Rwanda Population: 12,012,589

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 Background
In 1959, three years before independence from Belgium, the majority ethnic group, the Hutus, overthrew the ruling Tutsi king. Over the next several years, thousands of Tutsis were killed, and some 150,000 driven into exile in neighboring countries. The children of these exiles later formed a rebel group, the Rwandan Patriotic Front (RPF), and began a civil war in 1990. The war, along with several political and economic upheavals, exacerbated ethnic tensions, culminating in April 1994 in a state-orchestrated genocide, in which Rwandans killed up to a million of their fellow citizens, including approximately three-quarters of the Tutsi population. The genocide ended later that same year when the predominantly Tutsi RPF, operating out of Uganda and northern Rwanda, defeated the national army and Hutu militias, and established an RPF-led government of national unity. Approximately 2 million Hutu refugees - many fearing Tutsi retribution - fled to neighboring Burundi, Tanzania, Uganda, and former Zaire. Since then, most of the refugees have returned to Rwanda, but several thousand remained in the neighboring Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC, the former Zaire) and formed an extremist insurgency bent on retaking Rwanda, much as the RPF did in 1990. Rwanda held its first local elections in 1999 and its first post-genocide presidential and legislative elections in 2003. Rwanda in 2009 staged a joint military operation with the Congolese Army in DRC to rout out the Hutu extremist insurgency there, and Kigali and Kinshasa restored diplomatic relations. Rwanda also joined the Commonwealth in late 2009. In January 2013, Rwanda assumed a nonpermanent seat on the UN Security Council for the 2013-14 term.

 Geography
Landlocked; most of the country is savanna grassland with the population predominantly rural
Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates: 2 00 S, 30 00 E
Area: total: 26,338 sq km land: 24,668 sq km water: 1,670 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Maryland
Land Boundaries: total: 893 km border countries: Burundi 290 km, Democratic Republic of the Congo 217 km, Tanzania 217 km, Uganda 169 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: temperate; two rainy seasons (February to April, November to January); mild in mountains with frost and snow possible
Terrain: mostly grassy uplands and hills; relief is mountainous with altitude declining from west to east
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Rusizi River 950 m highest point: Volcan Karisimbi 4,519 m
Natural resources: gold, cassiterite (tin ore), wolframite (tungsten ore), methane, hydropower, arable land
Land use: arable land: 46.32% permanent crops: 9.49% other: 44.19% (2011)
Irrigated land: 96.25 sq km (2007)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; the volcanic Virunga mountains are in the northwest along the border with Democratic Republic of the Congo volcanism: Visoke (elev. 3,711 m), located on the border with the Democratic Republic of the Congo, is the country's only historically active volcano
Current Environment Issues: deforestation results from uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel; overgrazing; soil exhaustion; soil erosion; widespread poaching
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Rwandan(s) adjective: Rwandan
Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 84%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 15%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%
Languages: Kinyarwanda (official, universal Bantu vernacular), French (official), English (official), Kiswahili (Swahili, used in commercial centers)
Religions: Roman Catholic 56.5%, Protestant 26%, Adventist 11.1%, Muslim 4.6%, indigenous beliefs 0.1%, none 1.7% (2001)
Population: 12,012,589 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 42.3% (male 2,561,999/female 2,521,530) 15-24 years: 19.1% (male 1,142,985/female 1,145,500) 25-54 years: 32.2% (male 1,943,017/female 1,929,924) 55-64 years: 3.9% (male 219,111/female 254,064) 65 years and over: 2.5% (male 119,086/female 175,373) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 82.8 % youth dependency ratio: 78.5 % elderly dependency ratio: 4.3 % potential support ratio: 23 (2013)
Median age: total: 18.7 years
male: 18.4 years female: 19 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.7% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 35.49 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 9.41 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.95 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 19.1% of total population (2011) rate of urbanization: 4.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: KIGALI (capital) 909,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.86 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 22.9 note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 340 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 61.03 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 64.58 deaths/1,000 live births female: 57.38 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 58.85 years
