Slovakia Population: 5,488,339

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 History
Slovakia's roots can be traced to the 9th century state of Great Moravia. Subsequently, the Slovaks became part of the Hungarian Kingdom, where they remained for the next 1,000 years. Following the formation of the dual Austro-Hungarian monarchy in 1867, language and education policies favoring the use of Hungarian (Magyarization) resulted in a strengthening of Slovak nationalism and a cultivation of cultural ties with the closely related Czechs, who were under Austrian rule. After the dissolution of the Austro-Hungarian Empire at the close of World War I, the Slovaks joined the Czechs to form Czechoslovakia. During the interwar period, Slovak nationalist leaders pushed for autonomy within Czechoslovakia, and in 1939 Slovakia became an independent state allied with Nazi Germany. Following World War II, Czechoslovakia was reconstituted and came under communist rule within Soviet-dominated Eastern Europe. In 1968, an invasion by Warsaw Pact troops ended the efforts of the country's leaders to liberalize communist rule and create "socialism with a human face," ushering in a period of repression known as "normalization." The peaceful "Velvet Revolution" swept the Communist Party from power at the end of 1989 and inaugurated a return to democratic rule and a market economy. On 1 January 1993, the country underwent a nonviolent "velvet divorce" into its two national components, Slovakia and the Czech Republic. Slovakia joined both NATO and the EU in the spring of 2004 and the euro zone on 1 January 2009.

 Geography
Landlocked; most of the country is rugged and mountainous; the Tatra Mountains in the north are interspersed with many scenic lakes and valleys
Location: Central Europe, south of Poland
Geographic coordinates: 48 40 N, 19 30 E
Area: total: 49,035 sq km
land: 48,105 sq km
water: 930 sq km

Size comparison: about twice the size of New Hampshire
Land Boundaries: total: 1,474 km
border countries: Austria 91 km, Czech Republic 197 km, Hungary 676 km, Poland 420 km, Ukraine 90 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; cool summers; cold, cloudy, humid winters
Terrain: rugged mountains in the central and northern part and lowlands in the south
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Bodrok River 94 m
highest point: Gerlachovsky Stit 2,655 m
Natural resources: brown coal and lignite; small amounts of iron ore, copper and manganese ore; salt; arable land
Land use: arable land: 28.36%
permanent crops: 0.41%
other: 71.22% (2011)
Irrigated land: 1,720 sq km (2007)
Current Environment Issues: air pollution from metallurgical plants presents human health risks; acid rain damaging forests
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Slovak(s)
adjective: Slovak
Ethnic groups: Slovak 85.8%, Hungarian 9.7%, Roma 1.7%, Ruthenian/Ukrainian 1%, other and unspecified 1.8% (2001 census)
Languages: Slovak (official) 83.9%, Hungarian 10.7%, Roma 1.8%, Ukrainian 1%, other or unspecified 2.6% (2001 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 68.9%, Protestant 10.8%, Greek Catholic 4.1%, other or unspecified 3.2%, none 13% (2001 census)
Population: 5,488,339 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.5% (male 435,635/female 416,223)
15-24 years: 12.6% (male 354,390/female 338,536)
25-54 years: 45.1% (male 1,246,625/female 1,229,929)
55-64 years: 13.3% (male 344,605/female 384,967)
65 years and over: 13.4% (male 278,659/female 458,770) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 38.9 %
youth dependency ratio: 20.9 %
elderly dependency ratio: 18 %
potential support ratio: 5.6 (2013)
Median age: total: 38.4 years
male: 36.9 years
female: 39.9 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.09% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 10.27 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 9.69 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.29 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 54.7% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 0.06% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BRATISLAVA (capital) 428,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.94 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 27.3 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 6 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 6.35 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 5.24 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.24 years
male: 72.36 years
female: 80.31 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.39 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 79.8% note: percent of women aged 15-44 (1997)
Health expenditures: 8.8% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 3 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density: 6.5 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 0% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 25.4% (2008)
Education expenditures: 4.1% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.6%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.6% (2004)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 15 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 33.2%
male: 33%
female: 33.6% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Slovak Republic
conventional short form: Slovakia
local long form: Slovenska republika
local short form: Slovensko
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Bratislava
geographic coordinates: 48 09 N, 17 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 8 regions (kraje, singular - kraj); Banskobystricky, Bratislavsky, Kosicky, Nitriansky, Presovsky, Trenciansky, Trnavsky, Zilinsky
Independence: 1 January 1993 (Czechoslovakia split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia)
National holiday: Constitution Day, 1 September (1992)
Constitution: ratified 1 September 1992, effective 1 January 1993; changed September 1998; amended February 2001 note: the change in September 1998 allowed direct election of the president; the amendment of February 2001 allowed Slovakia to apply for NATO and EU membership
Legal system: civil law system based on Austro-Hungarian codes; note - legal code modified to comply with the obligations of Organization on Security and Cooperation in Europe and to expunge Marxist-Leninist legal system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Ivan GASPAROVIC (since 15 June 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister Robert FICO (since 4 April 2012); Deputy Prime Ministers Robert KALINAK, Peter KAZIMIR, Miroslav LAJCAK (since 4 April 2012), Lubomir VAZNY (since 26 November 2012)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 March and 4 April 2009 (next to be held no later than April 2014); following National Council elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of a majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the president

