Nigeria Population: 174,507,539


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British influence and control over what would become Nigeria and Africa's most populous country grew through the 19th century. A series of constitutions after World War II granted Nigeria greater autonomy; independence came in 1960. Following nearly 16 years of military rule, a new constitution was adopted in 1999, and a peaceful transition to civilian government was completed. The government continues to face the daunting task of reforming a petroleum-based economy, whose revenues have been squandered through corruption and mismanagement, and institutionalizing democracy. In addition, Nigeria continues to experience longstanding ethnic and religious tensions. Although both the 2003 and 2007 presidential elections were marred by significant irregularities and violence, Nigeria is currently experiencing its longest period of civilian rule since independence. The general elections of April 2007 marked the first civilian-to-civilian transfer of power in the country's history.

The Niger enters the country in the northwest and flows southward through tropical rain forests and swamps to its delta in the Gulf of Guinea
Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Benin and Cameroon
Geographic coordinates: 10 00 N, 8 00 E
Area: total: 923,768 sq km
land: 910,768 sq km
water: 13,000 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than twice the size of California
Land Boundaries: total: 4,047 km
border countries: Benin 773 km, Cameroon 1,690 km, Chad 87 km, Niger 1,497 km
Coastline: 853 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: varies; equatorial in south, tropical in center, arid in north
Terrain: southern lowlands merge into central hills and plateaus; mountains in southeast, plains in north
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Chappal Waddi 2,419 m
Natural resources: natural gas, petroleum, tin, iron ore, coal, limestone, niobium, lead, zinc, arable land
Land use: arable land: 38.97%
permanent crops: 3.46%
other: 57.57% (2011)
Irrigated land: 2,932 sq km (2004)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; flooding
Current Environment Issues: soil degradation; rapid deforestation; urban air and water pollution; desertification; oil pollution - water, air, and soil; has suffered serious damage from oil spills; loss of arable land; rapid urbanization
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Nigerian(s)
adjective: Nigerian
Ethnic groups: Nigeria, Africa's most populous country, is composed of more than 250 ethnic groups; the following are the most populous and politically influential: Hausa and Fulani 29%, Yoruba 21%, Igbo (Ibo) 18%, Ijaw 10%, Kanuri 4%, Ibibio 3.5%, Tiv 2.5%
Languages: English (official), Hausa, Yoruba, Igbo (Ibo), Fulani, over 500 additional indigenous languages
Religions: Muslim 50%, Christian 40%, indigenous beliefs 10%
Population: 174,507,539 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.8% (male 39,127,615/female 37,334,281)
15-24 years: 19.3% (male 17,201,067/female 16,451,357)
25-54 years: 30.1% (male 25,842,967/female 26,699,432)
55-64 years: 3.8% (male 3,016,896/female 3,603,048)
65 years and over: 3% (male 2,390,154/female 2,840,722) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 89 %
youth dependency ratio: 83.8 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 %
potential support ratio: 19.3 (2013)
Median age: total: 17.9 years
male: 17.4 years
female: 18.4 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.54% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 38.78 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 13.2 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.22 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 49.6% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.75% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: Lagos 10.203 million; Kano 3.304 million; Ibadan 2.762 million; ABUJA (capital) 1.857 million; Kaduna 1.519 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.85 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.9 (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 630 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 72.97 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 77.98 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 67.66 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 52.46 years
male: 49.35 years
female: 55.77 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.31 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 14.1% (2011)
Health expenditures: 5.1% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.4 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 0.53 beds/1,000 population (2004)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 74% of population
rural: 43% of population
total: 58% of population

urban: 26% of population
rural: 57% of population
total: 42% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 35% of population
rural: 27% of population
total: 31% of population

