Papua New Guinea Population: 6,791,317

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 History
The eastern half of the island of New Guinea - second largest in the world - was divided between Germany (north) and the UK (south) in 1885. The latter area was transferred to Australia in 1902, which occupied the northern portion during World War I and continued to administer the combined areas until independence in 1975. A nine-year secessionist revolt on the island of Bougainville ended in 1997 after claiming some 20,000 lives. Since 2001, Bougainville has experienced autonomy. Under the terms of a peace accord, 2015 is the year that a five-year window opens for a referendum on the question of independence.

 Geography
Shares island of New Guinea with Indonesia; generally east-west trending highlands break up New Guinea into diverse ecoregions; one of world's largest swamps along southwest coast
Location: Oceania, group of islands including the eastern half of the island of New Guinea between the Coral Sea and the South Pacific Ocean, east of Indonesia
Geographic coordinates: 6 00 S, 147 00 E
Area: total: 462,840 sq km
land: 452,860 sq km
water: 9,980 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than California
Land Boundaries: total: 824 km border countries (1): Indonesia 824 km
Coastline: 5,152 km
Maritime claims: measured from claimed archipelagic baselines territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; northwest monsoon (December to March), southeast monsoon (May to October); slight seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: mostly mountains with coastal lowlands and rolling foothills
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: gold, copper, silver, natural gas, timber, oil, fisheries
Land use: agricultural land: 2.6% arable land 0.7%; permanent crops 1.5%; permanent pasture 0.4% forest: 63.1%
other: 34.3% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 0 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: active volcanism; situated along the Pacific "Ring of Fire"; the country is subject to frequent and sometimes severe earthquakes; mud slides; tsunamis volcanism: severe volcanic activity; Ulawun (elev. 2,334 m), one of Papua New Guinea's potentially most dangerous volcanoes, has been deemed a Decade Volcano by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Rabaul (elev. 688 m) destroyed the city of Rabaul in 1937 and 1994; Lamington erupted in 1951 killing 3,000 people; Manam's 2004 eruption forced the island's abandonment; other historically active volcanoes include Bam, Bagana, Garbuna, Karkar, Langila, Lolobau, Long Island, Pago, St. Andrew Strait, Victory, and Waiowa
Current Environment Issues: rain forest subject to deforestation as a result of growing commercial demand for tropical timber; pollution from mining projects; severe drought
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Papua New Guinean(s)
adjective: Papua New Guinean
Ethnic groups: Melanesian, Papuan, Negrito, Micronesian, Polynesian
Languages: Tok Pisin (official), English (official), Hiri Motu (official), some 836 indigenous languages spoken (about 12% of the world's total); most languages have fewer than 1,000 speakers note: Tok Pisin, a creole language, is widely used and understood; English is spoken by 1%-2%; Hiri Motu is spoken by less than 2%
Religions: Roman Catholic 27%, Protestant 69.4% (Evangelical Lutheran 19.5%, United Church 11.5%, Seventh-Day Adventist 10%, Pentecostal 8.6%, Evangelical Alliance 5.2%, Anglican 3.2%, Baptist 2.5%, other Protestant 8.9%), Baha'i 0.3%, indigenous beliefs and other 3.3% (2000 census)
Population: 6,791,317 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.93% (male 1,173,034/female 1,131,387)
15-24 years: 19.86% (male 683,474/female 665,245)
25-54 years: 36.65% (male 1,281,641/female 1,207,658)
55-64 years: 5.39% (male 185,846/female 180,255)
65 years and over: 4.16% (male 143,851/female 138,926) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 67.1%
youth dependency ratio: 62.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 5%
potential support ratio: 19.9% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 22.9 years
male: 23 years
female: 22.8 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.75% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 24 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 6.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 13% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 2.12% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: PORT MORESBY (capital) 345,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.06 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 215 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 37.4 deaths/1,000 live births male: 40.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 33.8 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 67.2 years male: 65 years
female: 69.5 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 3.1 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 32.4% (2006/07)
Health expenditures: 4.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 88% of population
rural: 32.8% of population
total: 40% of population

unimproved:
urban: 12% of population
rural: 67.2% of population
total: 60% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 56.4% of population
rural: 13.3% of population
total: 18.9% of population

