Somalia Population: 11,259,029

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 History
Britain withdrew from British Somaliland in 1960 to allow its protectorate to join with Italian Somaliland and form the new nation of Somalia. In 1969, a coup headed by Mohamed SIAD Barre ushered in an authoritarian socialist rule characterized by the persecution, jailing, and torture of political opponents and dissidents. After the regime's collapse early in 1991, Somalia descended into turmoil, factional fighting, and anarchy. In May 1991, northern clans declared an independent Republic of Somaliland that now includes the administrative regions of Awdal, Woqooyi Galbeed, Togdheer, Sanaag, and Sool. Although not recognized by any government, this entity has maintained a stable existence and continues efforts to establish a constitutional democracy, including holding municipal, parliamentary, and presidential elections. The regions of Bari, Nugaal, and northern Mudug comprise a neighboring semi-autonomous state of Puntland, which has been self-governing since 1998 but does not aim at independence; it has also made strides toward reconstructing a legitimate, representative government but has suffered some civil strife. Puntland disputes its border with Somaliland as it also claims the regions of Sool and Sanaag, and portions of Togdheer. Beginning in 1993, a two-year UN humanitarian effort (primarily in south-central Somalia) was able to alleviate famine conditions, but when the UN withdrew in 1995, having suffered significant casualties, order still had not been restored. In 2000, the Somalia National Peace Conference (SNPC) held in Djibouti resulted in the formation of an interim government, known as the Transitional National Government (TNG). When the TNG failed to establish adequate security or governing institutions, the Government of Kenya, under the auspices of the Intergovernmental Authority on Development (IGAD), led a subsequent peace process that concluded in October 2004 with the election of Abdullahi YUSUF Ahmed as President of a second interim government, known as the Transitional Federal Government (TFG) of the Somali Republic. The TFG included a 275-member parliamentary body, known as the Transitional Federal Parliament (TFP). President YUSUF resigned late in 2008 while UN-sponsored talks between the TFG and the opposition Alliance for the Re-Liberation of Somalia (ARS) were underway in Djibouti. In January 2009, following the creation of a TFG-ARS unity government, Ethiopian military forces, which had entered Somalia in December 2006 to support the TFG in the face of advances by the opposition Islamic Courts Union (ICU), withdrew from the country. The TFP was doubled in size to 550 seats with the addition of 200 ARS and 75 civil society members of parliament. The expanded parliament elected Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed, the former ICU and ARS chairman as president in January 2009. The creation of the TFG was based on the Transitional Federal Charter (TFC), which outlined a five-year mandate leading to the establishment of a new Somali constitution and a transition to a representative government following national elections. In 2009, the TFP amended the TFC to extend TFG's mandate until 2011 and in 2011 Somali principals agreed to institute political transition by August 2012. The transition process ended in September 2012 when clan elders replaced the TFP by appointing 275 members to a new parliament who subsequently elected a new president.

 Geography
    Strategic location on Horn of Africa along southern approaches to Bab el Mandeb and route through Red Sea and Suez Canal
Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Indian Ocean, east of Ethiopia
Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 49 00 E
Area: total: 637,657 sq km
land: 627,337 sq km
water: 10,320 sq km

