modification, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Tajikistani(s)
adjective: Tajikistani
Ethnic groups: Tajik 84.3%, Uzbek 13.8% (includes Lakai, Kongrat, Katagan, Barlos, Yuz), other 2% (includes Kyrgyz, Russian, Turkmen, Tatar, Arab) (2010 est.)
Languages: Tajik (official), Russian widely used in government and business note: different ethnic groups speak Uzbek, Kyrgyz, and Pashto
Religions: Sunni Muslim 85%, Shia Muslim 5%, other 10% (2003 est.)
Population: 8,330,946 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.56% (male 1,380,959/female 1,331,790)
15-24 years: 19.04% (male 804,625/female 781,469)
25-54 years: 39.79% (male 1,640,657/female 1,674,198)
55-64 years: 5.37% (male 205,541/female 241,770)
65 years and over: 3.24% (male 112,279/female 157,658) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 60.9%
youth dependency ratio: 56%
elderly dependency ratio: 4.8%
potential support ratio: 20.7% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 24.2 years
male: 23.6 years
female: 24.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.66% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 23.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 26.8% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.62% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: DUSHANBE (capital) 822,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 22.8 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 32 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 32.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 37.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 28.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.7 years male: 64.6 years
female: 71 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.67 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 27.9% (2012)
Health expenditures: 6.9% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 1.92 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density: 5.5 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 93.1% of population
rural: 66.7% of population
total: 73.8% of population

unimproved:
urban: 6.9% of population
rural: 33.3% of population
total: 26.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 93.8% of population
rural: 95.5% of population
total: 95% of population

unimproved:
urban: 6.2% of population
rural: 4.5% of population
total: 5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.31% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 16,200 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 800 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 12% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 13.3% (2012)
Education expenditures: 5.2% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.8%
male: 99.8%
female: 99.7% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 16.7% male: 19.2%
female: 13.7% (2009 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Tajikistan
conventional short form: Tajikistan
local long form: Jumhurii Tojikiston
local short form: Tojikiston
former: Tajik Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: the Persian suffix "-stan" means "place of" or "country," so the word Tajikistan literally means "Land of the Tajik [people]"
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Dushanbe
geographic coordinates: 38 33 N, 68 46 E
time difference: UTC+5 (10 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 2 provinces (viloyatho, singular - viloyat), 1 autonomous province* (viloyati mukhtor), 1 capital region** (viloyati poytakht), and 1 area referred to as Districts Under Republic Administration***; Dushanbe**, Khatlon (Qurghonteppa), Kuhistoni Badakhshon [Gorno-Badakhshan]* (Khorugh), Nohiyahoi Tobei Jumhuri***, Sughd (Khujand)

note: the administrative center name follows in parentheses
Independence: 9 September 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day (or National Day), 9 September (1991)
Constitution: several previous; latest adopted 6 November 1994; amended 1999, 2003, 2014 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Emomali RAHMON (since 6 November 1994; head of state and Supreme Assembly chairman since 19 November 1992)

head of government: Prime Minister Qohir RASULZODA (since 23 November 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president, approved by the Supreme Assembly elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a 7-year term (eligible for 2 terms); election last held on 6 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Emomali RAHMON reelected president; percent of vote - Emomali RAHMON (PDPT) 83.9%, Ismoil TALBAKOV (CPT) 5%, other 11.1%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Supreme Assembly or Majlisi Oli consists of the National Assembly or Majlisi Milli (34 seats; 25 members indirectly elected by local representative assemblies or majlisi, 8 appointed by the president, and 1 reserved for the former president; members serve 5-year terms) and the Assembly of Representatives or Majlisi Namoyandagon (63 seats; 41 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by two-round absolute majority vote and 22 directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: National Assembly - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020); Assembly of Representatives - last held on 1 March 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; Assembly of Representatives - percent of vote by party - PDPT 65.4%, APT 11.7%, PERT 7.5%, SPT 5.5%, CPT 2.2%, DPT 1.7%, other 6%; seats by party - PDPT 51, APT 5, PERT 3, SPT 1, CPT 2, DPT 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chairman, deputy chairmen, and 34 judges organized into civil, criminal, and military chambers); Constitutional Court (consists of the court chairman, vice-president, and 5 judges); High Economic Court (consists 16 judicial positions) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court, Constitutional Court, and High Economic Court judges nominated by the president of the republic and approved by the National Assembly; judges of all 3 courts appointed for 10-year renewable terms with no limit on terms, but last appointment must occur before the age of 65