male: 57.34 years female: 60.4 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.71 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 51.6% (2010/11)
Health expenditures: 10.5% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2005)
Hospital bed density: 1.6 beds/1,000 population (2007)
Drinking water source: improved: urban: 76% of population rural: 63% of population total: 65% of population unimproved: urban: 24% of population rural: 37% of population total: 35% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved: urban: 52% of population rural: 56% of population total: 55% of population unimproved: urban: 48% of population rural: 44% of population total: 45% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.9% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 170,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,100 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 4.3% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 11.7% (2011)
Education expenditures: 4.8% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.1% male: 74.8% female: 67.5% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years
male: 11 years female: 11 years (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Rwanda conventional short form: Rwanda local long form: Republika y'u Rwanda local short form: Rwanda former: Ruanda, German East Africa
Government type: republic; presidential, multiparty system
Capital: name: Kigali geographic coordinates: 1 57 S, 30 03 E time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 4 provinces (in French - provinces, singular - province; in Kinyarwanda - intara for singular and plural) and 1 city* (in French - ville; in Kinyarwanda - umujyi); Est (Eastern), Kigali*, Nord (Northern), Ouest (Western), Sud (Southern)
Independence: 1 July 1962 (from Belgium-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution: constitution passed by referendum 26 May 2003
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law, based on German and Belgian models, and customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in the Supreme Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Paul KAGAME (since 22 April 2000) head of government: Prime Minister Pierre Damien HABUMUREMYI (since 7 October 2011) cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: president elected by popular vote for a seven-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 9 August 2010 (next to be held in 2017) election results: Paul KAGAME elected to a second term as president; Paul KAGAME 93.1%, Jean NTAWUKURIRYAYO 5.1%, Prosper HIGIRO 1.4%, Alvera MUKABARAMBA 0.4%
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament consists of Senate (26 seats; 12 members elected by local councils, 8 appointed by the president, 4 appointed by the Political Organizations Forum, 2 represent institutions of higher learning; members to serve eight-year terms) and Chamber of Deputies (80 seats; 53 members elected by popular vote, 24 women elected by local bodies, 3 selected by youth and disability organizations; members to serve five-year terms) elections: Senate - NA; Chamber of Deputies - last held on 15 September 2008 (next to be held on 16-18 September 2013) election results: percent of vote by party - RPF 78.8%, PSD 13.1%, PL 7.5%; seats by party - RPF 42, PSD 7, PL 4, additional 27 members indirectly elected
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the court president, vice president, and 12 judges; normally organized into 3-judge benches) note - the Gacaca Court was established in 2001 by the National Unity Government to try cases of genocide against the Tutsis judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the president of the republic, after consultation with the Cabinet and the Superior Council of the Judiciary (a 14-member body of judges, other judicial officials, and legal professionals), and approved by the Senate; court president and vice president appointed for 8-year nonrenewable terms; tenure of other judges NA subordinate courts: High Court of the Republic; commercial courts including the High Commercial Court; intermediate courts; primary courts; Gacaca and military specialized courts
Political parties and leaders: Centrist Democratic Party or PDC [Agnes MUKABARANGA] Democratic Popular Union of Rwanda or UDPR [Gonzague RWIGEMA] Democratic Republican Movement or MDR [Celestin KABANDA] (officially banned) Islamic Democratic Party or PDI [Musa Fazil HARERIMANA] Liberal Party or PL [Protais MITALI] Party for Democratic Renewal (officially banned) Party for Progress and Concord or PPC [Alvera MUKABARAMBA] Rwandan Patriotic Front or RPF [Paul KAGAME] Rwandan Socialist Party or PSR [Jean Baptist RUCIBIGANGO] Social Democratic Party or PSD [Vincent BIRUTA] Socialist Party-Imberakuri or PS-Imberakuri [Christine MUKABUNANI] Solidarity and Prosperity Party or PSP [Pheobe KANYANGE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: IBUKA (association of genocide survivors)
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CEPGL, COMESA, EAC, EADB, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UN Security Council (temporary), UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s):
