Sweden Population: 9,119,423

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 History
A military power during the 17th century, Sweden has not participated in any war for almost two centuries. An armed neutrality was preserved in both world wars. Sweden's long-successful economic formula of a capitalist system interlarded with substantial welfare elements was challenged in the 1990s by high unemployment and in 2000-02 and 2009 by the global economic downturns, but fiscal discipline over the past several years has allowed the country to weather economic vagaries. Sweden joined the EU in 1995, but the public rejected the introduction of the euro in a 2003 referendum.

 Geography
Strategic location along Danish Straits linking Baltic and North Seas
Location: Northern Europe, bordering the Baltic Sea, Gulf of Bothnia, Kattegat, and Skagerrak, between Finland and Norway
Geographic coordinates: 62 00 N, 15 00 E
Area: total: 450,295 sq km
land: 410,335 sq km
water: 39,960 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than California
Land Boundaries: total: 2,233 km
border countries: Finland 614 km, Norway 1,619 km
Coastline: 3,218 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm (adjustments made to return a portion of straits to high seas)
exclusive economic zone: agreed boundaries or midlines
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: temperate in south with cold, cloudy winters and cool, partly cloudy summers; subarctic in north
Terrain: mostly flat or gently rolling lowlands; mountains in west
Elevation extremes: lowest point: reclaimed bay of Lake Hammarsjon, near Kristianstad -2.4 m
highest point: Kebnekaise 2,111 m
Natural resources: iron ore, copper, lead, zinc, gold, silver, tungsten, uranium, arsenic, feldspar, timber, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 5.8%
permanent crops: 0.02%
other: 94.18% (2011)
Irrigated land: 1,597 sq km (2007)
Natural hazards: ice floes in the surrounding waters, especially in the Gulf of Bothnia, can interfere with maritime traffic
Current Environment Issues: acid rain damage to soils and lakes; pollution of the North Sea and the Baltic Sea
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Swede(s)
adjective: Swedish
Ethnic groups: indigenous population: Swedes with Finnish and Sami minorities; foreign-born or first-generation immigrants: Finns, Yugoslavs, Danes, Norwegians, Greeks, Turks
Languages: Swedish (official), small Sami- and Finnish-speaking minorities
Religions: Lutheran 87%, other (includes Roman Catholic, Orthodox, Baptist, Muslim, Jewish, and Buddhist) 13%
Population: 9,119,423 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 15.4% (male 724,724/female 682,451)
15-24 years: 12.9% (male 602,347/female 574,650)
25-54 years: 38.8% (male 1,790,185/female 1,745,108)
55-64 years: 12.4% (male 561,460/female 564,861)
65 years and over: 20.5% (male 841,211/female 1,032,426) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 56.8 %
youth dependency ratio: 26.5 %
elderly dependency ratio: 30.3 %
potential support ratio: 3.3 (2013)
Median age: total: 42.4 years
male: 41.2 years
female: 43.5 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.18% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 10.33 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 10.22 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 1.64 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 85% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 0.6% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: STOCKHOLM (capital) 1.279 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.81 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 28.6 (2005 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 4 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 2.73 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 2.89 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.57 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.28 years
male: 78.95 years
female: 83.75 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.67 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 75.2% note: percent of women aged 18-44 (1996)
Health expenditures: 9.6% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 3.58 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density: 2.8 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 8,100 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 100 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 18.6% (2008)
Education expenditures: 7.3% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99%
male: 99%
female: 99% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years
male: 15 years
female: 17 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 22.9%
male: 23.8%
female: 22% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Kingdom of Sweden
conventional short form: Sweden
local long form: Konungariket Sverige
local short form: Sverige
Government type: constitutional monarchy
Capital: name: Stockholm
geographic coordinates: 59 20 N, 18 03 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 21 counties (lan, singular and plural); Blekinge, Dalarna, Gavleborg, Gotland, Halland, Jamtland, Jonkoping, Kalmar, Kronoberg, Norrbotten, Orebro, Ostergotland, Skane, Sodermanland, Stockholm, Uppsala, Varmland, Vasterbotten, Vasternorrland, Vastmanland, Vastra Gotaland
Independence: 6 June 1523 (Gustav VASA elected king)
National holiday: National Day, 6 June (1983); note - from 1916 to 1982 this date was celebrated as Swedish Flag Day
Constitution: 1 January 1975
Legal system: civil law system influenced by Roman-Germanic law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King CARL XVI GUSTAF (since 19 September 1973); Heir Apparent Princess VICTORIA Ingrid Alice Desiree, daughter of the monarch (born 14 July 1977)