subordinate courts: regional and district courts; Dushanbe City Court; viloyat (province level) courts; Court of Gorno-Badakhshan Autonomous Region
Political parties and leaders: Agrarian Party of Tajikistan or APT [Rustam LATIFZODA] Communist Party of Tajikistan or CPT [Shodi SHABDOLOV] Democratic Party of Tajikistan or DPT [Saidjafar ISMONOV] Party of Economic Reform of Tajikistan or PERT [Olimjon BOBOEV] People's Democratic Party of Tajikistan or PDPT [Emomali RAHMON] Social Democratic Party of Tajikistan or SDPT [Rahmatullo ZOIROV] Socialist Party of Tajikistan or SPT [Abduhalim GHAFOROV]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Group 24 [Sharofiddin GADOEV] (banned) New Tajikistan Party [Zayd SAIDOV] (unregistered, SAIDOV jailed since 2013) Vatandor (Patriot) Movement [Dodojon ATOVULLOEV] Youth for the Revival of Tajikistan [Maqsud IBROHIMOV] (banned, IBROHIMOV jailed in 2015) Youth Party of Tajikistan [Izzat AMON] (unregistered) Islamic Renaissance Party of Tajikistan or IRPT [Muhiddin KABIRI] (banned)
International organization participation: ADB, CICA, CIS, CSTO, EAEC, EAPC, EBRD, ECO, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, GCTU, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM (observer), OIC, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SCO, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): crown surmounted by seven, five-pointed stars; national colors: red, white, green
National anthem: name: "Surudi milli" (National Anthem)
lyrics/music: Gulnazar KELDI/Sulaimon YUDAKOV