urban: 65% of population
rural: 73% of population
total: 69% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 3.6% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 3.3 million (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 220,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 6.5% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 26.7% (2008)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 61.3%
male: 72.1%
female: 50.4% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 9 years
male: 10 years
female: 8 years (2005)
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Country name: conventional long form: Federal Republic of Nigeria
conventional short form: Nigeria
Government type: federal republic
Capital: name: Abuja
geographic coordinates: 9 05 N, 7 32 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 36 states and 1 territory*; Abia, Adamawa, Akwa Ibom, Anambra, Bauchi, Bayelsa, Benue, Borno, Cross River, Delta, Ebonyi, Edo, Ekiti, Enugu, Federal Capital Territory*, Gombe, Imo, Jigawa, Kaduna, Kano, Katsina, Kebbi, Kogi, Kwara, Lagos, Nassarawa, Niger, Ogun, Ondo, Osun, Oyo, Plateau, Rivers, Sokoto, Taraba, Yobe, Zamfara
Independence: 1 October 1960 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day (National Day), 1 October (1960)
Constitution: adopted 5 May 1999; effective 29 May 1999
Legal system: mixed legal system of English common law, Islamic law (in 12 northern states), and traditional law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Goodluck JONATHAN (since 5 May 2010, acting since 9 February 2010); Vice President Mohammed Namadi SAMBO (since 19 May 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government; JONATHAN assumed the presidency on 5 May 2010 following the death of President YAR'ADUA; JONATHAN was declared Acting President on 9 February 2010 by the National Assembly during the extended illness of the former president

head of government: President Goodluck JONATHAN (since 5 May 2010, acting since 9 February 2010); Vice President Mohammed Namadi SAMBO (since 19 May 2010)

cabinet: Federal Executive Council (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a four-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 16 April 2011 (next to be held in April 2015)

election results: Goodluck JONATHAN elected president; percent of vote - Goodluck JONATHAN 58.9%, Muhammadu BUHARI 32.0%, Nuhu RIBADU 5.4%, Ibrahim SHEKARAU 2.4%, other 1.3%
Legislative branch: bicameral National Assembly consists of the Senate (109 seats, 3 from each state plus 1 from Abuja; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms) and House of Representatives (360 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 9 and 26 April 2011 (next to be held in 2015); House of Representatives - last held on 9 and 26 April 2011 (next to be held in 2015)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDP 73, ACN 17, ANPP 7, CPC 6, LP 4, other 2; House of Representatives - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PDP 205, ACN 69, CPC 36, ANPP 28, LP 9, APGA 6, ACC 5, other 2; note - due to logistical problems elections in a number of constituencies were held on 26 April 2011
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of the chief justice and 15 justices) judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the president on the recommendation of the National Judicial Council, a 23-member independent body of federal and state judicial officials; judge appointments confirmed by the Senate; judges serve until age 65

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; Federal High Court; High Court of the Federal Capital Territory; Sharia Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; Customary Court of Appeal of the Federal Capital Territory; state court system similar in structure to federal system
Political parties and leaders: Accord Party or ACC [Mohammad Lawal MALADO] Action Congress of Nigeria or ACN [Adebisi Bamidele AKANDE] All Nigeria Peoples Party or ANPP [Ogbonnaya C. ONU] All Progressives Grand Alliance or APGA [Victor C. UMEH] Congress for Progressive Change or CPC [Tony MOMOH] Democratic Peoples Party or DPP [Jeremiah USENI] Labor Party [Umar MUSTAPHA] Peoples Democratic Party or PDP [Bamanga TUKUR]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Academic Staff Union for Universities or ASUU Campaign for Democracy or CD Civil Liberties Organization or CLO Committee for the Defense of Human Rights or CDHR Constitutional Right Project or CRP Human Right Africa National Association of Democratic Lawyers or NADL National Association of Nigerian Students or NANS Nigerian Bar Association or NBA Nigerian Labor Congress or NLC Nigerian Medical Association or NMA the press Universal Defenders of Democracy or UDD
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, D-8, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-15, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIC, OPCW, OPEC, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): eagle
National anthem: name: "Arise Oh Compatriots, Nigeria's Call Obey"
lyrics/music: John A. ILECHUKWU, Eme Etim AKPAN, B. A. OGUNNAIKE, Sotu OMOIGUI and P. O. ADERIBIGBE/Benedict Elide ODIASE

