Somalia Population: 10,817,354

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 History
Britain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule characterized by the persecution, jailing, and torture of political opponents and dissidents. After the regime's collapse early in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In May 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring semi-autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims the regions of Sool and Sanaag, and portions of Togdheer. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in south-central Somalia) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. In 2000, the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC) held in Djibouti resulted in the formation of an interim government, known as the Transitional National Government (TNG). When the TNG failed to establish adequate security or governing institutions, the Government of Kenya, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), led a subsequent peace process that concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of a second interim government, known as the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of the Somali Republic. The TFG included a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). President YUSUF resigned late in 2008 while United Nations-sponsored talks between the TFG and the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) were underway in Djibouti. In January 2009, following the creation of a TFG-ARS unity government, Ethiopian military forces, which had entered Somalia in December 2006 to support the TFG in the face of advances by the opposition Islamic Courts Union (ICU), withdrew from the country. The TFP was doubled in size to 550 seats with the addition of 200 ARS and 75 civil society members of parliament. The expanded parliament elected Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed, the former ICU and ARS chairman as president in January 2009. The creation of the TFG was based on the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC), which outlined a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. In 2009, the TFP amended the TFC to extend TFG's mandate until 2011 and in 2011 Somali principals agreed to institute political transition by August 2012. The transition process ended in September 2012 when clan elders replaced the TFP by appointing 275 members to a new parliament who subsequently elected a new president.

 Geography
Strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal
Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 49 00 E
Area: total: 637,657 sq km
land: 627,337 sq km
water: 10,320 sq km

Size comparison: almost five times the size of Alabama; slightly smaller than Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 2,385 km border countries (3): Djibouti 61 km, Ethiopia 1,640 km, Kenya 684 km
Coastline: 3,025 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm
Climate: principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves
Land use: agricultural land: 70.3% arable land 1.8%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 68.5% forest: 10.6%
other: 19.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 2,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season
Current Environment Issues: famine; use of contaminated water contributes to human health problems; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Somali(s)
adjective: Somali
Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including 30,000 Arabs)
Languages: Somali (official), Arabic (official, according to the Transitional Federal Charter), Italian, English
Religions: Sunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the Transitional Federal Charter)
Population: 10,817,354 note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.42% (male 2,345,536/female 2,351,886)
15-24 years: 18.87% (male 1,031,804/female 1,009,831)
25-54 years: 31.47% (male 1,762,093/female 1,641,699)
55-64 years: 4.02% (male 213,259/female 221,520)
65 years and over: 2.22% (male 92,966/female 146,760) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 98.1%
youth dependency ratio: 92.5%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6%
potential support ratio: 17.9% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 17.9 years
male: 18.1 years
female: 17.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.92% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 40 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 13.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -7.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 39.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 4.06% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: MOGADISHU (capital) 2.138 million; Hargeysa 760,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.96 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 732 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 96.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 105.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 87.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 52.4 years male: 50.3 years
female: 54.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.89 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 14.6% (2006)
Physicians density: 0.04 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 8.8% of population
total: 31.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 30.4% of population
rural: 91.2% of population
total: 68.3% of population (2011 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 52% of population
rural: 6.3% of population
total: 23.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 48% of population
rural: 93.7% of population
total: 76.4% of population (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.5% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 30,200 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 2,000 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 3.9% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 23% (2009)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Federal Republic of Somalia
conventional short form: Somalia
local long form: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalkaa Soomaaliya
local short form: Soomaaliya
former: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic
etymology: "Land of the Somali" (ethnic group)
Government type: federal parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Mogadishu
geographic coordinates: 2 04 N, 45 20 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Jubba), Jubbada Hoose (Lower Jubba), Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe (Middle Shabeelle), Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabeelle), Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland that became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960 and Italian Somaliland that became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic)
National holiday: Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960); note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland
Constitution: previous 1961, 1979; latest drafted 12 June 2012, approved 1 August 2012 (provisional) (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law, Islamic law, and customary law (referred to as Xeer)
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (since 10 September 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Omar Abdirashid Ali SHARMARKE (since 24 December 2014); Deputy Prime Minister Mohamad Omar ARTEH (since 6 February 2015)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by the National Parliament elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament by two-thirds majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 10 September 2012 (next to be held on 30 November 2016); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the Federal Parliament

election results: HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud elected president; Federal Parliament second round vote - HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 190, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed (ARS) 79; Omar Abdirashid Ali SHARMARKE approved as prime minister; Federal Parliament vote - 218 for approval, none against (6 members not present for vote)
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Parliament or Golaha Shacabka Soomaaliya consists of the House of the People (275 seats; members directly elected to serve 4-year terms) note: the inaugural House of the People was appointed in September 2012 by clan elders; elections scheduled for 23 October to 10 November 2016, the National Parliament will become bicameral with the formation of an upper house that will consist of 54 seats with members indirectly elected by regional governing councils to serve 4-year terms; composition of lower house NA
Judicial branch: highest court(s): the provisional constitution stipulates the establishment of the Constitutional Court (consists of 5 judges including the chief judge and deputy chief judge); note - under the terms of the 2004 Transitional National Charter, a Supreme Court based in Mogadishu and an Appeal Court were established; yet most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or sharia Islamic law judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Commission, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: federal- and federal member state-level courts; military courts; sharia Islamic courts
Political parties and leaders: CADHI [Abdirahman IBRAHIM] Cosmopolitan Democratic Party [Yarow Sharef ADEN] Democratic Green Party of Somalia or DGPS [Abdullahi Y. MAHAMOUD] Democratic Party of Somalia or DPS [Maslah Mohamed SIAD] Green Leaf for Democracy or GLED Hiil Qaran Justice and Communist Party [Mohamed NUR] Liberal Party of Somalia National Unity Party (Xisbiga MIdnimo-Quaran) [Abdurahman BAADIYOW] Peace and Development Party or PDP Somali National Party or SNP [Mohammed Ameen Saeed AHMED] Somali People's Party [Mahamud Hassan RAGE] Somali Green Party (local chapter of Federation of Green Parties of Africa) Tayo or TPP [Mohamed Abdullahi MOHAMED] Tiir Party [Fadhil Sheik MOHAMUD] United and Democratic Party [Salad Ali JELLE] United Somali Parliamentarians
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: numerous political associations and clan and sub-clan factions exist both in support and in opposition to the incumbent president
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidate), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
National symbol(s): leopard; national colors: blue, white
National anthem: name: "Qolobaa Calankeed" (Every Nation Has its own Flag)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Abdullahi QARSHE