National anthem: name: "Rwanda nziza" (Rwanda, Our Beautiful Country) lyrics/music: Faustin MURIGO/Jean-Bosco HASHAKAIMANA note: adopted 2001
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mathilde MUKANTABANA chancery: 1714 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20009 telephone: [1] (202) 232-2882 FAX: [1] (202) 232-4544
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Donald W. KORAN embassy: 2657 Avenue de la Gendarmerie, Kigali mailing address: B. P. 28, Kigali telephone: [250] 596-400 FAX: [250] 596-591
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 Economy
Rwanda is a poor rural country with about 90% of the population engaged in (mainly subsistence) agriculture and some mineral and agro-processing. Tourism, minerals, coffee and tea are Rwanda's main sources of foreign exchange. Minerals exports declined 40% in 2009-10 due to the global economic downturn. The 1994 genocide decimated Rwanda's fragile economic base, severely impoverished the population, particularly women, and temporarily stalled the country's ability to attract private and external investment. However, Rwanda has made substantial progress in stabilizing and rehabilitating its economy to pre-1994 levels. GDP has rebounded with an average annual growth of 7%-8% since 2003 and inflation has been reduced to single digits. Nonetheless, a significant percent of the population still live below the official poverty line. Despite Rwanda's fertile ecosystem, food production often does not keep pace with demand, requiring food imports. Rwanda continues to receive substantial aid money and obtained IMF-World Bank Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) initiative debt relief in 2005-06. In recognition of Rwanda's successful management of its macro economy, in 2010, the IMF graduated Rwanda to a Policy Support Instrument (PSI). Rwanda also received a Millennium Challenge Threshold Program in 2008. Africa's most densely populated country is trying to overcome the limitations of its small, landlocked economy by leveraging regional trade. Rwanda joined the East African Community and is aligning its budget, trade, and immigration policies with its regional partners. The government has embraced an expansionary fiscal policy to reduce poverty by improving education, infrastructure, and foreign and domestic investment and pursuing market-oriented reforms. Energy shortages, instability in neighboring states, and lack of adequate transportation linkages to other countries continue to handicap private sector growth. The Rwandan Government is seeking to become regional leader in information and communication technologies. In 2010, Rwanda neared completion of the first modern Special Economic Zone (SEZ) in Kigali. The SEZ seeks to attract investment in all sectors, but specifically in agribusiness, information and communications technologies, trade and logistics, mining, and construction. The global downturn hurt export demand and tourism, but economic growth has recovered, driven in large part by the services sector, but inflation has grown. On the back of this growth, government is gradually ending its fiscal stimulus policy while protecting aid to the poor.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $15.74 billion (2012 est.) $14.62 billion (2011 est.) $13.5 billion (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $7.223 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.7% (2012 est.) 8.3% (2011 est.) 7.2% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,500 (2012 est.) $1,400 (2011 est.) $1,400 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 15.6% of GDP (2012 est.) 14% of GDP (2011 est.) 13.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 87.9% government consumption: 9.4% investment in fixed capital: 20.4% investment in inventories: 0% exports of goods and services: 11.7% imports of goods and services: -29.4% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 87.9% government consumption: 9.4% investment in fixed capital: 20.4% investment in inventories: 0% exports of goods and services: 11.7% imports of goods and services: -29.4% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, tea, pyrethrum (insecticide made from chrysanthemums), bananas, beans, sorghum, potatoes; livestock
Industries: cement, agricultural products, small-scale beverages, soap, furniture, shoes, plastic goods, textiles, cigarettes
Industrial production growth rate: 6% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 4.446 million (2007)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 90% industry and services: 10% (2000)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 44.9% (2011 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.1% highest 10%: 43.2% (2011 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 46.8 (2000) 28.9 (1985)
Budget: revenues: $1.67 billion expenditures: $1.873 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 23.1% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 21.1% of GDP (2012 est.) 23.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.3% (2012 est.) 5.7% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$657.8 million (2012 est.) -$692.2 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $451.3 million (2012 est.) $469 million (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, tea, hides, tin ore