election results: Ivan GASPAROVIC reelected president in runoff; percent of vote - Ivan GASPAROVIC 55.5%, Iveta RADICOVA 44.5%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Council of the Slovak Republic or Narodna Rada Slovenskej Republiky (150 seats; members elected on the basis of proportional representation to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 10 March 2012 (next to be held in 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - Smer-SD 44.4%, KDH 8.8%, OLaNO 8.6%, Most-Hid 6.9%, SDKU-DS 6.1%, SaS 5.9%, other 19.3%; seats by party - Smer-SD 83, KDH 16, OLaNO 16, Most-Hid 13, SDKU-DS 11, SaS 11
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of the Slovak Republic (consists of 78 judges - as of 2003 - organized into criminal, civil, commercial, and administrative divisions with 3- and 5-judge panels; Constitutional Court (consists of 13 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge candidates proposed by the Judicial Council of the Slovak Republic, a 17-member independent body to include the Supreme Court chief justice and presidential and governmental appointees; judges appointed by the president for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; Constitutional Court judges nominated by the National Council of the Republic and appointed by the president; judges appointed for 12-year terms

subordinate courts: regional and district civil courts; Higher Military Court; military district courts; Court of Audit
Political parties and leaders: parties in the Parliament: Bridge or Most-Hid [Bela BUGAR] Christian Democratic Movement or KDH [Jan FIGEL] Direction-Social Democracy or Smer-SD [Robert FICO] Freedom and Solidarity or SaS [Richard SULIK] Ordinary People and Independent Personalities or OLaNO [Igor MATOVIC] Slovak Democratic and Christian Union-Democratic Party or SDKU-DS [Pavol FRESO] selected parties outside the Parliament: Civic Conservative Party or OKS [Ondrej DOSTAL] Nation and Justice - Our Party or NAS [Anna BELOUSOVOVA] Party of the Democratic Left or SDL [Jozef DURICA] Party of the Hungarian Coalition or SMK [Jozsef BERENYI] People's Party - Movement for a Democratic Slovakia or LS-HZDS [Vladimir MECIAR] People's Party - Our Slovakia or LSNS [Marian KOTLEBA] Slovak National Party or SNS [Andrej DANKO]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Association of Towns and Villages or ZMOS Confederation of Trade Unions or KOZ Entrepreneurs Association of Slovakia or ZPS Federation of Employers' Associations of the Slovak Republic Medical Trade Association or LOZ National Union of Employers or RUZ Slovak Chamber of Commerce and Industry or SOPK The Business Alliance of Slovakia or PAS
International organization participation: Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EMU, EU, FAO, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF (observer), OPCW, OSCE, PCA, Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNIDO, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): double-barred cross (Cross of St. Cyril and St. Methodius) surmounting three peaks
National anthem: name: "Nad Tatrou sa blyska" (Lightning Over the Tatras)
lyrics/music: Janko MATUSKA/traditional

