Montserrat Population: 5,189

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 History
English and Irish colonists from St. Kitts first settled on Montserrat in 1632; the first African slaves arrived three decades later. The British and French fought for possession of the island for most of the 18th century, but it finally was confirmed as a British possession in 1783. The island's sugar plantation economy was converted to small farm landholdings in the mid 19th century. Much of this island was devastated and two-thirds of the population fled abroad because of the eruption of the Soufriere Hills Volcano that began on 18 July 1995. Montserrat has endured volcanic activity since, with the last eruption occurring in July 2003.

 Geography
The island is entirely volcanic in origin and comprised of three major volcanic centers of differing ages
Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, southeast of Puerto Rico
Geographic coordinates: 16 45 N, 62 12 W
Area: total: 102 sq km
land: 102 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: about 0.6 times the size of Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 40 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; little daily or seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: volcanic island, mostly mountainous, with small coastal lowland
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Caribbean Sea 0 m
highest point: lava dome in English's Crater (in the Soufriere Hills volcanic complex) estimated at over 930 m (2006)
Natural resources: NEGL
Land use: arable land: 20%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 80% (2011)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: volcanic eruptions; severe hurricanes (June to November) volcanism: Soufriere Hills volcano (elev. 915 m), has erupted continuously since 1995; a massive eruption in 1997 destroyed most of the capital, Plymouth, and resulted in approximately half of the island becoming uninhabitable
Current Environment Issues: land erosion occurs on slopes that have been cleared for cultivation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Montserratian(s)
adjective: Montserratian
Ethnic groups: black, white
Languages: English
Religions: Protestant (Anglican, Methodist, Pentecostal, Seventh-Day Adventist, other Christian denominations), Roman Catholic
Population: 5,189 (July 2013 est.) note: an estimated 8,000 refugees left the island following the resumption of volcanic activity in July 1995; some have returned
Age structure: 0-14 years: 26.2% (male 708/female 652)
15-24 years: 13.5% (male 357/female 341)
25-54 years: 47.9% (male 1,174/female 1,309)
55-64 years: 6.3% (male 156/female 171)
65 years and over: 6.2% (male 199/female 122) (2013 est.)
Median age: total: 30.8 years
male: 30.3 years
female: 31.3 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.48% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 11.37 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 6.55 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 14% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 2.4% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.08 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.55 male(s)/female
total population: 1 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 14.16 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 10.86 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 17.62 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.65 years
male: 75.31 years
female: 71.91 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.28 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 96% of population
rural: 96% of population
total: 96% of population

unimproved:
urban: 4% of population
rural: 4% of population
total: 4% of population (2010 est.)
Education expenditures: 5.8% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over has ever attended school
total population: 97%
male: 97%
female: 97% (1970 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years
male: 14 years
female: 17 years (2007)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Montserrat
Government type: NA
Capital: name: Plymouth
geographic coordinates: 16 42 N, 62 13 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)

note: Plymouth was abandoned in 1997 because of volcanic activity; interim government buildings have been built at Brades Estate in the Carr's Bay/Little Bay vicinity at the northwest end of Montserrat
Administrative divisions: 3 parishes; Saint Anthony, Saint Georges, Saint Peter
Independence: none (overseas territory of the UK)
National holiday: Birthday of Queen ELIZABETH II, second Saturday in June (1926)
Constitution: Montserrat Constitution Order 2010, effective 1 September 2011
Legal system: English common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by Governor Adrian DAVIS (since 8 April 2011)

head of government: Premier Rueben T. MEADE (since 27 September 2011); note - the office of premier came into effect with the new Constitution Order; he replaces the Chief Minister

cabinet: Executive Council consists of the governor, the premier, 3 other ministers, the attorney general, and the finance secretary (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor appointed by the monarch; following legislative elections, the leader of the majority party usually becomes premier
Legislative branch: unicameral Legislative Council (11 seats; 9 members popularly elected to serve five-year terms; the attorney general and financial secretary sit as ex-officio members)