note: adopted 1978; the lyrics are a mixture of five of the top entries in a national contest
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Adebowale Ibidapo ADEFUYE
chancery: 3519 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 986-8400
FAX: [1] (202) 362-6541
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Terence P. MCCULLEY
embassy: Plot 1075 Diplomatic Drive, Central District Area, Abuja
mailing address: P. O. Box 5760, Garki, Abuja
telephone: [234] (9) 461-4000
FAX: [234] (9) 461-4171
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Oil-rich Nigeria has been hobbled by political instability, corruption, inadequate infrastructure, and poor macroeconomic management, but in 2008 began pursuing economic reforms. Nigeria's former military rulers failed to diversify the economy away from its overdependence on the capital-intensive oil sector, which provides 95% of foreign exchange earnings and about 80% of budgetary revenues. Following the signing of an IMF stand-by agreement in August 2000, Nigeria received a debt-restructuring deal from the Paris Club and a $1 billion credit from the IMF, both contingent on economic reforms. Nigeria pulled out of its IMF program in April 2002, after failing to meet spending and exchange rate targets, making it ineligible for additional debt forgiveness from the Paris Club. In November 2005, Abuja won Paris Club approval for a debt-relief deal that eliminated $18 billion of debt in exchange for $12 billion in payments - a total package worth $30 billion of Nigeria's total $37 billion external debt. Since 2008 the government has begun to show the political will to implement the market-oriented reforms urged by the IMF, such as modernizing the banking system, removing subsidies, and resolving regional disputes over the distribution of earnings from the oil industry. GDP rose strongly in 2007-12 because of growth in non-oil sectors and robust global crude oil prices. President JONATHAN has established an economic team that includes experienced and reputable members and has announced plans to increase transparency, diversify economic growth, and improve fiscal management. Lack of infrastructure and slow implementation of reforms are key impediments to growth. The government is working toward developing stronger public-private partnerships for roads, agriculture, and power. Nigeria's financial sector was hurt by the global financial and economic crises, but the Central Bank governor has taken measures to restructure and strengthen the sector to include imposing mandatory higher minimum capital requirements.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $455.5 billion (2012 est.) $428.4 billion (2011 est.) $399 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $268.7 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.3% (2012 est.) 7.4% (2011 est.) 8% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,800 (2012 est.) $2,700 (2011 est.) $2,600 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 24.4% of GDP (2012 est.) 19.4% of GDP (2011 est.) 20.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 53.2%
government consumption: 14.9%
investment in fixed capital: 18.4%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 44.2%
imports of goods and services: -30.7% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 53.2%
government consumption: 14.9%
investment in fixed capital: 18.4%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 44.2%
imports of goods and services: -30.7% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: cocoa, peanuts, cotton, palm oil, corn, rice, sorghum, millet, cassava (tapioca), yams, rubber; cattle, sheep, goats, pigs; timber; fish
Industries: crude oil, coal, tin, columbite; rubber products, wood; hides and skins, textiles, cement and other construction materials, food products, footwear, chemicals, fertilizer, printing, ceramics, steel
Industrial production growth rate: 1.7% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 53.83 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 70%
industry: 10%
services: 20% (1999 est.)
Unemployment rate: 23.9% (2011 est.) 4.9% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 70% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.8%
highest 10%: 38.2% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 43.7 (2003) 50.6 (1997)
Budget: revenues: $22.35 billion
expenditures: $27.87 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 8.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 16.9% of GDP (2012 est.) 17.2% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 12.2% (2012 est.) 10.8% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $6.158 billion (2012 est.) $8.686 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $92.16 billion (2012 est.) $92.5 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products 95%, cocoa, rubber
Exports - partners: US 16.8%, India 12.1%, Netherlands 8.6%, Spain 7.8%, Brazil 7.6%, UK 5.1%, Germany 4.9%, Japan 4.1%, France 4.1% (2012)
Imports: $54.6 billion (2012 est.) $61.65 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery, chemicals, transport equipment, manufactured goods, food and live animals
Imports - partners: China 18.2%, US 10%, India 5.5% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $46.41 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $35.21 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $13.12 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $13.11 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $84.43 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $78.24 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $11.24 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $10.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $39.27 billion (31 December 2011) $50.88 billion (31 December 2010) $33.32 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: nairas (NGN) per US dollar - 156.81 (2012 est.) 154.74 (2011 est.) 150.3 (2010 est.) 148.9 (2009) 117.8 (2008)
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Electricity - production: 18.82 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 74
Electricity - consumption: 17.66 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 5.898 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 67.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 32.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 2.525 million bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 2.051 million bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 38.5 billion bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 102,100 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 271,600 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 15,470 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 133,400 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 29 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 4.97 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 24.02 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 5.11 trillion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 80.51 million Mt (2010 est.)
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Telephones in use: 719,400 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 89
Cellular Phones in use: 95.167 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: further expansion and modernization of the fixed-line telephone network is needed; network quality remains a problem

