Niger Population: 18,638,600

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 History
Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment allowing him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, military officers led a coup that deposed TANDJA and suspended the constitution. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou was elected in April 2011 following the coup and reelected to a second term in early 2016. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. A Tuareg rebellion emerged in 2007 and ended in 2009. Niger is facing increased security concerns on its borders from various external threats including insecurity in Libya, spillover from the conflict in Mali, and violent extremism in northeastern Nigeria.

 Geography
Landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
Location: Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 8 00 E
Area: total: 1.267 million sq km
land: 1,266,700 sq km
water: 300 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 5,834 km border countries (7): Algeria 951 km, Benin 277 km, Burkina Faso 622 km, Chad 1,196 km, Libya 342 km, Mali 838 km, Nigeria 1,608 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
Land use: agricultural land: 35.1% arable land 12.3%; permanent crops 0.1%; permanent pasture 22.7% forest: 1%
other: 63.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 1,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: recurring droughts
Current Environment Issues: overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien
Ethnic groups: Hausa 53.1%, Zarma/Songhai 21.2%, Tuareg 11%, Fulani (Peul) 6.5%, Kanuri 5.9%, Gurma 0.8%, Arab 0.4%, Tubu 0.4%, other/unavailable 0.9% (2006 est.)
Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Religions: Muslim 80%, other (includes indigenous beliefs and Christian) 20%
Population: 18,638,600 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 49.31% (male 4,635,901/female 4,554,010)
15-24 years: 18.85% (male 1,734,887/female 1,777,896)
25-54 years: 25.94% (male 2,414,668/female 2,419,725)
55-64 years: 3.27% (male 316,655/female 293,570)
65 years and over: 2.64% (male 250,314/female 240,974) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 113%
youth dependency ratio: 107.5%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5%
potential support ratio: 18.2% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 15.3 years
male: 15.2 years
female: 15.4 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.22% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 44.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 12.1 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 18.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: NIAMEY (capital) 1.09 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.04 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.1 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2012 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 553 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 82.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 87.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 78.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.5 years male: 54.3 years
female: 56.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.62 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 13.9% (2012)
Health expenditures: 5.8% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 48.6% of population
total: 58.2% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 51.4% of population
total: 41.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 37.9% of population
rural: 4.6% of population
total: 10.9% of population

unimproved:
urban: 62.1% of population
rural: 95.4% of population
total: 89.1% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.46% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 49,000 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,600 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 3.7% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 37.9% (2012)
Education expenditures: 6.7% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 19.1%
male: 27.3%
female: 11% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 5 years male: 6 years
female: 5 years (2012)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 2.3% male: 4.4%
female: 0.8% (2007 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local long form: Republique du Niger
local short form: Niger
etymology: named for the Niger River that passes through the southwest of the country; from a native term "Ni Gir" meaning "River Gir"
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Niamey
geographic coordinates: 13 31 N, 2 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 7 regions (regions, singular - region) and 1 capital district* (communite urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Republic Day, 18 December (1958); note - commemorates the founding of the Republic of Niger which predated independence from France in 1960
Constitution: several previous; passed by referendum 31 October 2010, entered into force 25 November 2010 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law (based on French civil law), Islamic law, and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (since 7 April 2011)

head of government: Prime Minister Brigi RAFINI (since 7 April 2011)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 February 2016 and 20 March 2016 (next to be held in 2021); prime minister appointed by the president, authorized by the National Assembly

election results: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou reelected president; percent of vote in first round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (PNDS-Tarrayya) 48.6%, Hama AMADOU (MODEN/FA Lumana Africa) 17.8%, Seini OUMAROU (MNSD-Nassara) 11.3%, other 22.3%; percent of vote in second round - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 92%, Hama AMADOU 8%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (171 seats; 158 members directly elected from 8 multi-member constituencies in 7 regions and Niamey by party-list proportional representation, 8 reserved for minorities elected in special single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 5 seats reserved for Nigeriens living abroad - l seat per continent - elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms); note - the number of National Assembly seats increased from 113 to 171 in the February 2016 legislative election

elections: last held on 21 February 2016 (next to be held in 2021)

election results: percent of vote by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 44.1%, MODEN/FA-Lumana 14.7%, MNSD-Nassara 11.8%, MPR-Jamhuriya 7.1%, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 3.5%, MPN-Kishin Kassa 2.9%, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 2.4%, RSD-Gaskiya 2.4%, CDS-Rahama 1.8%, CPR-Inganci 1.8%, RDP-Jama'a 1.8%, AMEN AMIN 3.0%, other 1.4%; seats by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 75, MODEN/FA-Lumana 25, MNSD-Nassara 20, MPR-Jamhuriya 12, MNRD Hankuri-PSDN Alheri 6, MPN-Kishin Kassa 5, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 4, RSD-Gaskiya 4, CDS-Rahama 3, CPR-Inganci 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, RDP-Jama'a 3, AMEN AMIN 3, other 8
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); High Court of Justice (consists of 7 members) judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges nominated/elected - 1 by the president of the Republic, 1 by the president of the National Assembly, 2 by peer judges, 2 by peer lawyers, 1 law professor by peers, and 1 from within Nigerien society; all appointed by the president; judges serve 6-year nonrenewable terms with one-third of membership renewed every 2 years; High Judicial Court members selected from among the legislature and judiciary; members serve 5-year terms