Size comparison: almost five times the size of Alabama; slightly smaller than Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 2,385 km border countries (3): Djibouti 61 km, Ethiopia 1640 km, Kenya 684 km
Coastline: 3,025 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 200 nm
Climate: principally desert; northeast monsoon (December to February), moderate temperatures in north and hot in south; southwest monsoon (May to October), torrid in the north and hot in the south, irregular rainfall, hot and humid periods (tangambili) between monsoons
Terrain: mostly flat to undulating plateau rising to hills in north
Natural resources: uranium and largely unexploited reserves of iron ore, tin, gypsum, bauxite, copper, salt, natural gas, likely oil reserves
Land use: agricultural land: 70.3% (2011 est.) arable land: 1.8% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 0% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 68.5% (2011 est.) forest: 10.6% (2011 est.)
other: 19.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 2,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: recurring droughts; frequent dust storms over eastern plains in summer; floods during rainy season
Current Environment Issues: water scarcity; contaminated water contributes to human health problems; improper waste disposal; deforestation; land degradation; overgrazing; soil erosion; desertification
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Somali(s)
adjective: Somali
Ethnic groups: Somali 85%, Bantu and other non-Somali 15% (including 30,000 Arabs)
Languages: Somali (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Arabic (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter), Italian, English
Religions: Sunni Muslim (Islam) (official, according to the 2012 Transitional Federal Charter)
Population: 11,259,029 (July 2018 est.) note: this estimate was derived from an official census taken in 1975 by the Somali Government; population counting in Somalia is complicated by the large number of nomads and by refugee movements in response to famine and clan warfare
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.87% (male 2,410,215 /female 2,416,629)
15-24 years: 19.35% (male 1,097,358 /female 1,081,762)
25-54 years: 31.23% (male 1,821,823 /female 1,694,873)
55-64 years: 4.35% (male 245,744 /female 243,893)
65 years and over: 2.19% (male 95,845 /female 150,887) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 97.4 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 92.1 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 5.3 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 18.8 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 18.2 years
male: 18.4 years
female: 18 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.08% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 39.3 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 12.8 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: -5.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 45% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 4.23% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 2.082 million MOGADISHU (capital) (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2018 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 732 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 93 deaths/1,000 live births male: 101.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 84.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 53.2 years male: 51 years
female: 55.4 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.7 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Physicians density: 0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2014)
Hospital bed density: 8.7 beds/1,000 population (2014)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 69.6% of population
rural: 8.8% of population
total: 31.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 30.4% of population
rural: 91.2% of population
total: 68.3% of population (2011 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 52% of population (2011 est.)
rural: 6.3% of population (2011 est.)
total: 23.6% of population (2011 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 48% of population (2011 est.)
rural: 93.7% of population (2011 est.)
total: 76.4% of population (2011 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 11,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <1000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 8.3% (2016)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 23% (2009)
Education expenditures: n/a
Literacy:
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Federal Republic of Somalia
conventional short form: Somalia
local long form: Jamhuuriyadda Federaalkaa Soomaaliya
local short form: Soomaaliya
former: Somali Republic, Somali Democratic Republic
etymology: "Land of the Somali" (ethnic group)
Government type: federal parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Mogadishu
geographic coordinates: 2 04 N, 45 20 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 18 regions (plural - NA, singular - gobolka); Awdal, Bakool, Banaadir, Bari, Bay, Galguduud, Gedo, Hiiraan, Jubbada Dhexe (Middle Jubba), Jubbada Hoose (Lower Jubba), Mudug, Nugaal, Sanaag, Shabeellaha Dhexe (Middle Shabeelle), Shabeellaha Hoose (Lower Shabeelle), Sool, Togdheer, Woqooyi Galbeed
Independence: 1 July 1960 (from a merger of British Somaliland that became independent from the UK on 26 June 1960 and Italian Somaliland that became independent from the Italian-administered UN trusteeship on 1 July 1960 to form the Somali Republic)
National holiday: Foundation of the Somali Republic, 1 July (1960)note - 26 June (1960) in Somaliland
Constitution: history: previous 1961, 1979; latest drafted 12 June 2012, approved 1 August 2012 (provisional) amendments: proposed by the federal government, by members of the state governments, the Federal Parliament, or by public petition; proposals require review by a joint committee of Parliament with inclusion of public comments and state legislatures’ comments; passage requires at least two-thirds majority vote in both houses of Parliament and approval by a majority of votes cast in a referendum; constitutional clauses on Islamic principles, the federal system, human rights and freedoms, powers and authorities of the government branches, and inclusion of women in national institutions cannot be amended (2017)
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law, Islamic law, and customary law (referred to as Xeer)
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" (since 8 February 2017)

head of government: Prime Minister Hassan Ali KHAYRE (since 1 March 2017)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister, approved by the House of the People elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the Federal Parliament by two-thirds majority vote in 2 rounds if needed for a single 4-year term; election last held on 8 February 2017 (previously scheduled for 30 September 2016 but postponed repeatedly); prime minister appointed by the president, approved by the House of the People

election results: Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" elected president in second round; Federal Parliament second round vote - Mohamed ABDULLAHI Mohamed "Farmaajo" (TPP) 184, HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud (PDP) 97, Sheikh SHARIF Sheikh Ahmed (ARS) 46
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Federal Parliament to consist of: Upper House (54 seats; senators indirectly elected by state assemblies to serve 4-year terms) House of the People (275 seats; members indirectly elected by electoral colleges, each consisting of 51 delegates selected by the 136 Traditional Elders in consultation with sub-clan elders; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: Upper House - first held 10 October 2016 (next NA) House of the People - first held 23 October - 10 November 2016 (next NA)