note: adopted 1991; after the fall of the Soviet Union, Tajikistan kept the music of the anthem from its time as a Soviet republic but adopted new lyrics
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Farhod SALIM (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: 1005 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20037
telephone: [1] (202) 223-6090
FAX: [1] (202) 223-6091
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Elisabeth MILLARD (since 11 March 2016)
embassy: 109-A Ismoili Somoni Avenue, Dushanbe 734019
mailing address: 7090 Dushanbe Place, Dulles, VA 20189
telephone: [992] (37) 229-20-00
FAX: [992] (37) 229-20-50
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 Economy
Tajikistan is a poor, mountainous country with an economy dominated by minerals extraction, metals processing, agriculture, and reliance on remittances from citizens working abroad. The 1992-97 civil war severely damaged an already weak economic infrastructure and caused a sharp decline in industrial and agricultural production, and today, Tajikistan has one of the lowest per capita GDPs among the 15 former Soviet republics. Less than 7% of the land area is arable and cotton is the most important crop. Tajikistan imports approximately 60% of its food. Mineral resources include silver, gold, uranium, antimony, and tungsten. Industry consists mainly of small obsolete factories in food processing and light industry, substantial hydropower facilities, and a large aluminum plant - currently operating well below its capacity. Because of a lack of employment opportunities in Tajikistan, more than one million Tajik citizens work abroad - roughly 90% in Russia - supporting families back home through remittances that have been equivalent to nearly 50% of GDP. Some experts estimate the value of narcotics transiting Tajikistan is equivalent to 30-50% of GDP. Since the end of the devastating, five-year civil war, the country has pursued half-hearted reforms and privatizations, but the poor business climate remains a hurdle to attracting investment. Tajikistan has sought to develop its substantial hydroelectricity potential through partnership with Russian and Iranian investors, and is pursuing completion of the Roghun dam - which, if built according to plan, would be the tallest dam in the world. However, the project will take at least 8 to 11 years to construct and faces financing shortfalls and opposition from downstream Uzbekistan. Recent slowdowns in the Russian and Chinese economies, low commodity prices, and currency fluctuations are hampering economic growth in Tajikistan. By some estimates, the dollar value of remittances from Russia to Tajikistan dropped by more than 65% in 2015. The government faces challenges financing the public debt, which is equivalent to 35% of GDP, and the National Bank of Tajikistan has aggressively spent down reserves to bolster the weakening somoni, leaving little space for fiscal or monetary measures to counter any additional economic shocks.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $25.81 billion (2016 est.) $24.35 billion (2015 est.) $22.97 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $6.612 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6% (2016 est.) 6% (2015 est.) 6.7% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,000 (2016 est.) $2,900 (2015 est.) $2,800 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 12.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 12.7% of GDP (2015 est.) 13% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 116.1%
government consumption: 14.5%
investment in fixed capital: 13.8%
investment in inventories: 4%
exports of goods and services: 22.8%
imports of goods and services: -71.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 116.1%
government consumption: 14.5%
investment in fixed capital: 13.8%
investment in inventories: 4%
exports of goods and services: 22.8%
imports of goods and services: -71.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, grain, fruits, grapes, vegetables; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries: aluminum, cement, vegetable oil
Industrial production growth rate: 0.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 2.209 million (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 46.5%
industry: 10.7%
services: 42.8% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate: 2.5% (2013 est.) 2.5% (2012 est.) note: official rates; actual unemployment is much higher
Population below poverty line: 35.6% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 32.6 (2006) 34.7 (1998)
Budget: revenues: $1.841 billion
expenditures: $1.985 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 27.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 6.5% of GDP (2013 est.) NA%
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8% (2016 est.) 10.8% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$331 million (2016 est.) -$470 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $530.8 million (2016 est.) $572 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: aluminum, electricity, cotton, fruits, vegetable oil, textiles
Exports - partners: Turkey 19.7%, Kazakhstan 17.6%, Switzerland 13.7%, Iran 8.7%, Afghanistan 7.5%, Russia 5.1%, China 4.9%, Italy 4.8% (2015)
Imports: $2.34 billion (2016 est.) $2.825 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum products, aluminum oxide, machinery and equipment, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: China 42.3%, Russia 17.9%, Kazakhstan 13.1%, Iran 4.7% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $416.9 million (31 December 2016 est.) $494.3 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $3.976 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $3.938 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $2.272 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA $16.3 billion (31 December 2009 est.)
Exchange rates: Tajikistani somoni (TJS) per US dollar - 8.364 (2016 est.) 6.1631 (2015 est.) 6.1631 (2014 est.) 4.9348 (2013 est.) 4.76 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 16 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 12 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 1.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 33 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 5.3 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 9% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 91% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Crude oil - production: 181.6 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 78.6 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 12 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 445 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 14,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 427.9 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 12,870 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 12 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 224 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 212 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 8.489 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 104 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: foreign investment in the telephone system has resulted in major improvements; conversion of the existing fixed network from analogue to digital was completed in 2012

domestic: fixed line availability has not changed significantly since 1998, while mobile cellular subscribership, aided by competition among multiple operators, has expanded rapidly; coverage now extends to all major cities and towns

international: country code - 992; linked by cable and microwave radio relay to other CIS republics and by leased connections to the Moscow international gateway switch; Dushanbe linked by Intelsat to international gateway switch in Ankara (Turkey); satellite earth stat (2016)
Broadcast media: state-run TV broadcasters transmit nationally on 9 TV and 10 radio stations, and regionally on 4 stations; 31 independent TV and 20 radio stations broadcast locally and regionally; many households are able to receive Russian and other foreign stations via (2016)
Internet country code: .tj
Internet users: total: 1.555 million percent of population: 19% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 24 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 17
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 7

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 549 km; oil 38 km (2013)
Railways: total 680 km
broad gauge: 680 km 1.520-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 27,767 km
(2000)
Waterways: 200 km (along Vakhsh River) (2011)
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 Military
Military branches: Ground Forces, Air and Air Defense Forces, Mobile Forces (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-27 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; 2-year conscript service obligation; males required to undergo compulsory military training between ages 16 and 55; males can enroll in military schools from at least age 15 (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.1% of GDP (2014)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2006, China and Tajikistan pledged to commence demarcation of the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; talks continue with Uzbekistan to delimit border and remove minefields; disputes in Isfara Valley delay delimitation with Kyrgyzstan
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 19,469 (2015)
Illicit drugs: major transit country for Afghan narcotics bound for Russian and, to a lesser extent, Western European markets; limited illicit cultivation of opium poppy for domestic consumption; Tajikistan seizes roughly 80% of all drugs captured in Central Asia and stands third worldwide in seizures of opiates (heroin and raw opium); significant consumer of opiates
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