unimproved:
urban: 43.6% of population
rural: 86.7% of population
total: 81.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.79% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 40,100 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 900 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 25.5% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 27.9% (2011)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 64.2%
male: 65.6%
female: 62.8% (2015 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Independent State of Papua New Guinea
conventional short form: Papua New Guinea
local short form: Papuaniugini
former: Territory of Papua and New Guinea
abbreviation: PNG
etymology: the word "papua" derives from the Malay "papuah" describing the frizzy hair of the Melanesians; Spanish explorer Ynigo ORTIZ de RETEZ applied the term "Nueva Guinea" to the island of New Guinea in 1545 after noting the resemblance of the locals to the peoples of the Guinea coast of Africa
Government type: parliamentary democracy (National Parliament) under a constitutional monarchy; a Commonwealth realm
Capital: name: Port Moresby
geographic coordinates: 9 27 S, 147 11 E
time difference: UTC+10 (15 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 20 provinces, 1 autonomous region*, and 1 district**; Bougainville*, Central, Chimbu, Eastern Highlands, East New Britain, East Sepik, Enga, Gulf, Hela, Jiwaka, Madang, Manus, Milne Bay, Morobe, National Capital**, New Ireland, Northern, Southern Highlands, Western, Western Highlands, West New Britain, West Sepik
Independence: 16 September 1975 (from the Australian-administered UN trusteeship)
National holiday: Independence Day, 16 September (1975)
Constitution: adopted 15 August 1975, effective at independence 16 September 1975; amended many times, last in 2013; note - in September 2015, the Supreme Court nullified the 2013 constitutional amendment that increased the grace period on motions of no confidence (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Michael OGIO (since 25 February 2011)

head of government: Prime Minister Peter Paire O'NEILL (since 2 August 2011); Deputy Prime Minister Leo DION (since 9 August 2012)

cabinet: National Executive Council appointed by the governor general on the recommendation of the prime minister elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general nominated by the National Parliament and appointed by the chief of state; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party or majority coalition usually appointed prime minister by the governor general pending the outcome of a National Parliament vote

election results: Peter Paire O'NEILL (PNC) elected prime minister; National Parliament vote - 94 to 12
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Parliament (111 seats; members directly elected in single-seat constituencies - 91 local and 20 provincial - by majority preferential vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the constitution allows up to 126 seats note: 14 other parties won 3 or fewer seats; association with political parties is fluid

elections: last held from 23 June 2012 to 27 July 2012 (next to be held in June 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - People's National Congress Party 27, Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party 12, PNG Party 8, National Alliance Party 7, United Resources Party 7, People's Party 6, People's Progress Party 6, other 22, independent 16
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice, deputy chief justice, and 28 judges); National Courts (13 courts located in the province capitals, with a total of 19 resident judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court chief justice appointed by the governor-general upon advice of the National Executive Council (cabinet) after consultation with the National Justice Administration Minister; deputy chief justice and other justices appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission, a 5-member body to include the Supreme Court chief and deputy chief justices, the chief ombudsman, and a member of the National Parliament; full time citizen judges appointed for 10-year renewable terms; non-citizen judges initially appointed for 3-year renewable terms and after first renewal until age 70; appointment and tenure of National Court resident judges NA

subordinate courts: district, village, and juvenile courts
Political parties and leaders: National Alliance Party or NA [Patrick PRUAITCHI] Papua New Guinea Party or PNGP [Beldan NAMAH] People's National Congress Party or PNC [Peter Paire O'NEILL] People's Party or PP (merged with PNC) People's Progress Party or PPP [Sir Julius CHAN] Triumph Heritage Empowerment Party or THE United Resources Party or URP [William DUMA] note: as of 13 March 2012, 41 political parties were registered
Political pressure groups and leaders: Centre for Environment Law and Community Rights or Celcor [Damien ASE] Community Coalition Against Corruption National Council of Women Transparency International Papau New Guinea or TI PNG (chapter of Transparency International)
International organization participation: ACP, ADB, AOSIS, APEC, ARF, ASEAN (observer), C, CD, CP, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, MIGA, NAM, OPCW, PIF, Sparteca, SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): bird of paradise; national colors: red, black
National anthem: name: "O Arise All You Sons"
lyrics/music: Thomas SHACKLADY