note: adopted 1993, in use since 1844; the anthem's music is based on the Slovak folk song "Kopala studienku"
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Peter KMEC
chancery: 3523 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 237-1054
FAX: [1] (202) 237-6438
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Theodore SEDGWICK
embassy: Hviezdoslavovo Namestie 4, 81102 Bratislava mailing address: P.O. Box 309, 814 99 Bratislava
telephone: [421] (2) 5443-3338
FAX: [421] (2) 5441-8861
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 Economy
Slovakia has made significant economic reforms since its separation from the Czech Republic in 1993. Reforms to the taxation, healthcare, pension, and social welfare systems helped Slovakia consolidate its budget and get on track to join the EU in 2004 after a period of relative stagnation in the early and mid 1990s and to adopt the euro in January 2009. Major privatizations are nearly complete, the banking sector is almost entirely in foreign hands, and the government has helped facilitate a foreign investment boom with business friendly policies. Slovakia's economic growth exceeded expectations in 2001-08 despite a general European slowdown. Foreign direct investment (FDI), especially in the automotive and electronic sectors, fueled much of the growth until 2008. Cheap and skilled labor, low taxes, no dividend taxes, a relatively liberal labor code, and a favorable geographical location are Slovakia's main advantages for foreign investors. The economy contracted 5% in 2009 primarily as a result of smaller inflows of FDI and reduced demand for Slovakia''s exports before rebounding in 2010-11, but growth slowed in 2012 due to weakening external demand. The government of Prime Minister Robert FICO in 2012 implemented tax increases on higher-earning individuals and corporations, effectively scrapping Slovakia''s flat tax to help meet budget deficit targets of 4.9% of GDP in 2012 and 3% of GDP in 2013.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $134.1 billion (2012 est.) $131.4 billion (2011 est.) $127.3 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $91.92 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2012 est.) 3.2% (2011 est.) 4.4% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $24,600 (2012 est.) $24,200 (2011 est.) $23,500 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 23% of GDP (2012 est.) 23.9% of GDP (2011 est.) 19.1% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 57.3%
government consumption: 17.6%
investment in fixed capital: 21.5%
investment in inventories: -0.8%
exports of goods and services: 95.6%
imports of goods and services: -90.6% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 57.3%
government consumption: 17.6%
investment in fixed capital: 21.5%
investment in inventories: -0.8%
exports of goods and services: 95.6%
imports of goods and services: -90.6% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: grains, potatoes, sugar beets, hops, fruit; pigs, cattle, poultry; forest products
Industries: metal and metal products; food and beverages; electricity, gas, coke, oil, nuclear fuel; chemicals and manmade fibers; machinery; paper and printing; earthenware and ceramics; transport vehicles; textiles; electrical and optical apparatus; rubber products
Industrial production growth rate: 6.2% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 2.724 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 3.5%
industry: 27%
services: 69.4% (December 2009)
Unemployment rate: 13.6% (2012 est.) 13.2% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 21% (2002)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.4%
highest 10%: 22.4% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 26 (2005) 26.3 (1996)
Budget: revenues: $30.41 billion
expenditures: $34.4 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 33.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 52.1% of GDP (2012 est.) 43.3% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: data cover general Government Gross Debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by Government entities, including sub-sectors of central government, state government, local government, and social security funds.
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.6% (2012 est.) 3.9% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $535.2 million (2012 est.) $52.86 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $80.67 billion (2012 est.) $78.5 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment 35.9%, vehicles 21%, base metals 11.3%, chemicals and minerals 8.1%, plastics 4.9% (2009 est.)
Exports - partners: Germany 22.4%, Czech Republic 14.6%, Poland 8.6%, Hungary 7.8%, Austria 7.1%, France 5.6%, Italy 4.9%, UK 4.1% (2012)
Imports: $75.99 billion (2012 est.) $75.1 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment 31%, mineral products 13%, vehicles 12%, base metals 9%, chemicals 8%, plastics 6% (2009 est.)
Imports - partners: Germany 18.5%, Czech Republic 17.9%, Russia 9.9%, Austria 7.7%, Hungary 7.2%, Poland 6%, South Korea 4.3% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $2.519 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $2.462 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $68.44 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $68.61 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $61.49 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $58.69 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $11.54 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $11.61 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $4.736 billion (31 December 2011) $4.15 billion (31 December 2010) $4.672 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.7778 (2012 est.) 0.7185 (2011 est.) 0.755 (2010 est.) 0.7198 (2009 est.) 0.6827 (2008 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 27.7 billion kWh (2011 est.) country comparison to the world: 67
Electricity - consumption: 28.76 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - exports: 10.5 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - imports: 10.9 billion kWh (2011 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 7.155 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 37.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 25.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 22% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 2.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 5,781 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 300 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 114,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 9 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 136,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 83,910 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 78,640 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 25,630 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Natural gas - production: 116 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 6.468 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 7 million cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 6.743 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 14.16 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 34.54 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 1.056 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 75
Cellular Phones in use: 5.983 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: Slovakia has a modern telecommunications system that has expanded dramatically in recent years with the growth in cellular services