election results: Upper House - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 41, women 13, percent of women 24.1% House of the People - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - NA; composition - men 208, women 67, percent of women 24.4%; note - total Parliament percent of women 24.3% note: the inaugural House of the People was appointed in September 2012 by clan elders; in 2016 and 2017, the Federal Parliament became bicameral with elections scheduled for 10 October 2016 for the Upper House and 23 October to 10 November 2016 for the House of the People; while the elections were delayed, they were eventually held in most regions despite voting irregularities; on 27 December 2016, 41 Upper House senators and 242 House of the People members were sworn in
Judicial branch: highest courts: the provisional constitution stipulates the establishment of the Constitutional Court (consists of 5 judges, including the chief judge and deputy chief judge); note - under the terms of the 2004 Transitional National Charter, a Supreme Court based in Mogadishu and the Appeal Court were established; yet most regions have reverted to local forms of conflict resolution, either secular, traditional Somali customary law, or Islamic law judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president upon proposal of the Judicial Service Commission, a 9-member judicial and administrative body; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: federal courts; federal member state-level courts; military courts; sharia courts
Political parties and leaders: Cosmopolitan Democratic Party [Yarow Sharef ADEN] Daljir Party or DP [Hassan MOALIM] Democratic Green Party of Somalia or DGPS [Abdullahi Y. MAHAMOUD] Democratic Party of Somalia or DPS [Maslah Mohamed SIAD] Green Leaf for Democracy or GLED Hiil Qaran Justice and Communist Party [Mohamed NUR] Justice and Development of Democracy and Self-Respectfulness Party or CAHDI [Abdirahman Abdigani IBRAHIM Bile] Justice Party [SAKARIYE Haji] Liberal Party of Somalia National Democratic Party [Abdirashid ALI] National Unity Party (Xisbiga MIdnimo-Quaran) [Abdurahman BAADIYOW] Peace and Development Party or PDP Somali Green Party (local chapter of Federation of Green Parties of Africa) Somali National Party or SNP [Mohammed Ameen Saeed AHMED] Somali People's Party [Salad JEELE] Somali Society Unity Party [Yasin MAALIM] Tayo or TPP [Mohamed Abdullahi MOHAMED] Tiir Party [Fadhil Sheik MOHAMUD] Union for Peace and Development or UPD [HASSAN SHEIKH Mohamud] United and Democratic Party [FAUZIA Haji] United Somali Parliamentarians United Somali Republican Party [Ali TIMA-JLIC] inactive: Alliance for the Reliberation of Somalia; reportedly inactive since 2009
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidate), FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, LAS, NAM, OIC, OPCW, OPCW (signatory), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UPU, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO
National symbol(s): leopard;
national colors: blue, white
National anthem: name: "Qolobaa Calankeed" (Every Nation Has its own Flag)
lyrics/music: lyrics/music: Abdullahi QARSHE

note: adopted 2012; written in 1959
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Run Said KORSHEL (since 16 February 2018)
chancery: 1705 DeSales Street NW, Suite 300 Washington, DC 20036-4421
telephone: [1] (202) 296-0570 [1] (202) 833-1523
FAX: Email: info@somaliembassydc.net
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Kyle McCARTER (since 2 January 2019)
embassy: United Nations Avenue, Nairobi, Kenya
mailing address: P.O. Box 606 Village Market 00621 Nairobi, Kenya
telephone: 254 20 363-6000
FAX: 254 20 363-6157 Note: the US Mission to Somalia operates out of the US Embassy in Nairobi, Kenya
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 Economy
Despite the lack of effective national governance, Somalia maintains an informal economy largely based on livestock, remittance/money transfer companies, and telecommunications. Somalia's government lacks the ability to collect domestic revenue and external debt – mostly in arrears – was estimated at about 77% of GDP in 2017. Agriculture is the most important sector, with livestock normally accounting for about 40% of GDP and more than 50% of export earnings. Nomads and semi-pastoralists, who are dependent upon livestock for their livelihood, make up a large portion of the population. Economic activity is estimated to have increased by 2.4% in 2017 because of growth in the agriculture, construction and telecommunications sector. Somalia's small industrial sector, based on the processing of agricultural products, has largely been looted and the machinery sold as scrap metal. In recent years, Somalia's capital city, Mogadishu, has witnessed the development of the city's first gas stations, supermarkets, and airline flights to Turkey since the collapse of central authority in 1991. Mogadishu's main market offers a variety of goods from food to electronic gadgets. Hotels continue to operate and are supported with private-security militias. Formalized economic growth has yet to expand outside of Mogadishu and a few regional capitals, and within the city, security concerns dominate business. Telecommunication firms provide wireless services in most major cities and offer the lowest international call rates on the continent. In the absence of a formal banking sector, money transfer/remittance services have sprouted throughout the country, handling up to $1.6 billion in remittances annually, although international concerns over the money transfers into Somalia continues to threaten these services’ ability to operate in Western nations. In 2017, Somalia elected a new president and collected a record amount of foreign aid and investment, a positive sign for economic recovery.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $20.44 billion (2017 est.) $19.98 billion (2016 est.) $19.14 billion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2016 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $7.052 billion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.3% (2017 est.) 4.4% (2016 est.) 3.9% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $NA (2017) $NA (2016) $NA (2015) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 72.6% (2015 est.) government consumption: 8.7% (2015 est.) investment in fixed capital: 20% (2015 est.) investment in inventories: 0.8% (2016 est.) exports of goods and services: 0.3% (2015 est.) imports of goods and services: -1.6% (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 60.2% (2013 est.) industry: 7.4% (2013 est.) services: 32.5% (2013 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, sorghum, corn, coconuts, rice, sugarcane, mangoes, sesame seeds, beans; cattle, sheep, goats; fish
Industries: light industries, including sugar refining, textiles, wireless communication
Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2014 est.)
Labor force: 4.154 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 71%
industry: 29% industry and
services: 29% (1975)
Unemployment rate: n/a
Population below poverty line: n/a
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: n/a
highest 10%: n/a
Budget: revenues: 145.3 million (2014 est.)
expenditures: 151.1 million (2014 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 2.1% (of GDP) (2014 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -0.1% (of GDP) (2014 est.)
Public debt: 76.7% of GDP (2017 est.) 93% of GDP (2014 est.)
Fiscal year: NA
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.5% (2017 est.) -71.1% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: -$464 million (2017 est.) -$427 million (2016 est.)
Exports: $819 million (2014 est.) $779 million (2013 est.)
Exports - commodities: livestock, bananas, hides, fish, charcoal, scrap metal
Exports - partners: Oman 31.7%, Saudi Arabia 18.7%, UAE 16.3%, Nigeria 5.1%, Yemen 4.8%, Pakistan 4% (2017)
Imports: $94.43 billion (2018 est.) $80.07 billion (2017 est.)
Imports - commodities: manufactures, petroleum products, foodstuffs, construction materials, qat
Imports - partners: China 17.6%, India 17.2%, Ethiopia 10.5%, Oman 10.3%, Kenya 6.9%, Turkey 5.3%, Malaysia 4.1% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $30.45 million (2014 est.)
Debt - external: $5.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: n/a
Exchange rates: Somali shillings (SOS) per US dollar - 23,960 (2016 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 339 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 315.3 million kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 85,000 kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 93% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 7% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 5,600 bbl/day (2016 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 5,590 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 5.663 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 852,500 Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 6,653,040
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 60 (July 2016 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: the public telecom system was almost completely destroyed or dismantled during the civil war; private companies offer limited local fixed-line service, and private wireless companies offer service in most major cities, while charging some of the lowest rates on the continent; Al Shabaab Islamic militant group has forced closure of Internet services in some parts of the country; new telecom regulatory sector in place (2018)

