Turks and Caicos Islands Population: 51,430

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 History
The islands were part of the UK's Jamaican colony until 1962, when they assumed the status of a separate crown colony upon Jamaica's independence. The governor of The Bahamas oversaw affairs from 1965 to 1973. With Bahamian independence, the islands received a separate governor in 1973. Although independence was agreed upon for 1982, the policy was reversed and the islands remain a British overseas territory.

 Geography
About 40 islands (eight inhabited)
Location: two island groups in the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of The Bahamas, north of Haiti
Geographic coordinates: 21 45 N, 71 35 W
Area: total: 948 sq km
land: 948 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 389 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; marine; moderated by trade winds; sunny and relatively dry
Terrain: low, flat limestone; extensive marshes and mangrove swamps
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: spiny lobster, conch
Land use: agricultural land: 1.1% arable land 1.1%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0% forest: 36.2%
other: 62.7% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: frequent hurricanes
Current Environment Issues: limited natural freshwater resources, private cisterns collect rainwater
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 People
Nationality: noun: none
adjective: none
Ethnic groups: black 87.6%, white 7.9%, mixed 2.5%, East Indian 1.3%, other 0.7% (2006)
Languages: English (official)
Religions: Protestant 72.8% (Baptist 35.8%, Church of God 11.7%, Anglican 10%, Methodist 9.3%, Seventh-Day Adventist 6%), Roman Catholic 11.4%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.8%, other 14%
Population: 51,430 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 21.87% (male 5,732/female 5,517)
15-24 years: 14.31% (male 3,628/female 3,730)
25-54 years: 53.31% (male 13,861/female 13,558)
55-64 years: 6.1% (male 1,696/female 1,443)
65 years and over: 4.4% (male 1,018/female 1,247) (2016 est.)
Median age: total: 32.9 years
male: 33.2 years
female: 32.5 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.23% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 15.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 3.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 9.7 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 92.2% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.48% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: GRAND TURK (capital) 5,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.18 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.8 male(s)/female
total population: 1.02 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 10.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 12.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 79.8 years male: 77.1 years
female: 82.7 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.7 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 81.4% of population
rural: 81.4% of population
total: 81.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 18.6% of population
rural: 18.6% of population
total: 18.6% of population (2007 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Education expenditures: 3.3% of GDP (2015)
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Turks and Caicos Islands
abbreviation: TCI
etymology: the Turks Islands are named after the Turk's cap cactus (native to the islands and appearing on the flag and coat of arms), while the Caicos Islands derive from the native term "caya hico" meaning "string of islands"
Government type: parliamentary democracy (House of Assembly); self-governing overseas territory of the UK
Capital: name: Grand Turk (Cockburn Town)
geographic coordinates: 21 28 N, 71 08 W
time difference: UTC-5 (same time as Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins second Sunday in March; ends first Sunday in November
Administrative divisions: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: Constitution Day, 30 August (1976)
Constitution: several previous; latest signed 7 August 2012, effective 15 October 2012 (Turks and Caicos Constitution Order 2011) (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and civil law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor John FREEMAN (since 17 October 2016)

head of government: Premier Rufus EWING (since 13 November 2012)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the governor from among members of the House of Assembly elections/appointments: the monarch is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party is appointed premier by the governor
Legislative branch: description: unicameral House of Assembly (19 seats; 15 members in multi-seat constituencies and a single all-islands constituency directly elected by simple majority vote, 1 member nominated by the premier and appointed by the governor, 1 nominated by the opposition party leader and appointed by the governor, and 2 from the Turks and Caicos Islands Civic Society directly appointed by the governor; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 9 November 2012 (next to be held in 2016)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats by party - PNP 8, PDM 7
Judicial branch: highest resident court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and such number of other judges as determined by the governor); Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and 2 justices); note - appeals beyond the Supreme Court are referred to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Appeals Court judges appointed by the governor in accordance with the Judicial Service Commission, a 3-member body of high level judicial officials; Supreme Court judges appointed until mandatory retirement at age 65, but can be extended to age 70; Appeals Court judge tenure determined by individual terms of appointment

