Suriname Population: 585,824

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 History
First explored by the Spaniards in the 16th century and then settled by the English in the mid-17th century, Suriname became a Dutch colony in 1667. With the abolition of African slavery in 1863, workers were brought in from India and Java. The Netherlands granted the colony independence in 1975. Five years later the civilian government was replaced by a military regime that soon declared a socialist republic. It continued to exert control through a succession of nominally civilian administrations until 1987, when international pressure finally forced a democratic election. In 1990, the military overthrew the civilian leadership, but a democratically elected government - a four-party coalition - returned to power in 1991. The coalition expanded to eight parties in 2005 and ruled until August 2010, when voters returned former military leader Desire BOUTERSE and his opposition coalition to power. President BOUTERSE was reelected unopposed in 2015.

 Geography
Smallest independent country on South American continent; mostly tropical rain forest; great diversity of flora and fauna that, for the most part, is increasingly threatened by new development; relatively small population, mostly along the coast
Location: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between French Guiana and Guyana
Geographic coordinates: 4 00 N, 56 00 W
Area: total: 163,820 sq km
land: 156,000 sq km
water: 7,820 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Georgia
Land Boundaries: total: 1,907 km border countries (3): Brazil 515 km, French Guiana 556 km, Guyana 836 km
Coastline: 386 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; moderated by trade winds
Terrain: mostly rolling hills; narrow coastal plain with swamps
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: timber, hydropower, fish, kaolin, shrimp, bauxite, gold, and small amounts of nickel, copper, platinum, iron ore
Land use: agricultural land: 0.5% arable land 0.4%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.1% forest: 94.6%
other: 4.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 570 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: NA
Current Environment Issues: deforestation as timber is cut for export; pollution of inland waterways by small-scale mining activities
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Surinamer(s)
adjective: Surinamese
Ethnic groups: Hindustani (also known locally as "East Indians"; their ancestors emigrated from northern India in the latter part of the 19th century) 37%, Creole (mixed white and black) 31%, Javanese 15%, "Maroons" (their African ancestors were brought to the country in the 17th and 18th centuries as slaves and escaped to the interior) 10%, Amerindian 2%, Chinese 2%, white 1%, other 2%
Languages: Dutch (official), English (widely spoken), Sranang Tongo (Surinamese, sometimes called Taki-Taki, is native language of Creoles and much of the younger population and is lingua franca among others), Caribbean Hindustani (a dialect of Hindi), Javanese
Religions: Hindu 27.4%, Protestant 25.2% (predominantly Moravian), Roman Catholic 22.8%, Muslim 19.6%, indigenous beliefs 5%
Population: 585,824 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 25.15% (male 75,088/female 72,261)
15-24 years: 17.46% (male 52,129/female 50,141)
25-54 years: 44.36% (male 132,334/female 127,562)
55-64 years: 7.16% (male 20,564/female 21,394)
65 years and over: 5.86% (male 14,848/female 19,503) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 50.8%
youth dependency ratio: 40.4%
elderly dependency ratio: 10.4%
potential support ratio: 9.6% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 29.5 years
male: 29.1 years
female: 29.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.05% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 16 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 6.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 66% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.78% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: PARAMARIBO (capital) 234,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 155 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 25.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 29.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 20.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.2 years male: 69.8 years
female: 74.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.95 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 47.6% (2010)
Health expenditures: 5.7% of GDP (2014)
Hospital bed density: 3.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98.1% of population
rural: 88.4% of population
total: 94.8% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1.9% of population
rural: 11.6% of population
total: 5.2% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 88.4% of population
rural: 61.4% of population
total: 79.2% of population

