Seychelles Population: 90,846

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 History
A lengthy struggle between France and Great Britain for the islands ended in 1814, when they were ceded to the latter. Independence came in 1976. Socialist rule was brought to a close with a new constitution and free elections in 1993. President France-Albert RENE, who had served since 1977, was re-elected in 2001, but stepped down in 2004. Vice President James MICHEL took over the presidency and in July 2006 was elected to a new five-year term; he was reelected in May 2011.

 Geography
41 granitic and about 75 coralline islands
Location: archipelago in the Indian Ocean, northeast of Madagascar
Geographic coordinates: 4 35 S, 55 40 E
Area: total: 455 sq km
land: 455 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: 2.5 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 491 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: tropical marine; humid; cooler season during southeast monsoon (late May to September); warmer season during northwest monsoon (March to May)
Terrain: Mahe Group is granitic, narrow coastal strip, rocky, hilly; others are coral, flat, elevated reefs
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Morne Seychellois 905 m
Natural resources: fish, copra, cinnamon trees
Land use: arable land: 2.17%
permanent crops: 4.35%
other: 93.48% (2011)
Irrigated land: 2.6 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: lies outside the cyclone belt, so severe storms are rare; occasional short droughts
Current Environment Issues: water supply depends on catchments to collect rainwater
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Seychellois (singular and plural)
adjective: Seychellois
Ethnic groups: mixed French, African, Indian, Chinese, and Arab
Languages: Creole 91.8%, English (official) 4.9%, other 3.1%, unspecified 0.2% (2002 census)
Religions: Roman Catholic 82.3%, Protestant 7.5% (Anglican 6.4%, Seventh-Day Adventist 1.1%), other Christian 3.4%, Hindu 2.1%, Muslim 1.1%, other non-Christian 1.5%, unspecified 1.5%, none 0.6% (2002 census)
Population: 90,846 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 21.2% (male 9,852/female 9,364)
15-24 years: 14.6% (male 6,932/female 6,293)
25-54 years: 49.3% (male 23,471/female 21,306)
55-64 years: 7.8% (male 3,663/female 3,378)
65 years and over: 7.3% (male 2,520/female 4,067) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 42.6 %
youth dependency ratio: 31.6 %
elderly dependency ratio: 11 %
potential support ratio: 9.1 (2013)
Median age: total: 33.4 years
male: 33 years
female: 34 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.9% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 14.85 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 6.89 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 1.01 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 53.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: VICTORIA (capital) 26,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.09 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.61 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 11.06 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 13.85 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.18 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 74.01 years
male: 69.4 years
female: 78.76 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.89 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Health expenditures: 3.4% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 1.51 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
Hospital bed density: 3.6 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2% of population (2010 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 23.9% (2008)
Education expenditures: 4.8% of GDP (2006)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 91.8%
male: 91.4%
female: 92.3% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years
male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 20.3% (2002)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Seychelles
conventional short form: Seychelles
local long form: Republic of Seychelles
local short form: Seychelles
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Victoria
geographic coordinates: 4 37 S, 55 27 E
time difference: UTC+4 (9 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 25 administrative districts; Anse aux Pins, Anse Boileau, Anse Etoile, Anse Royale, Au Cap, Baie Lazare, Baie Sainte Anne, Beau Vallon, Bel Air, Bel Ombre, Cascade, Glacis, Grand Anse Mahe, Grand Anse Praslin, Inner Islands, La Riviere Anglaise, Les Mamalles, Mont Buxton, Mont Fleuri, Plaisance, Pointe Larue, Port Glaud, Roche Caiman, Saint Louis, Takamaka
Independence: 29 June 1976 (from the UK)
National holiday: Constitution Day (National Day), 18 June (1993)
Constitution: 18 June 1993
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law, French civil law, and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President James Alix MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); Vice President Danny FAURE (since 1 July 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President James Alix MICHEL (since 14 April 2004); Vice President Danny FAURE (since 1 July 2010)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for two more terms); election last held on 19-21 May 2011 (next to be held in 2016)

election results: President James MICHEL elected president; percent of vote - James MICHEL 55.5%, Wavel RAMKALAWAN 41.4%, Philippe BOULLE 1.7%, Ralph VOLCERE 1.5%; note - this was the second election in which President James MICHEL participated; he was originally sworn in as president after former president France Albert RENE stepped down in April 2004
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (34 seats; 25 members elected by popular vote, 9 allocated on a proportional basis to parties winning at least 10% of the vote; members to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 29 September - 1 October 2011 (next to be held in 2016); note - the National Assembly was dissolved in July 2011 resulting in early elections

election results: percent of vote by party - PL 88.6%, PDM 10.9%, independents 0.6%; seats by party - PL 31, vacant - 3; note - the ruling SPPF changed its name to People's Party (Party Lepep) in June 2009; the SNP and NDP boycotted the 2011 elections
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Seychelles Court of Appeal (consists of the court president and 4 justices; Supreme Court of Seychelles (consists of the chief justice and 5 pusine judges); Constitutional Court (consists of 3 Supreme Court judges) judge selection and term of office: all judges appointed by the president of the republic upon the recommendation of the Constitutional Appointments Committee, a 3-member body, with 1 member appointed by the president of the republic, 1 by the opposition leader in the National Assembly, and 1 by the other 2 appointees; judges appointed until retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Magistrates' Courts of Seychelles; Family Tribunal for issues such as domestic violence, and child custody and maintenance
Political parties and leaders: Democratic Party or DP [James MANCHAM, Paul CHOW] New Democratic Party or NDP People's Party (Parti Lepep) or PL [France Albert RENE] Popular Democratic Movement or PDM Seychelles National Party or SNP [Wavel RAMKALAWAN] (formerly the United Opposition or UO)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Roman Catholic Church other: trade unions
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU, C, CD, COMESA, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO (observer)
National anthem: name: "Koste Seselwa" (Seychellois Unite)
lyrics/music: David Francois Marc ANDRE and George Charles Robert PAYET