head of government: Prime Minister Fredrik REINFELDT (since 5 October 2006); Deputy Prime Minister Jan BJORKLUND (since 5 October 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: the monarchy is hereditary; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or the leader of the majority coalition usually becomes the prime minister
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament or Riksdag (349 seats; members are elected by popular vote on a proportional representation basis to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 19 September 2010 (next to be held in September 2014)

election results: percent of vote by party - SAP 30.7%, Moderate Party 30.1%, Green Party 7.3%, FP 7.1%, C 6.6%, SD 5.7%, KD 5.6%, V 5.6%, others 1.3%; seats by party - SAP 112, Moderate Party 107, Green Party 25, FP 24, C 23, SD 20, KD 19, V 19
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Sweden (consists of 16 justices including the court chairman; Supreme Administrative Court (consists of 18 justices including the court president) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court and Supreme Administrative Court justices nominated by the Board of Judges, a 9-member nominating body consisting of high-level judges, prosecutors, and members of Parliament; justices appointed by the Government; following a probationary period, justices' appointments are permanent

subordinate courts: first instance and appellate general and administrative courts; specialized courts that handle cases such as land and environment, immigration, labor, markets, and patents
Political parties and leaders: Center Party (Centerpartiet) or C [Annie LOOF] Christian Democrats (Kristdemokraterna) or KD [Goran HAGGLUND] Green Party (Miljopartiet de Grona); [spokespersons Asa ROMSON and Gustav FRIDOLIN] Left Party (Vansterpartiet) (formerly Communist Party) or V [Jonas SJOSTEDT] Liberal People's Party (Folkpartiet) or FP [Jan BJORKLUND] Moderate Party (Moderaterna) [Fredrik REINFELDT] Social Democratic Party (Socialdemokraterna) or SAP [Stefan LOFVEN] Sweden Democrats (Sverigedemokraterna) or SD [Jimmie AKESSON]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Children's Rights in Society Swedish Confederation of Professional Employees or TCO Swedish Trade Union Confederation (Landsorganisationen) or LO [Wanja LUNDBY-WEDIN] other: environmental groups; media
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council, Australia Group, BIS, CBSS, CD, CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, EIB, EITI (implementing country), ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-9, G-10, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NC, NEA, NIB, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Paris Club, PCA, PFP, Schengen Convention, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): three crowns; lion
National anthem: name: "Du Gamla, Du Fria" (Thou Ancient, Thou Free)
lyrics/music: Richard DYBECK/traditional