domestic: the addition of a second fixed-line provider in 2002 resulted in faster growth but subscribership remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular services growing rapidly, in part responding to the shortcomings of the fixed-line network; multiple cellular providers operate nationally with subscribership base approaching 60 per 100 persons

international: country code - 234; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC fiber-optic submarine cable that provides connectivity to Europe and Asia; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (2 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2010)
Broadcast media: nearly 70 federal government-controlled national and regional TV stations; all 36 states operate TV stations; several private TV stations operational; cable and satellite TV subscription services are available; network of federal government-controlled national, regional, and state radio stations; roughly 40 state government-owned radio stations typically carry their own programs except for news broadcasts; about 20 private radio stations; transmissions of international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .ng
Internet hosts: 1,234 (2012)
Internet users: 43.989 million (2009)
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Airports: 54 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 87
Airports (paved runways): total 40
over 3,047 m: 10
2,438 to 3,047 m: 12
1,524 to 2,437 m: 9
914 to 1,523 m: 6
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 14

1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports: 5 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 124 km; gas 4,045 km; liquid petroleum gas 164 km; oil 4,441 km; refined products 3,940 km (2013)
Railways: total 3,505 km

narrow gauge: 3,505 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 193,200 km
paved: 28,980 km
unpaved: 164,220 km (2004)
Waterways: 8,600 km (Niger and Benue rivers and smaller rivers and creeks) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 89

by type: cargo 2, chemical tanker 28, liquefied gas 1, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 56, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 3 (India 1, UK 2)

registered in other countries: 33 (Bahamas 2, Bermuda 11, Comoros 1, Italy 1, Liberia 4, North Korea 1, Panama 6, Seychelles 1, unknown 6) (2010)
Ports and terminals: Bonny Inshore Terminal, Calabar, Lagos
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Military branches: Nigerian Armed Forces: Army, Navy, Air Force (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 37,087,711
females age 16-49: 35,232,127 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 20,839,976
females age 16-49: 19,867,683 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 1,767,428
female: 1,687,719 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.9% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Joint Border Commission with Cameroon reviewed 2002 ICJ ruling on the entire boundary and bilaterally resolved differences, including June 2006 Greentree Agreement that immediately cedes sovereignty of the Bakassi Peninsula to Cameroon with a phase-out of Nigerian control within two years while resolving patriation issues; the ICJ ruled on an equidistance settlement of Cameroon-Equatorial Guinea-Nigeria maritime boundary in the Gulf of Guinea, but imprecisely defined coordinates in the ICJ decision and a sovereignty dispute between Equatorial Guinea and Cameroon over an island at the mouth of the Ntem River all contribute to the delay in implementation; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty which also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 5,299 (Liberia) (2011) IDPs: undetermined (communal violence between Christians and Muslims, political violence; flooding; forced evictions; competition for resources; displacement is mostly short-term) (2012)
Illicit drugs: a transit point for heroin and cocaine intended for European, East Asian, and North American markets; consumer of amphetamines; safe haven for Nigerian narcotraffickers operating worldwide; major money-laundering center; massive corruption and criminal activity; Nigeria has improved some anti-money-laundering controls, resulting in its removal from the Financial Action Task Force's (FATF's) Noncooperative Countries and Territories List in June 2006; Nigeria's anti-money-laundering regime continues to be monitored by FATF
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