Niger Population: 16,899,327

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 History
Niger became independent from France in 1960 and experienced single-party and military rule until 1991, when Gen. Ali SAIBOU was forced by public pressure to allow multiparty elections, which resulted in a democratic government in 1993. Political infighting brought the government to a standstill and in 1996 led to a coup by Col. Ibrahim BARE. In 1999, BARE was killed in a counter coup by military officers who restored democratic rule and held elections that brought Mamadou TANDJA to power in December of that year. TANDJA was reelected in 2004 and in 2009 spearheaded a constitutional amendment that would allow him to extend his term as president. In February 2010, a military coup deposed TANDJA, immediately suspended the constitution, and dissolved the Cabinet. ISSOUFOU Mahamadou emerged victorious from a crowded field in the election following the coup and was inaugurated in April 2011. Niger is one of the poorest countries in the world with minimal government services and insufficient funds to develop its resource base. The largely agrarian and subsistence-based economy is frequently disrupted by extended droughts common to the Sahel region of Africa. The Nigerien Movement for Justice, a predominately Tuareg ethnic group, emerged in February 2007, and attacked several military targets in Niger's northern region throughout 2007 and 2008. Successful government offensives in 2009 limited the rebels' operational capabilities. Niger is facing increased security concerns on its borders from various external threats including insecurity in Libya and spillover from the rebellion in Mali.

 Geography
Landlocked; one of the hottest countries in the world; northern four-fifths is desert, southern one-fifth is savanna, suitable for livestock and limited agriculture
Location: Western Africa, southeast of Algeria
Geographic coordinates: 16 00 N, 8 00 E
Area: total: 1.267 million sq km
land: 1,266,700 sq km
water: 300 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 5,697 km
border countries: Algeria 956 km, Benin 266 km, Burkina Faso 628 km, Chad 1,175 km, Libya 354 km, Mali 821 km, Nigeria 1,497 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: desert; mostly hot, dry, dusty; tropical in extreme south
Terrain: predominately desert plains and sand dunes; flat to rolling plains in south; hills in north
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Niger River 200 m
highest point: Idoukal-n-Taghes 2,022 m
Natural resources: uranium, coal, iron ore, tin, phosphates, gold, molybdenum, gypsum, salt, petroleum
Land use: arable land: 11.79%
permanent crops: 0.05%
other: 88.16% (2011)
Irrigated land: 736.6 sq km (2005)
Natural hazards: recurring droughts
Current Environment Issues: overgrazing; soil erosion; deforestation; desertification; wildlife populations (such as elephant, hippopotamus, giraffe, and lion) threatened because of poaching and habitat destruction
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Nigerien(s)
adjective: Nigerien
Ethnic groups: Haoussa 55.4%, Djerma Sonrai 21%, Tuareg 9.3%, Peuhl 8.5%, Kanouri Manga 4.7%, other 1.2% (2001 census)
Languages: French (official), Hausa, Djerma
Religions: Muslim 80%, other (includes indigenous beliefs and Christian) 20%
Population: 16,899,327 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 50% (male 4,261,662/female 4,183,112)
15-24 years: 18.2% (male 1,519,241/female 1,557,267)
25-54 years: 25.9% (male 2,188,451/female 2,194,606)
55-64 years: 3.3% (male 283,955/female 265,460)
65 years and over: 2.6% (male 226,454/female 219,119) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 111.5 %
youth dependency ratio: 105.9 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.5 %
potential support ratio: 18.1 (2013)
Median age: total: 15 years
male: 14.9 years
female: 15.1 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.32% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 46.84 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 13.07 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 17.8% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 4.91% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: NIAMEY (capital) 1.004 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.03 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 18 (2006 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 590 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 87.98 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 92.64 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 83.17 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 54.34 years
male: 53.17 years
female: 55.55 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 7.03 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 13.9% (2012)
Health expenditures: 5.2% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.02 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 0.31 beds/1,000 population (2005)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 39% of population
total: 49% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 61% of population
total: 51% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 34% of population
rural: 4% of population
total: 9% of population