note: adopted 2012; written in 1959
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ahmed Issa AWAD (since 17 September 2015)
chancery: 425 East 61st Street, Suite 702, New York City, NY 10021
telephone: [1] (212) 688-9410, 688-5046
FAX: [1] (212) 759-0651
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US Mission to Somalia, operating out of the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya, is headed by Ambassador Stephen M. SCHWARTZ (since 9 August 2016)
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 Economy
Despite the lack of effective national governance, Somalia maintains an informal economy largely based on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies, and telecommunications. Somalia's government lacks the ability to collect domestic revenue and external debt – mostly in arrears – was estimated at 93% of GDP in 2014. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock normally accounting for about 40% of GDP and more than 50% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-pastoralists, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Economic activity is estimated to have increased by 3.7% in 2014 because of growth in the agriculture, construction and telecommunications sector. Somalia's small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, has largely been looted and the machinery sold as scrap metal. In recent years, Somalia's capital city, Mogadishu, has witnessed the development of the city's first gas stations, supermarkets, and airline flights to Turkey since the collapse of central authority in 1991. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food to electronic gadgets. Hotels continue to operate and are supported with private-security militias. Economic growth has yet to expand outside of Mogadishu, and within the city, security concerns dominate business. Telecommunication firms provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent. In the absence of a formal banking sector, money transfer/remittance services have sprouted throughout the country, handling up to $1.6 billion in remittances annually, although international concerns over the money transfers into Somalia continues to threaten these services.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $4.431 billion (2014 est.) $4.186 billion (2013 est.) $5.607 billion (2008 est.)

note: data are in 2010 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $5.8 billion (2014 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.6% (2010 est.) 2.6% (2009 est.) 2.6% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $400 (2014 est.) $400 (2013 est.) $600 (2008 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 72.1%
government consumption: 8.7%
investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 0.3%
imports of goods and services: -1.7% (2015 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 72.1%
government consumption: 8.7%
investment in fixed capital: 19.8%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 0.3%
imports of goods and services: -1.7% (2015 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Industries: light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication
Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2014 est.)
Labor force: 3.109 million (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 71% industry and
services: 29% (1975)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $145.3 million
expenditures: $151.1 million (2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 2.5% of GDP (2014 est.)
Fiscal year: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): -71.1% (2014 est.) note: (2014 est.)
Current account balance: -$644 million (2014 est.)
Exports: $819 million (2014 est.) $779 million (2013 est.)
Exports - commodities: livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal
Exports - partners: UAE 45.8%, Yemen 19.7%, Oman 15.9% (2015)
Imports: $3.482 billion (2014 est.) $3.322 billion (2013 est.)
Imports - commodities: manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat
Imports - partners: Djibouti 18.7%, India 16.5%, China 11.8%, Oman 8.7%, Kenya 6.1%, Pakistan 4.4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $30.45 million (2014 est.)
Debt - external: $3.054 billion (31 December 2013 est.) $2.92 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Exchange rates: Somali shillings (SOS) per US dollar - 20,227 (2014 est.) 20,227 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 81,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 5,700 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 5,679 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 900,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 5.836 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 55 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: the public telecommunications system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private companies offer limited local fixed-line service, and private wireless companies offer service in most major cities, while charging the lowest

domestic: local cellular telephone systems have been established in Mogadishu and in several other population centers with one company beginning to provide 3G services in late 2012

international: country code - 252; Mogadishu is a landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America (2012)
Broadcast media: 2 private TV stations rebroadcast Al-Jazeera and CNN; Somaliland has 1 government-operated TV station and Puntland has 1 private TV station; the transitional government operates Radio Mogadishu; 1 SW and roughly 10 private FM radio stations broadcast in M (2007)
Internet country code: .so
Internet users: total: 187,000 percent of population: 1.8% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 61 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 6
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 55
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20
914 to 1,523 m: 23
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Roadways: total 22,100 km
paved: 2,608 km
unpaved: 19,492 km (2000)
Merchant marine: total 1

by type: cargo 1 (2008)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Berbera, Kismaayo
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 Military
Military branches: National Security Force (NSF): Somali Army (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera to landlocked Ethiopia and have established commercial ties with other regional states; "Puntland" and "Somaliland" "governments" seek international support in their secessionist aspirations and overlapping border claims; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading south across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 3,268 (Yemen) (2015) IDPs: 1.133 million (civil war since 1988, clan-based competition for resources; 2011 famine; insecurity because of fighting between al-Shabaab and the Transitional Federal Government's allied forces) (2015)
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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