unimproved:
urban: 11.6% of population
rural: 38.6% of population
total: 20.8% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.08% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3,800 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 100 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 26.1% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 5.8% (2010)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 95.6%
male: 96.1%
female: 95% (2015 est.)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 15.3% male: 11.6%
female: 21.7% (2013 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Suriname
conventional short form: Suriname
local long form: Republiek Suriname
local short form: Suriname
former: Netherlands Guiana, Dutch Guiana
etymology: name may derive from the indigenous "Surinen" people who inhabited the area at the time of European contact
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Paramaribo
geographic coordinates: 5 50 N, 55 10 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 districts (distrikten, singular - distrikt); Brokopondo, Commewijne, Coronie, Marowijne, Nickerie, Para, Paramaribo, Saramacca, Sipaliwini, Wanica
Independence: 25 November 1975 (from the Netherlands)
National holiday: Independence Day, 25 November (1975)
Constitution: previous 1975; latest ratified 30 September 1987, effective 30 October 1987; amended 1992 (2016)
Legal system: civil law system influenced by Dutch civil law; note - the Commissie Nieuw Surinaamse Burgerlijk Wetboek completed drafting a new civil code in February 2009
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Desire Delano BOUTERSE (since 12 August 2010); Vice President Ashwin ADHIN (since 12 August 2015); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Desire Delano BOUTERSE (since 12 August 2010); Vice President Ashwin ADHIN (since 12 August 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet of Ministers appointed by the president elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by the National Assembly; president and vice president serve a 5-year term (no term limits); election last held on 25 May 2015 (next to be held on 25 May 2020)

election results: Desire Delano BOUTERSE reelected president; National Assembly vote - NA
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Nationale Assemblee (51 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 25 May 2015 (next to be held in May 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - NDP 45.5%, V7 37.2%, A-Com 10.5%, DOE 4.3%, PALU .7%, other 1.7%; seats by party - NDP 26, V7 18, A-Com 5, DOE 1, PALU 1
Judicial branch: highest resident court(s): High Court of Justice of Suriname (consists of the court president, vice president, and 4 judges); note - appeals beyond the High Court are referred to the Caribbean Court of Justice, with final appeal to the Judicial Committee of the Privy Council (in London) judge selection and term of office: court judges appointed by the national president after consultation with the High Court; judges appointed for life

subordinate courts: cantonal courts
Political parties and leaders: Alternative Combination or A-Com (a coalition that includes ABOP, KTPI, PDO) Brotherhood and Unity in Politics or BEP [Celsius WATERBERG] Democratic Alternative '91 or DA91 [Winston JESSURUN] General Liberation and Development Party or ABOP [Ronnie BRUNSWIJK} National Democratic Party or NDP [Desire Delano BOUTERSE] National Party of Suriname or NPS [Gregory RUSLAND] Party for Democracy and Development or PDO [Waldy NAIN] Party for Democracy and Development in Unity or DOE [Carl BREEVELD] Party for National Unity and Solidarity or KTPI [Willy SOEMITA] People's Alliance, Pertjaja Luhur or PL [Paul SOMOHARDJO] Progressive Worker and Farmer's Union or PALU [Jim HOK] Surinamese Labor Party or SPA [Guno CASTELEN] United Reform Party or VHP [Chandrikapersad SANTOKHI] Victory 7 or V7 (formerly the New Front for Democracy and Development or NF) (a coalition including NPS, VHP, DA91, PL, SPA) [Chandrikapresad SANTOKHI]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Association of Indigenous Village Chiefs [Ricardo PANE] Association of Saramaccan Authorities or Maroon [Head Captain WASE] Women's Parliament Forum or PVF [Iris GILLIAD]
International organization participation: ACP, AOSIS, Caricom, CD, CDB, CELAC, FAO, G-77, IADB, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, MIGA, NAM, OAS, OIC, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, Petrocaribe, UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UPU, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): royal palm, faya lobi (flower); national colors: green, white, red, yellow
National anthem: name: "God zij met ons Suriname!" (God Be With Our Suriname)
lyrics/music: Cornelis Atses HOEKSTRA and Henry DE ZIEL/Johannes Corstianus DE PUY