note: adopted 1996
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Marie-Louise Cecile POTTER
chancery: 800 Second Avenue, Suite 400C, New York, NY 10017
telephone: [1] (212) 972-1785
FAX: [1] (212) 972-1786
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Seychelles; the ambassador to Mauritius is accredited to Seychelles
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 Economy
Since independence in 1976, per capita output in this Indian Ocean archipelago has expanded to roughly seven times the pre-independence, near-subsistence level, moving the island into the upper-middle-income group of countries. Growth has been led by the tourist sector, which employs about 30% of the labor force and provides more than 70% of hard currency earnings, and by tuna fishing. In recent years, the government has encouraged foreign investment to upgrade hotels and other services. At the same time, the government has moved to reduce the dependence on tourism by promoting the development of farming, fishing, and small-scale manufacturing. In July 2008 the government defaulted on a Euro amortizing note worth roughly US$80 million, leading to a downgrading of Seychelles credit rating. In an effort to obtain loans to service its debt, Seychelles in November 2008 signed a standby arrangement with the IMF that mandated floating the exchange rate, removing foreign exchange controls, cutting government spending, and tightening monetary policy. In response to Seychelles' successful implementation of these policies, the IMF upgraded Seychelles to a three-year extended fund facility (EFF) of $31 million in December 2009. In 2008, GDP fell more than 1% due to declining tourism and the initial effects of liberalization, but the economy recovered in 2010-11 after the reforms took hold and tourism increased. Growth slowed again in 2012 with flagging tourism from Russia and the United Arab Emirates. Seychelles is attempting to implement further structural reforms, including overhauling the tax system, reorganizing of state enterprises, and deregulating the finance and communications sectors.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.355 billion (2012 est.) $2.292 billion (2011 est.) $2.182 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $1.031 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.8% (2012 est.) 5% (2011 est.) 5.6% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $25,600 (2012 est.) $25,200 (2011 est.) $24,300 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 18.9% of GDP (2012 est.) 11.6% of GDP (2011 est.) 8.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 99.1%
government consumption: 13.4%
investment in fixed capital: 37.2%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 41.1%
imports of goods and services: -101.2% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 99.1%
government consumption: 13.4%
investment in fixed capital: 37.2%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 41.1%
imports of goods and services: -101.2% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: coconuts, cinnamon, vanilla, sweet potatoes, cassava (tapioca), copra, bananas; poultry; tuna
Industries: fishing, tourism, processing of coconuts and vanilla, coir (coconut fiber) rope, boat building, printing, furniture; beverages
Industrial production growth rate: 4% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 39,560 (2006)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 3%
industry: 23%
services: 74% (2006)
Unemployment rate: 2% (2006 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.7%
highest 10%: 15.4% (2007)
Budget: revenues: $438.3 million
expenditures: $415.4 million (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 42.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 61.8% of GDP (2012 est.) 74.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.1% (2012 est.) 2.6% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$179.8 million (2012 est.) -$211.1 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $493.3 million (2012 est.) $478 million (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: canned tuna, frozen fish, cinnamon bark, copra, petroleum products (reexports)
Exports - partners: France 27.8%, UK 17.7%, Japan 15.3%, Italy 10.7% (2012)
Imports: $889.6 million (2012 est.) $879.6 million (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, petroleum products, chemicals, other manufactured goods
Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 23.2%, Spain 11.9%, France 5.8% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $318.7 million (31 December 2012 est.) $290.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $1.776 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.779 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Seychelles rupees (SCR) per US dollar - 13.704 (2012 est.) 12.381 (2011 est.) 12.068 (2010 est.) 13.61 (2009) 8 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 245 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 175
Electricity - consumption: 227.9 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 95,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 7,793 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 6,923 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.245 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 27,900 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 180
Cellular Phones in use: 126,600 (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: effective system

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 170 telephones per 100 persons; radiotelephone communications between islands in the archipelago

international: country code - 248; direct radiotelephone communications with adjacent island countries and African coastal countries; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: the government operates the only terrestrial TV station, which provides local programming and airs broadcasts from international services; multi-channel cable and satellite TV are available; the government operates 1 AM and 1 FM radio station; transmissions of 2 international broadcasters are accessible in Victoria (2007)
Internet country code: .sc
Internet hosts: 247 (2012)
Internet users: 32,000 (2008)
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 Transportation
Airports: 14 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 150
Airports (paved runways): total 7

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 7

914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 508 km
paved: 490 km
unpaved: 18 km (2003)
Merchant marine: total 9

by type: cargo 1, carrier 1, chemical tanker 6, petroleum tanker 1

foreign-owned: 3 (Hong Kong 1, Nigeria 1, South Africa 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Victoria
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 Military
Military branches: Seychelles Defense Force: Army, Coast Guard (includes Naval Wing, Air Wing), National Guard (2005)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service (younger with parental consent); no conscription (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 26,257
females age 16-49: 23,996 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 20,231
females age 16-49: 19,891 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 686
female: 650 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.8% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Mauritius and Seychelles claim the Chagos Islands (UK-administered British Indian Ocean Territory)
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Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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