domestic: analog system is now receiving digital equipment and is being enlarged with fiber-optic cable, especially in the larger cities; 3 companies provide nationwide cellular services

international: country code - 421; 3 international exchanges (1 in Bratislava and 2 in Banska Bystrica) are available; Slovakia is participating in several international telecommunications projects that will increase the availability of external services (2011)
Broadcast media: state-owned public broadcaster, Radio and Television of Slovakia (RTVS), operates 3 national TV stations and multiple national and regional radio networks; roughly 35 privately owned TV stations operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 40% of households are connected to multi-channel cable or satellite TV; more than 20 privately owned radio stations (2008)
Internet country code: .sk
Internet hosts: 1.384 million (2012)
Internet users: 4.063 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 35 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 111
Airports (paved runways): total 21
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 3
under 914 m: 11 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 14

914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 6,774 km; oil 419 km (2013)
Railways: total 3,622 km
broad gauge: 99 km 1.520-m gauge standard gauge: 3,473 km 1.435-m gauge (1,615 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 50 km 1.000-m or 0.750-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 43,761 km
paved: 38,085 km (includes 384 km of expressways)
unpaved: 5,676 km (2008)
Waterways: 172 km (on Danube River) (2009)
Merchant marine: total 11

by type: cargo 9, refrigerated cargo 2

foreign-owned: 11 (Germany 3, Ireland 1, Italy 2, Montenegro 1, Slovenia 1, Turkey 1, Ukraine 2) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Bratislava, Komarno
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 Military
Military branches: Armed Forces of the Slovak Republic (Ozbrojene Sily Slovenskej Republiky): Land Forces (Pozemne Sily), Air Forces (Vzdusne Sily) (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for voluntary military service; conscription in peacetime suspended in 2006; women are eligible to serve (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,405,310
females age 16-49: 1,369,897 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,156,113
females age 16-49: 1,139,380 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 31,646
female: 30,219 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.08% of GDP (2005 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: bilateral government, legal, technical and economic working group negotiations continued in 2006 between Slovakia and Hungary over Hungary's completion of its portion of the Gabcikovo-Nagymaros hydroelectric dam project along the Danube; as a member state that forms part of the EU's external border, Slovakia has implemented the strict Schengen border rules
Refugees and internally displaced persons:
stateless persons: 1,523 (2013)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for Southwest Asian heroin bound for Western Europe; producer of synthetic drugs for regional market; consumer of ecstasy
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