note: adopted 1975
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Rupa Abraham MALINA (since 10 March 2014)
chancery: 1779 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Suite 805, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 745-3680
FAX: [1] (202) 745-3679
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Catherine EBERT-GRAY (since 23 February 2016); note - also accredited to the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu
embassy: Douglas Street, Port Moresby, N.C.D.
mailing address: 4240 Port Moresby Place, US Department of State, Washington DC 20521-4240
telephone: [675] 321-1455
FAX: [675] 321-3423
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 Economy
Papua New Guinea (PNG) is richly endowed with natural resources, but exploitation has been hampered by rugged terrain, land tenure issues, and the high cost of developing infrastructure. The economy has a small formal sector, focused mainly on the export of those natural resources, and an informal sector, employing the majority of the population. Agriculture provides a subsistence livelihood for 85% of the people. The global financial crisis had little impact because of continued foreign demand for PNG's commodities. Mineral deposits, including copper, gold, and oil, account for nearly two-thirds of export earnings. Natural gas reserves amount to an estimated 155 billion cubic meters. A consortium led by a major American oil company is constructing a liquefied natural gas (LNG) production facility that began exporting in April 2014. As the largest investment project in the country's history, it has the potential to double GDP in the near-term and triple Papua New Guinea's export revenue. An American-owned firm also opened PNG's first oil refinery in 2004 and is building a second LNG production facility. The government faces the challenge of ensuring transparency and accountability for revenues flowing from this and other large LNG projects. In 2011 and 2012, the National Parliament passed legislation that created an offshore Sovereign Wealth Fund to manage government surpluses from mineral, oil, and natural gas projects. In recent years, the government has opened up markets in telecommunications and air transport, making both more affordable to the people. Numerous challenges still face the government of Peter O'NEILL, including providing physical security for foreign investors, regaining investor confidence, restoring integrity to state institutions, promoting economic efficiency by privatizing moribund state institutions, and maintaining good relations with Australia, its former colonial ruler. Other socio-cultural challenges could upend the economy including chronic law and order and land tenure issues.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $28.02 billion (2016 est.) $27.33 billion (2015 est.) $25.63 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $19.92 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.5% (2016 est.) 6.6% (2015 est.) 7.4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,500 (2016 est.) $3,500 (2015 est.) $3,400 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 38.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 24% of GDP (2015 est.) -11.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 49.4%
government consumption: 7.8%
investment in fixed capital: 9.9%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 68.7%
imports of goods and services: -36.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 49.4%
government consumption: 7.8%
investment in fixed capital: 9.9%
investment in inventories: 0.4%
exports of goods and services: 68.7%
imports of goods and services: -36.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cocoa, copra, palm kernels, tea, sugar, rubber, sweet potatoes, fruit, vegetables, vanilla; poultry, pork; shellfish
Industries: copra crushing, palm oil processing, plywood production, wood chip production; mining (gold, silver, copper); crude oil and petroleum products; construction, tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 4.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 4.365 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 85%
industry: NA%
services: NA% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 1.9% (2008 est.) 1.6% (2004)
Population below poverty line: 37% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 40.5% (1996)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 50.9 (1996)
Budget: revenues: $3.169 billion
expenditures: $4.295 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 15.9% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 39.4% of GDP (2016 est.) 36.9% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 6.3% (2016 est.) 6% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $1.484 billion (2016 est.) $2.134 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $7.886 billion (2016 est.) $8.377 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil, gold, copper ore, logs, palm oil, coffee, cocoa, crayfish, prawns
Exports - partners: Japan 17.4%, Australia 15.9%, China 12.1% (2015)
Imports: $1.83 billion (2016 est.) $2.267 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, fuels, chemicals
Imports - partners: Australia 25.9%, China 20%, Singapore 12.6%, Malaysia 7.2%, US 4.2%, Indonesia 4.1%, South Korea 4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.629 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.738 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $22.04 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $20.41 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $10.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $8.999 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $9.742 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: kina (PGK) per US dollar - 3.156 (2016 est.) 2.7684 (2015 est.) 2.7684 (2014 est.) 2.4614 (2013 est.) 2.08 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 3.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 900,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 61.1% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 30.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 52,600 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 25,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 14,880 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 200 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 28,340 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 42,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 8,062 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 21,180 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 4.75 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 100 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 4.65 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 151.3 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 3.7 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 3.56 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 53 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: services are minimal; facilities provide radiotelephone and telegraph, coastal radio, aeronautical radio, and international radio communication services

domestic: access to telephone services is not widely available although combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity has increased to roughly 55 per 100 persons

international: country code - 675; submarine cables to Australia and Guam; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Pacific Ocean); international radio communication service (2015)
Broadcast media: 2 TV stations, 1 commercial station operating since the late 1980s, and 1 state-run station launched in 2008; satellite and cable TV services are available; state-run National Broadcasting Corporation operates 3 radio networks with multiple repeaters and (2009)
Internet country code: .pg
Internet users: total: 527,000 percent of population: 7.9% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 561 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 21
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 12
914 to 1,523 m: 5
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 540

1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 53
under 914 m: 476 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Pipelines: oil 264 km (2013)
Roadways: total 9,349 km
paved: 3,000 km
unpaved: 6,349 km (2011)
Waterways: 11,000 km (2011)
Merchant marine: total 31

by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 22, petroleum tanker 2

foreign-owned: 8 (Germany 1, Malaysia 1, UAE 6) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Kimbe, Lae, Madang, Rabaul, Wewak LNG terminal(s) (export): Port Moresby
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 Military
Military branches: Papua New Guinea Defense Force (PNGDF; includes Maritime Operations Element, Air Operations Element) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 16 years of age for voluntary military service (with parental consent); no conscription; graduation from grade 12 required (2013)
Military expenditures: 0.54% of GDP (2012) 0.6% of GDP (2011) 0.54% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: relies on assistance from Australia to keep out illegal cross-border activities from primarily Indonesia, including goods smuggling, illegal narcotics trafficking, and squatters and secessionists
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 9,368 (Indonesia) (2015) IDPs: 6,300 (natural disasters, tribal conflict, inter-communal violence, development projects) (2015)
Illicit drugs: major consumer of cannabis
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