unimproved:
urban: 66% of population
rural: 96% of population
total: 91% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.8% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 61,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,300 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 2.4% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 39.9% (2006)
Education expenditures: 4.5% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 28.7%
male: 42.9%
female: 15.1% (2005 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 5 years
male: 6 years
female: 5 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 3.2%
male: 4%
female: 1.7% (2001)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Niger
conventional short form: Niger
local long form: Republique du Niger
local short form: Niger
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Niamey
geographic coordinates: 13 31 N, 2 07 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region) includes 1 capital district* (communite urbaine); Agadez, Diffa, Dosso, Maradi, Niamey*, Tahoua, Tillaberi, Zinder
Independence: 3 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Republic Day, 18 December (1958); note - commemorates the founding of the Republic of Niger which predated independence from France in 1960
Constitution: adopted 31 October 2010
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law (based on French civil law), Islamic law, and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President ISSOUFOU Mahamadou (since 7 April 2011)

head of government: Prime Minister Brigi RAFINI (since 7 April 2011); appointed by the president and shares some executive responsibilities with the president

cabinet: 26-member Cabinet appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); candidate must receive a majority of the votes to be elected president; a presidential election to restore civilian rule was held 31 January 2011 with a runoff election between ISSOUFOU Mahamadou and Seini OUMAROU held on 12 March 2011

election results: ISSOUFOU Mahamadou elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote - ISSOUFOU Mahamadou 58%, Seini OUMAROU 42%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly (113 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 31 January 2011

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PNDS-Tarrayya 39, MNSD-Nassara 26, MODEN/FA-Lumana 24, ANDP-Zaman Lahiya 8, RDP-Jama'a 7, UDR-Tabbat 6, CDS-Rahama 2, UNI 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Constitutional Court (consists of 7 judges); High Court of Justice (consists of 7 members) judge selection and term of office: Constitutional Court judges appointed by the president; judges serve 6-year nonrenewable consecutive terms; High Judicial Court members selected from among the legislature and judiciary; members serve 5-year terms

subordinate courts: Court of Cassation; Council of State; Court of Finances; various specialized tribunals and customary courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic and Social Convention-Rahama or CDS-Rahama [Mahamane OUSMANE] National Movement for a Developing Society-Nassara or MNSD-Nassara Niger Social Democratic Party or PSDN Nigerien Alliance for Democracy and Social Progress-Zaman Lahiya or ANDP-Zaman Lahiya [Moumouni DJERMAKOYE] Nigerien Democratic Movement for an African Federation or MODEN/FA Lumana Nigerien Party for Democracy and Socialism or PNDS-Tarrayya [ISSOUFOU Mahamadou] Rally for Democracy and Progress-Jama'a or RDP-Jama'a [Hamid ALGABID] Social and Democratic Rally or RSD-Gaskiyya [Cheiffou AMADOU] Union for Democracy and the Republic-Tabbat or UDR-Tabbat Union of Independent Nigeriens or UNI note: the SPLM and SPLM-DC are banned political parties
Political pressure groups and leaders: The Nigerien Movement for Justice or MNJ, a predominantly Tuareg rebel group
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National anthem: name: "La Nigerienne" (The Nigerian)
lyrics/music: Maurice Albert THIRIET/Robert JACQUET and Nicolas Abel Francois FRIONNET