note: in use since 1844; the anthem, also known as "Sang till Norden" (Song of the North), is based on a Swedish folk tune; it has never been officially adopted by the government; "Kungssangen" (The King's Song) serves as the royal anthem and is played in the presence of the royal family and during certain state ceremonies
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jonas HAFSTROM
chancery: The House of Sweden, 2900 K Street NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 467-2600
FAX: [1] (202) 467-2699
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mark BRZEZINSKI
embassy: Dag Hammarskjolds Vag 31, SE-11589 Stockholm mailing address: American Embassy Stockholm, US Department of State, 5750 Stockholm Place, Washington, DC 20521-5750
telephone: [46] (08) 783 53 00
FAX: [46] (08) 661 19 64
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 Economy
Aided by peace and neutrality for the whole of the 20th century, Sweden has achieved an enviable standard of living under a mixed system of high-tech capitalism and extensive welfare benefits. It has a modern distribution system, excellent internal and external communications, and a highly skilled labor force. In September 2003, Swedish voters turned down entry into the euro system concerned about the impact on the economy and sovereignty. Timber, hydropower, and iron ore constitute the resource base of an economy heavily oriented toward foreign trade. Privately owned firms account for vast majority of industrial output, of which the engineering sector accounts for about 50% of output and exports. Agriculture accounts for little more than 1% of GDP and of employment. Until 2008, Sweden was in the midst of a sustained economic upswing, boosted by increased domestic demand and strong exports. This and robust finances offered the center-right government considerable scope to implement its reform program aimed at increasing employment, reducing welfare dependence, and streamlining the state's role in the economy. Despite strong finances and underlying fundamentals, the Swedish economy slid into recession in the third quarter of 2008 and the contraction continued in 2009 as deteriorating global conditions reduced export demand and consumption. Strong exports of commodities and a return to profitability by Sweden's banking sector drove the strong rebound in 2010, which continued in 2011, but growth slipped to 1.2% in 2012. The government proposed stimulus measures in 2012 to curb the effects of a global economic slowdown and boost employment and growth.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $399.4 billion (2012 est.) $394.7 billion (2011 est.) $380.4 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $526.2 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.2% (2012 est.) 3.8% (2011 est.) 6.3% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $41,900 (2012 est.) $41,600 (2011 est.) $40,400 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 26.8% of GDP (2012 est.) 27.3% of GDP (2011 est.) 25.8% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 48.4%
government consumption: 26.9%
investment in fixed capital: 18.9%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 48.8%
imports of goods and services: -42.6% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 48.4%
government consumption: 26.9%
investment in fixed capital: 18.9%
investment in inventories: -0.3%
exports of goods and services: 48.8%
imports of goods and services: -42.6% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: barley, wheat, sugar beets; meat, milk
Industries: iron and steel, precision equipment (bearings, radio and telephone parts, armaments), wood pulp and paper products, processed foods, motor vehicles
Industrial production growth rate: 1.6% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 5.058 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 1.1%
industry: 28.2%
services: 70.7% (2008 est.)
Unemployment rate: 8% (2012 est.) 7.5% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 22.2% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 23 (2005) 25 (1992)
Budget: revenues: $270 billion
expenditures: $271.5 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 51.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 38.2% of GDP (2012 est.) 38.4% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: data cover general government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are not sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.9% (2012 est.) 3% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $37.56 billion (2012 est.) $37.73 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $178.5 billion (2012 est.) $189.1 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery 35%, motor vehicles, paper products, pulp and wood, iron and steel products, chemicals
Exports - partners: Norway 10.4%, Germany 10.3%, UK 8.1%, Denmark 6.7%, Finland 6.7%, Netherlands 5.5%, US 5.5%, Belgium 5%, France 4.8% (2012)
Imports: $163.6 billion (2012 est.) $174.3 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, motor vehicles, iron and steel; foodstuffs, clothing
Imports - partners: Germany 17.4%, Denmark 8.5%, Norway 8.4%, UK 6.5%, Netherlands 6.4%, Russia 5.6%, Finland 5.1%, China 4.9%, France 4.2% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $52.23 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $50.35 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $1.034 trillion (31 December 2012) $992.5 billion (31 December 2011)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $488.2 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $474.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $540.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $507.1 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $470.1 billion (31 December 2011) $581.2 billion (31 December 2010) $432.3 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Swedish kronor (SEK) per US dollar - 6.77 (2012 est.) 6.4918 (2011 est.) 7.2075 (2010 est.) 7.6529 (2009) 6.4074 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 147.8 billion kWh (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 26
Electricity - consumption: 127.1 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 12.85 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 14.93 billion kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 35.29 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 12.5% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 25% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 46.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 15.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 380,100 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 413,300 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 316,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 243,200 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 166,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 1.296 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 1.296 billion cu m (2011 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 62.74 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 4.6 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 35
Cellular Phones in use: 11.194 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed telecommunications infrastructure; ranked among leading countries for fixed-line, mobile-cellular, Internet and broadband penetration