Exports - partners: Kenya 32.6%, Democratic Republic of the Congo 13.1%, China 11.7%, Malaysia 10.4%, US 5.6%, Swaziland 5.2%, Pakistan 4.1% (2012)
Imports: $1.559 billion (2012 est.) $1.565 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and equipment, steel, petroleum products, cement and construction material
Imports - partners: Kenya 18.4%, Uganda 16.6%, UAE 8.3%, China 6.9%, India 5.4%, Tanzania 5.4%, Belgium 4.3% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.035 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.05 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $1.153 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.103 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $676.5 million (31 December 2012 est.) $583.3 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $12.9 million (31 December 2012 est.) $12.9 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Rwandan francs (RWF) per US dollar - 616.6 (2012 est.) 601.83 (2011 est.) 583.13 (2010 est.) 568.18 (2009) 550 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 240.2 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 176
Electricity - consumption: 301.4 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 2 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports: 80 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 56,250 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 53.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 46.2% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 5,245 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 5,125 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 56.63 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 869,400 Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 38,900 (2011) country comparison to the world: 167
Cellular Phones in use: 4.446 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: small, inadequate telephone system primarily serves business, education, and government domestic: the capital, Kigali, is connected to the centers of the provinces by microwave radio relay and, recently, by cellular telephone service; much of the network depends on wire and HF radiotelephone; combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular telephone density has increased and now exceeds 40 telephones per 100 persons international: country code - 250; international connections employ microwave radio relay to neighboring countries and satellite communications to more distant countries; satellite earth stations - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) in Kigali (includes telex and telefax service) (2010)
Broadcast media: government owns and operates the only TV station; government-owned and operated Radio Rwanda has a national reach; 9 private radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .rw
Internet hosts: 1,447 (2012)
Internet users: 450,000 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 7 (2013) country comparison to the world: 167
Airports (paved runways): total 4
over 3,047 m: 1 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 14,008 km
paved: 2,662 km unpaved: 11,346 km (2004)
Waterways: (Lac Kivu navigable by shallow-draft barges and native craft) (2011)
Ports and terminals: Cyangugu, Gisenyi, Kibuye
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 Military
Military branches: Rwanda Defense Force (RDF): Rwanda Army (Rwanda Land Force), Rwanda Air Force (Force Aerienne Rwandaise, FAR) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; Rwandan citizenship is required, as is a 9th grade education for enlisted recruits and an A-level certificate for officer candidates; enlistment is either as contract (5-years, renewable twice) or career; retirement (for officers and senior NCOs) after 20 years of service or at 40-60 years of age (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,625,917 females age 16-49: 2,608,110 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,685,066 females age 16-49: 1,749,580 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 110,736 female: 110,328 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.3% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; fighting among ethnic groups - loosely associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in Great Lakes region transcending the boundaries of Burundi, Democratic Republic of the Congo (DROC), Rwanda, and Uganda - abated substantially from a decade ago due largely to UN peacekeeping, international mediation, and efforts by local governments to create civil societies; nonetheless, 57,000 Rwandan refugees still reside in 21 African states, including Zambia, Gabon, and 20,000 who fled to Burundi in 2005 and 2006 to escape drought and recriminations from traditional courts investigating the 1994 massacres; the 2005 DROC and Rwanda border verification mechanism to stem rebel actions on both sides of the border remains in place
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 57,857 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2012) IDPs: undetermined (fighting between government and insurgency in 1998-99; returning refugees) (2012)
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