note: adopted 1961
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mamon Sambo SIDIKOU
chancery: 2204 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 483-4224 through 4227
FAX: [1] (202)483-3169
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Bisa WILLIAMS
embassy: Rue Des Ambassades, Niamey
mailing address: B. P. 11201, Niamey; Public Affairs Section (PAS), 2420 Niamey PL, Dulles, VA 20189-2420
telephone: [227] 20-73-31-69 or [227] 20-72-39-41
FAX: [227] 20-73-55-60
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 Economy
Niger is a landlocked, Sub-Saharan nation, whose economy centers on subsistence crops, livestock, and some of the world's largest uranium deposits. Agriculture contributes about 40% of GDP and provides livelihood for about 90% of the population. Niger also has sizable reserves of oil, and oil production, refining, and exports are expected to grow significantly between 2011 and 2016. Drought, desertification, and strong population growth have undercut the economy. Niger shares a common currency, the CFA franc, and a common central bank, the Central Bank of West African States (BCEAO), with seven other members of the West African Monetary Union. In December 2000, Niger qualified for enhanced debt relief under the International Monetary Fund program for Highly Indebted Poor Countries (HIPC) and concluded an agreement with the Fund on a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility (PRGF). Debt relief provided under the enhanced HIPC initiative significantly reduced Niger's annual debt service obligations, freeing funds for expenditures on basic health care, primary education, HIV/AIDS prevention, rural infrastructure, and other programs geared at poverty reduction. In December 2005, Niger received 100% multilateral debt relief from the IMF, which translated into the forgiveness of approximately US$86 million in debts to the IMF, excluding the remaining assistance under HIPC. The economy was hurt when the international community cut off non-humanitarian aid in response to TANDJA's moves to extend his term as president. Nearly half of the government's budget is derived from foreign donor resources. Future growth may be sustained by exploitation of oil, gold, coal, and other mineral resources. The government, however, has made efforts to secure a new three-year extended credit facility with the IMF following the one that completed in 2011. Oil revenue to the government has fallen well short of its budgeted level. Strikes risk undermining political stability. Food security remains a problem in Niger and is exacerbated by refugees from Mali.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $13.34 billion (2012 est.) $12 billion (2011 est.) $11.74 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $6.575 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 11.2% (2012 est.) 2.2% (2011 est.) 10.7% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $800 (2012 est.) $800 (2011 est.) $800 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 30.6% of GDP (2012 est.) 26.5% of GDP (2011 est.) 21.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 67.9%
government consumption: 18%
investment in fixed capital: 56.1%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 24.5%
imports of goods and services: -66.6% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 67.9%
government consumption: 18%
investment in fixed capital: 56.1%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 24.5%
imports of goods and services: -66.6% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: cowpeas, cotton, peanuts, millet, sorghum, cassava (manioc), rice; cattle, sheep, goats, camels, donkeys, horses, poultry
Industries: uranium mining, cement, brick, soap, textiles, food processing, chemicals, slaughterhouses
Industrial production growth rate: 12.6% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 4.688 million (2007)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 90%
industry: 6%
services: 4% (1995)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 63% (1993 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.7%
highest 10%: 28.5% (2007)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 34 (2007) 50.5 (1995)
Budget: revenues: $1.698 billion (2012 est.)
expenditures: $1.871 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 25.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.5% (2012 est.) 2.9% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.628 billion (2012 est.) -$1.697 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $1.389 billion (2012 est.) $1.233 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: uranium ore, livestock, cowpeas, onions
Exports - partners: Nigeria 41%, US 17%, India 14.1%, Italy 8.5%, China 7.7%, Ghana 5.7% (2012)
Imports: $2.328 billion (2012 est.) $2.217 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery, vehicles and parts, petroleum, cereals
Imports - partners: France 14.2%, China 11.1%, French Polynesia 9.9%, Nigeria 9.7%, Togo 5.5% (2012)
Debt - external: $1.543 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.408 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 510.53 (2012 est.) 471.87 (2011 est.) 495.28 (2010) 472.19 (2009) 447.81 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 210 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 178
Electricity - consumption: 695.3 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 500 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 145,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 6,712 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: NA bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 5,629 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 3,330 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.796 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 85,900 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 148
Cellular Phones in use: 4.743 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate; small system of wire, radio telephone communications, and microwave radio relay links concentrated in the southwestern area of Niger

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity remains only about 30 per 100 persons despite a rapidly increasing cellular subscribership base; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations and 1 planned

international: country code - 227; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean) (2010)
Broadcast media: state-run TV station; 3 private TV stations provide a mix of local and foreign programming; state-run radio has only radio station with a national reach; about 30 private radio stations operate locally; as many as 100 community radio stations broadcast; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .ne
Internet hosts: 454 (2012)
Internet users: 115,900 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 30 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 115
Airports (paved runways): total 10

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 20

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 15
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Roadways: total 18,949 km
paved: 3,912 km
unpaved: 15,037 km (2008)
Waterways: 300 km (the Niger, the only major river, is navigable to Gaya between September and March) (2012)
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 Military
Military branches: Nigerien Armed Forces (Forces Armees Nigeriennes, FAN): Army, Nigerien Air Force (Force Aerienne du Niger) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the presumed legal minimum age for compulsory or voluntary military service; enlistees must be Nigerien citizens and unmarried; 2-year service term; women may serve in health care (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 3,329,184
females age 16-49: 3,267,669 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 2,194,570
females age 16-49: 2,219,416 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 186,348
female: 180,779 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 0.9% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Libya claims about 25,000 sq km in a currently dormant dispute in the Tommo region; location of Benin-Niger-Nigeria tripoint is unresolved; only Nigeria and Cameroon have heeded the Lake Chad Commission's admonition to ratify the delimitation treaty that also includes the Chad-Niger and Niger-Nigeria boundaries; the dispute with Burkina Faso was referred to the ICJ in 2010
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 50,000 (Mali) (2013) IDPs: undetermined (unknown how many of the 11,000 people displaced by clashes between government forces and the Tuareg militant group, Niger Movement for Justice, in 2007 are still displaced; inter-communal violence) (2012)
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