domestic: coaxial and multiconductor cables carry most of the voice traffic; parallel microwave radio relay systems carry some additional telephone channels

international: country code - 46; submarine cables provide links to other Nordic countries and Europe; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean), 1 Eutelsat, and 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic and Indian Ocean regions); note - Sweden shares the Inmarsat earth station with the other Nordic countries (Denmark, Finland, Iceland, and Norway) (2011)
Broadcast media: publicly owned TV broadcaster operates 2 terrestrial networks plus regional stations; multiple privately owned TV broadcasters operating nationally, regionally, and locally; about 50 local TV stations; widespread access to pan-Nordic and international broadcasters through multi-channel cable and satellite TV; publicly owned radio broadcaster operates 3 national stations and a network of 25 regional channels; roughly 100 privately owned local radio stations with some consolidating into near national networks; an estimated 900 community and neighborhood radio stations broadcast intermittently (2008)
Internet country code: .se
Internet hosts: 5.978 million (2010)
Internet users: 8.398 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 231 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 25
Airports (paved runways): total 149
over 3,047 m: 3
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 75
914 to 1,523 m: 22
under 914 m: 37 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 82

914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 77 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 1,626 km (2013)
Railways: total 11,633 km
standard gauge: 11,568 km 1.435-m gauge (7,567 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 65 km 1.000-m gauge (65 km electrified) (2008)
Roadways: total 572,900 km
(includes 1,855 km of expressways)

note: includes 98,400 km of state roads, 433,500 km of private roads, and 41,000 km of municipal roads; 215,700 km of these are open to public traffic (2009)
Waterways: 2,052 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total 135

by type: bulk carrier 4, cargo 16, carrier 1, chemical tanker 15, passenger 5, passenger/cargo 36, petroleum tanker 11, roll on/roll off 30, vehicle carrier 17

foreign-owned: 35 (Denmark 4, Estonia 3, Finland 16, Germany 3, Ireland 1, Italy 5, Norway 3)

registered in other countries: 189 (Bahamas 11, Barbados 4, Bermuda 14, Canada 2, Cook Islands 3, Cyprus 5, Denmark 15, Faroe Islands 11, Finland 1, France 4, Gibraltar 11, Italy 1, Liberia 12, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Netherlands 12, Norway 27, Panama 2, Portugal 3, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 10, Singapore 11, UK 28) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Brofjorden, Goteborg, Helsingborg, Karlshamn, Lulea, Malmo, Stockholm, Trelleborg, Visby
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 Military
Military branches: Swedish Armed Forces (Forsvarsmakten): Army (Armen), Royal Swedish Navy (Marinen), Swedish Air Force (Svenska Flygvapnet) (2010)
Military service age and obligation: 18-47 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; Swedish citizenship required; service obligation: 7.5 months (Army), 7-15 months (Navy), 8-12 months (Air Force); the Swedish Parliament has abolished compulsory military service, with exclusively voluntary recruitment as of July 2010; conscription remains an option in emergencies; after completing initial service, soldiers have a reserve commitment until age 47 (2013)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,065,691
females age 16-49: 1,996,764 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,709,055
females age 16-49: 1,650,432 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 54,960
female: 52,275 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.5% of GDP (2005 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 24,741 (Iraq); 19,416 (Somalia); 8,454 (Afghanistan); 6,414 (Eritrea); 6,051 (Syria) (2012)
stateless persons: 9,596 (2012); note - the majority of stateless people come from the Middle East and Somalia
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