elections: last held on 8 September 2009 (next to be held by 2014)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MCAP 6, independents 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): the Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court (ECSC) is the itinerant superior court of record for the 9-member Organization of Eastern Caribbean States to include Montserrat; the ECSC - with its headquarters on St. Lucia - is headed by the chief justice and is comprised of the Court of Appeal with 3 justices and the High Court with 16 judges; sittings of the Court of Appeal and High Court rotate among the 9 member states; 1 judge of the Supreme Court is a resident of Montserrat and presides over the High Court note - Montserrat is also a member of the Caribbean Court of Justice judge selection and term of office: Eastern Caribbean Supreme Court chief justice appointed by Her Majesty, Queen ELIZABETH II; other justices and judges appointed by the Judicial and Legal Services Commission; Court of Appeal justices appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 65; High Court judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 62

subordinate courts: magistrate's court
Political parties and leaders: Montserrat Democratic Party or MDP [Lowell LEWIS] Movement for Change and Prosperity or MCAP [Roselyn CASSELL-SEALY] New People's Liberation Movement or NPLM [John A. OSBORNE]
International organization participation: Caricom, CDB, Interpol (subbureau), OECS, UPU
National anthem:

note: as a territory of the United Kingdom, "God Save the Queen" is official (see United Kingdom)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (overseas territory of the UK)
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 Economy
Severe volcanic activity, which began in July 1995, has put a damper on this small, open economy. A catastrophic eruption in June 1997 closed the airport and seaports, causing further economic and social dislocation. Two-thirds of the 12,000 inhabitants fled the island. Some began to return in 1998 but lack of housing limited the number. The agriculture sector continued to be affected by the lack of suitable land for farming and the destruction of crops. Prospects for the economy depend largely on developments in relation to the volcanic activity and on public sector construction activity. Half of the island remains uninhabitable. In January 2013, the EU announced the disbursement of a $55.2 million aid package to Montserrat in order to boost the country's economic recovery, with a specific focus on public finance management, public sector reform, and prudent economic management.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $43.78 million (2006 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $NA
GDP - real growth rate: 3.5% (2008 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $8,500 (2006 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 95.7%
government consumption: 53.4%
investment in fixed capital: 35.2%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 23.6%
imports of goods and services: -107.9% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 95.7%
government consumption: 53.4%
investment in fixed capital: 35.2%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 23.6%
imports of goods and services: -107.9% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: cabbages, carrots, cucumbers, tomatoes, onions, peppers; livestock products
Industries: tourism, rum, textiles, electronic appliances
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Labor force: 4,521 (2012)
Unemployment rate: 6% (1998 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $31.4 million
expenditures: $37.04 million (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.3% (2012 est.) 3.7% (2011 est.)
Exports: $3.6 million (2012 est.) $1.26 million (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: electronic components, plastic bags, apparel; hot peppers, limes, live plants; cattle
Imports: $30 million (2012 est.) $26.32 million (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, foodstuffs, manufactured goods, fuels, lubricants, and related materials
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $24.81 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $8.9 million (1997)
Exchange rates: East Caribbean dollars (XCD) per US dollar - 2.7 (2012 est.) 2.7 (2011 est.) 2.7 (2010 est.) 2.7 (2009)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 22 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 211
Electricity - consumption: 20.46 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 10,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 572.6 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 147,100 Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 2,600 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 216
Cellular Phones in use: 4,200 (2010)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern and fully digitalized

domestic: combined fixed-line and mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 100 per 100 persons

international: country code - 1-664; landing point for the East Caribbean Fiber System (ECFS) optic submarine cable with links to 13 other islands in the eastern Caribbean extending from the British Virgin Islands to Trinidad (2011)
Broadcast media: Radio Montserrat, a public radio broadcaster, transmits on 1 station and has a repeater transmission to a second station; repeater transmissions from the GEM Radio Network of Trinidad and Tobago provide another 2 radio stations; cable and satellite TV available (2007)
Internet country code: .ms
Internet hosts: 2,431 (2012)
Internet users: 1,200 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 1 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 225
Airports (paved runways): total 1

under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways:

note: volcanic eruptions that began in 1995 destroyed most of the 227 km road system; a new road infrastructure has been built on the north end of the island (2008)
Ports and terminals: Little Bay, Plymouth
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of the UK
Military branches: no regular military forces; Royal Montserrat Police Force (2011)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 1,353 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,135
females age 16-49: 1,223 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 35
female: 34 (2010 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for South American narcotics destined for the US and Europe
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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