note: adopted 1959; originally adapted from a Sunday school song written in 1893 and contains lyrics in both Dutch and Sranang Tongo
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Sylvana Elvira SIMSON (since 1 September 2015)
chancery: Suite 460, 4301 Connecticut Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-7488
FAX: [1] (202) 244-5878
consulate(s) general: Miami
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jay N. ANANIA (since 1 October 2012)
embassy: Dr. Sophie Redmondstraat 129, Paramaribo
mailing address: US Department of State, PO Box 1821, Paramaribo
telephone: [597] 472-900
FAX: [597] 410-972
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 Economy
The economy is dominated by the mining industry, with exports of oil, gold, and alumina accounting for about 85% of exports and 27% of government revenues, making the economy highly vulnerable to mineral price volatility. Economic growth has declined annually from just under 5% in 2012 to 1.5% in 2015. In January 2011, the government devalued the currency by 20% and raised taxes to reduce the budget deficit. As a result of these measures, inflation receded to less than 4% in 2015. Suriname's economic prospects for the medium term will depend on continued commitment to responsible monetary and fiscal policies and to the introduction of structural reforms to liberalize markets and promote competition. The government's reliance on revenue from extractive industries will temper Suriname's economic outlook, especially if gold prices continue their downward trend.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $8.547 billion (2016 est.) $9.188 billion (2015 est.) $9.216 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $4.137 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -7% (2016 est.) -0.3% (2015 est.) 1.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $15,200 (2016 est.) $16,500 (2015 est.) $16,500 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 57% of GDP (2016 est.) 51% of GDP (2015 est.) 62.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 65.4%
government consumption: 15.2%
investment in fixed capital: 16.2%
investment in inventories: 26.5%
exports of goods and services: 43.7%
imports of goods and services: -40.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 65.4%
government consumption: 15.2%
investment in fixed capital: 16.2%
investment in inventories: 26.5%
exports of goods and services: 43.7%
imports of goods and services: -40.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, bananas, palm kernels, coconuts, plantains, peanuts; beef, chickens; shrimp; forest products
Industries: bauxite and gold mining, alumina production; oil, lumbering, food processing, fishing
Industrial production growth rate: -2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 165,600 (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 11.2%
industry: 19.5%
services: 69.3% (2010)
Unemployment rate: 8.9% (2014 est.) 8.5% (2013 est.)
Population below poverty line: 70% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $469.9 million
expenditures: $664.3 million (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 11.4% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 39% (2016 est.) 3% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$174 million (2016 est.) -$808 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $1.699 billion (2016 est.) $1.666 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: alumina, gold, crude oil, lumber, shrimp and fish, rice, bananas
Exports - partners: Switzerland 21.8%, UAE 14.5%, India 13.9%, Belgium 9.7%, US 8.9%, France 8.1%, Canada 6.6% (2015)
Imports: $1.914 billion (2016 est.) $1.973 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs, cotton, consumer goods
Imports - partners: US 26.8%, Netherlands 14.3%, China 12.2%, Trinidad and Tobago 7.4%, Japan 4.8% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $330.2 million (31 December 2015 est.) $625.2 million (31 December 2014 est.)
Debt - external: $1.235 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.15 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Surinamese dollars (SRD) per US dollar - 6.172 (2016 est.) 3.4167 (2015 est.) 3.4167 (2014 est.) 3.3 (2013 est.) 3.3 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 2.1 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 1.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 400,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 54.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 45.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 17,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 88.97 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 19,120 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 17,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 12,980 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 10,260 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2011 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 2.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 991,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 171 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: international facilities are good

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity 185 telephones per 100 persons; microwave radio relay network

international: country code - 597; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: 2 state-owned TV stations; 1 state-owned radio station; multiple private radio and TV stations (2007)
Internet country code: .sr
Internet users: total: 248,000 percent of population: 42.8% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 55 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 6
over 3,047 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 49

914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 45 (2013)
Pipelines: oil 50 km (2013)
Roadways: total 4,304 km
paved: 1,130 km
unpaved: 3,174 km (2003)
Waterways: 1,200 km (most navigable by ships with drafts up to 7 m) (2011)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Paramaribo, Wageningen
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 Military
Military branches: Suriname Armed Forces: Ground Forces, Naval Forces, Air Forces (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription; personnel drawn almost exclusively from the Creole community (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: area claimed by French Guiana between Riviere Litani and Riviere Marouini (both headwaters of the Lawa); Suriname claims a triangle of land between the New and Kutari/Koetari rivers in a historic dispute over the headwaters of the Courantyne; Guyana seeks UN Convention on the Law of the Sea arbitration to resolve the longstanding dispute with Suriname over the axis of the territorial sea boundary in potentially oil-rich waters
Illicit drugs: growing transshipment point for South American drugs destined for Europe via the Netherlands and Brazil; transshipment point for arms-for-drugs dealing
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