subordinate courts: magistrates' courts
Political parties and leaders: People's Democratic Movement or PDM [Oswald SKIPPINGS] People's Progressive Party Progressive National Party or PNP [Rufus EWING]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: Caricom (associate), CDB, Interpol (subbureau), UPU
National symbol(s): conch shell, Turk's cap cactus
National anthem: name: "This Land of Ours"
lyrics/music: Conrad HOWELL

note: serves as a local anthem; as a territory of the UK, "God Save the Queen" is the official anthem (see United Kingdom)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
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 Economy
The Turks and Caicos economy is based on tourism, offshore financial services, and fishing. Most capital goods and food for domestic consumption are imported. The US is the leading source of tourists, accounting for more than three-quarters of the more than 1 million visitors that arrived in 2013. Three-quarters of the visitors came by ship. Major sources of government revenue also include fees from offshore financial activities and customs receipts. The Turks and Caicos economy is based on tourism, offshore financial services, and fishing. Most capital goods and food for domestic consumption are imported. The US is the leading source of tourists, accounting for more than three-quarters of the more than 1 million visitors that arrived in 2013. Three-quarters of the visitors came by ship. Major sources of government revenue also include fees from offshore financial activities and customs receipts.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $632 million (2007 est.) $568.3 million (2006 est.) GDP (purchasing power parity): $632 million (2007 est.) $568.3 million (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $NA GDP (official exchange rate): $NA
GDP - real growth rate: 11.2% (2007 est.) 11.2% (2007 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $29,100 (2007 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $29,100 (2007 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 49.2%
government consumption: 20.4%
investment in fixed capital: 26.7%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 47.7%
imports of goods and services: -44% (2016 est.) household consumption: 49.2% government consumption: 20.4% investment in fixed capital: 26.7% investment in inventories: -0.1% exports of goods and services: 47.7% imports of goods and services: -44% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 49.2%
government consumption: 20.4%
investment in fixed capital: 26.7%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 47.7%
imports of goods and services: -44% (2016 est.) household consumption: 49.2% government consumption: 20.4% investment in fixed capital: 26.7% investment in inventories: -0.1% exports of goods and services: 47.7% imports of goods and services: -44% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: corn, beans, cassava (manioc, tapioca), citrus fruits; fish corn, beans, cassava (manioc, tapioca), citrus fruits; fish
Industries: tourism, offshore financial services tourism, offshore financial services
Industrial production growth rate: 3% (2016 est.) 3% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 4,848 (1990 est.) 4,848 (1990 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: note: about 33% in government and 20% in agriculture and fishing; significant numbers in tourism, financial, and other services note: about 33% in government and 20% in agriculture and fishing; significant numbers in tourism, financial, and other services
Unemployment rate: 10% (1997 est.) 10% (1997 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA% NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $225.6 million
expenditures: $187.2 million (2016 est.) revenues: $225.6 million expenditures: $187.2 million (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (2016 est.) 1% (2015 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.2% (2016 est.) 1% (2015 est.)
Exports: $24.77 million (2008 est.) $24.77 million (2008 est.)
Exports - commodities: lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells lobster, dried and fresh conch, conch shells
Imports: $591.3 million (2008 est.) $591.3 million (2008 est.)
Imports - commodities: food and beverages, tobacco, clothing, manufactures, construction materials food and beverages, tobacco, clothing, manufactures, construction materials
Debt - external: $NA $NA
Exchange rates: the US dollar is used the US dollar is used
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 200 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 76,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1,340 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 1,328 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 200,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Telephone system: general assessment: fully digital system with international direct dialing

domestic: full range of services available; GSM wireless service available

international: country code - 1-649; the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) fiber-optic telecommunications submarine cable provides connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic (2015)
Broadcast media: no local terrestrial TV stations, broadcasts from the Bahamas can be received and multi-channel cable and satellite TV services are available; government-run radio network operates alongside private broadcasters with a total of about 15 stations (2007)
Internet country code: .tc
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 Transportation
Airports: 8 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 6

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2

under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Roadways: total 121 km
paved: 24 km
unpaved: 97 km (2003)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Cockburn Harbour, Grand Turk, Providenciales
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of the UK
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: have received Haitians fleeing economic and civil disorder
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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