subordinate courts: Court of Cassation; Council of State; Court of Finances; various specialized tribunals and customary courts
Political parties and leaders: Alliance of Movements for the Emergence of Niger or AMEN AMIN [Omar Hamidou TCHIANA] Congress for the Republic or CPR-Inganci [Kassoum MOCTAR] Democratic Alliance for Niger or ADN-Fusaha [Habi Mahamadou SALISSOU] Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Abdou LABO] National Movement for the Development of Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara [Seini OUMAROU] Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moussa Moumouni DJERMAKOYE] Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana [Hama AMADOU] Nigerien Movement for Democratic Renewal or MNRD-Hankuri [Mahamane OUSMANE] Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [Mahamadou ISSOUFOU] Nigerien Patriotic Movement or MPN-Kishin Kassa [Ibrahim YACOUBA] Party for Socialism and Democracy in Niger or PSDN-Alheri Patriotic Movement for the Republic or MPR-Jamhuriya [Albade ABOUBA] Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID] Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Amadou CHEIFFOU] Social Democratic Party or PSD-Bassira [Mohamed BEN OMAR] Union for Democracy and the Republic-Tabbat or UDR-Tabbat [Amadou Boubacar CISSE] note: the SPLM and SPLM-DC are banned political parties
Political pressure groups and leaders:
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): zebu; national colors: orange, white, green
National anthem: name: "La Nigerienne" (The Nigerien)
lyrics/music: Maurice Albert THIRIET/Robert JACQUET and Nicolas Abel Francois FRIONNET

note: adopted 1961
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Hassana ALIDOU (since 23 February 2015)
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227
FAX: [1] (202) 483-3169
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Eunice S. REDDICK (since 12 September 2014)
embassy: BP 11201, Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: 2420 Niamey Place, Washington DC 20521-2420
telephone: [227] 20-73-31-69 or [227] 20-72-39-41
FAX: [227] 20-73-55-60
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 Economy
Niger is a landlocked, sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes nearly 40% of GDP and provides livelihood for most of the population. The UN ranked Niger as the least developed country in the world in 2015 due to multiple factors such as food insecurity, lack of industry, high population growth, a weak educational sector, and few prospects for work outside of subsistence farming and herding. Since 2011 public debt has increased due to efforts to scale-up public investment, particularly that related to infrastructure. The government relies on foreign donor resources for a large portion of its fiscal budget. The economy in recent years has been hurt by terrorist activity and kidnappings near its uranium mines and by instability in Mali and in the Diffa region of the country; concerns about security have resulted in increased support from regional and international partners on defense. Low uranium prices, demographics, and security expenditures may continue to put pressure on the government’s finances. Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. Although Niger has sizable reserves of oil, the profitability of these commodities has been called in to question due to the prolonged drop in oil prices. Food insecurity and drought remain perennial problems for Niger, and the government plans to invest a little more in the agriculture sector, most notably irrigation. Niger’s three-year $131 million IMF Extended Credit Facility agreement for years 2012-15 was extended until the end of 2016, although formal private sector investment needed for economic diversification and growth remains a challenge, given the country’s limited domestic markets, access to credit, and competitiveness.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $20.27 billion (2016 est.) $19.26 billion (2015 est.) $18.6 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $7.566 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.2% (2016 est.) 3.5% (2015 est.) 7.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,100 (2016 est.) $1,100 (2015 est.) $1,100 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 24.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 24.3% of GDP (2015 est.) 24.2% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 66.6%
government consumption: 15.5%
investment in fixed capital: 39.6%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 16.7%
imports of goods and services: -38.5% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 66.6%
government consumption: 15.5%
investment in fixed capital: 39.6%
investment in inventories: 0.1%
exports of goods and services: 16.7%
imports of goods and services: -38.5% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (manioc, tapioca), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
Industries: uranium mining, petroleum, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Industrial production growth rate: 4.8% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 6.5 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 90%
industry: 6%
services: 4% (1995)
Unemployment rate: 5.1% (2015 est.) 5.1% (2014 est.)
Population below poverty line: 63% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 28.5% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 34 (2007) 50.5 (1995)
Budget: revenues: $1.715 billion
expenditures: $2.25 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 22.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.1% (2016 est.) 1% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.35 billion (2016 est.) -$1.237 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $1.1 billion (2016 est.) $1.099 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
Exports - partners: France 53.1%, Nigeria 20.3%, China 13.8% (2015)
Imports: $1.916 billion (2016 est.) $1.888 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Imports - partners: France 12%, China 10.5%, Nigeria 9.5%, French Polynesia 9%, Togo 6.1%, Belgium 5.3%, Cote dIvoire 5.3%, US 4.3% (2015)
Debt - external: $2.729 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $2.611 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 605.7 (2016 est.) 591.45 (2015 est.) 591.45 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.) 510.53 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 600 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 1.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 3 million kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 700 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 100,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 20,000 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 150 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 18,000 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 14,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 6,193 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 2,417 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 900,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 8.959 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 50 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in southwestern Niger

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains only about 50 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned

international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: state-run TV station; 3 private TV stations provide a mix of local and foreign programming; state-run radio has only radio station with national coverage; about 30 private radio stations operate locally; as many as 100 community radio stations broadcast; (2007)
Internet country code: .ne
Internet users: total: 401,000 percent of population: 2.2% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 30 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 10

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 20

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 18,949 km
paved: 3,912 km
unpaved: 15,037 km (2010)
Waterways: 300 km (the Niger, the only major river, is navigable to Gaya between September and March) (2012)
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 Military
Military branches: Nigerien Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Nigerien Air Force (Force Aerienne du Niger) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the presumed legal minimum age for compulsory or voluntary military service; enlistees must be Nigerien citizens and unmarried; 2-year service term; women may serve in health care (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.06% of GDP (2012) NA% (2011) 1.06% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; the dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the ICJ in 2010
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 105,491 (Nigeria); 60,813 (Mali) (2016) IDPs: 137,337 (unknown how many of the 11,000 people displaced by clashes between government forces and the Tuareg militant group, Niger Movement for Justice, in 2007 are still displaced; inter-communal violence; Boko Haram attacks in southern Niger, 2015) (2015)
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