domestic: seven networks compete for customers in the mobile sector; some of these mobile-service providers offer fixed-lines and Internet services; fixed-line less than 1 per 100 and mobile-cellular 60 per 100 (2018)

international: country code - 252; Mogadishu is a landing point for the EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable system linking East Africa with Europe and North America; this connection ended the country's expensive satellite-dependent Internet access; contracts signed to build DARE and G2A submarine cable systems; SEACOM cable lands in Somalia
Broadcast media: 2 private TV stations rebroadcast Al-Jazeera and CNN; Somaliland has 1 government-operated TV station and Puntland has 1 private TV station; the transitional government operates Radio Mogadishu; 1 SW and roughly 10 private FM radio stations broadcast in Mogadishu; several radio stations operate in central and southern regions; Somaliland has 1 government-operated radio station; Puntland has roughly a half-dozen private radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are available (2019)
Internet country code: .so
Internet users: total: 203,366
percent of population: 1.9% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 61 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 6
(2013) over 3,047 m: 4 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 55
(2013) over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 5 (2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 23 (2013)
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Roadways:
Merchant marine: total 5

by type: general cargo 1, other 4 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Berbera, Kismaayo
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 Military
Military branches: National Security Force (NSF): Somali National Army (2017)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for compulsory and voluntary military service (2012)
Military expenditures: 0% of GDP (2016) 0% of GDP (2015) 0% of GDP (2014) 0% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Ethiopian forces invaded southern Somalia and routed Islamist Courts from Mogadishu in January 2007; "Somaliland" secessionists provide port facilities in Berbera to landlocked Ethiopia and have established commercial ties with other regional states; "Puntland" and "Somaliland" "governments" seek international support in their secessionist aspirations and overlapping border claims; the undemarcated former British administrative line has little meaning as a political separation to rival clans within Ethiopia's Ogaden and southern Somalia's Oromo region; Kenya works hard to prevent the clan and militia fighting in Somalia from spreading south across the border, which has long been open to nomadic pastoralists
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 20,118 (Ethiopia) (refugees and asylum seekers), 12,895 (Yemen) (refugees and asylum seekers) (2019) IDPs: 2.65 million (civil war since 1988, clan-based competition for resources; 2011 famine; insecurity because of fighting between al-Shabaab and the Transitional Federal Government's allied forces) (2019)
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