Mali Population: 15,968,882

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 History
The Sudanese Republic and Senegal became independent of France in 1960 as the Mali Federation. When Senegal withdrew after only a few months, what formerly made up the Sudanese Republic was renamed Mali. Rule by dictatorship was brought to a close in 1991 by a military coup that ushered in a period of democratic rule. President Alpha KONARE won Mali's first two democratic presidential elections in 1992 and 1997. In keeping with Mali's two-term constitutional limit, he stepped down in 2002 and was succeeded by Amadou TOURE, who was elected to a second term in 2007 elections that were widely judged to be free and fair. Malian returnees from Libya in 2011 exacerbated tensions in northern Mali, and Tuareg ethnic militias started a rebellion in January 2012. Low- and mid-level soldiers, frustrated with the poor handling of the rebellion overthrew TOURE on 22 March. Intensive mediation efforts led by the Economic Community of West African States (ECOWAS) returned power to a civilian administration in April with the appointment of interim President Dioncounda TRAORE. The post-coup chaos led to rebels expelling the Malian military from the three northern regions of the country and allowed Islamic militants to set up strongholds. Hundreds of thousands of northern Malians fled the violence to southern Mali and neighboring countries, exacerbating regional food insecurity in host communities. A military intervention to retake the three northern regions began in January 2013 and within a month most of the north had been retaken. In a democratic presidential election conducted in July and August of 2013, Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA was elected president.

 Geography
Landlocked; divided into three natural zones: the southern, cultivated Sudanese; the central, semiarid Sahelian; and the northern, arid Saharan
Location: interior Western Africa, southwest of Algeria, north of Guinea, Cote d'Ivoire, and Burkina Faso, west of Niger
Geographic coordinates: 17 00 N, 4 00 W
Area: total: 1,240,192 sq km
land: 1,220,190 sq km
water: 20,002 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than twice the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 7,243 km
border countries: Algeria 1,376 km, Burkina Faso 1,000 km, Guinea 858 km, Cote d'Ivoire 532 km, Mauritania 2,237 km, Niger 821 km, Senegal 419 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: subtropical to arid; hot and dry (February to June); rainy, humid, and mild (June to November); cool and dry (November to February)
Terrain: mostly flat to rolling northern plains covered by sand; savanna in south, rugged hills in northeast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Senegal River 23 m
highest point: Hombori Tondo 1,155 m
Natural resources: gold, phosphates, kaolin, salt, limestone, uranium, gypsum, granite, hydropower

note: bauxite, iron ore, manganese, tin, and copper deposits are known but not exploited
Land use: arable land: 5.53%
permanent crops: 0.1%
other: 94.37% (2011)
Irrigated land: 2,358 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: hot, dust-laden harmattan haze common during dry seasons; recurring droughts; occasional Niger River flooding
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; desertification; inadequate supplies of potable water; poaching
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Malian(s)
adjective: Malian
Ethnic groups: Mande 50% (Bambara, Malinke, Soninke), Peul 17%, Voltaic 12%, Songhai 6%, Tuareg and Moor 10%, other 5%
Languages: French (official), Bambara 46.3%, Peul/foulfoulbe 9.4%, Dogon 7.2%, Maraka/soninke 6.4%, Malinke 5.6%, Sonrhai/djerma 5.6%, Minianka 4.3%, Tamacheq 3.5%, Senoufo 2.6%, unspecified 0.6%, other 8.5%
Religions: Muslim 94.8%, Christian 2.4%, Animist 2%, none 0.5%, unspecified 0.3% (2009 Census)
Population: 15,968,882 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 47.7% (male 3,824,877/female 3,794,196)
15-24 years: 19% (male 1,439,032/female 1,587,072)
25-54 years: 26.6% (male 1,980,766/female 2,270,676)
55-64 years: 3.7% (male 297,365/female 295,495)
65 years and over: 3% (male 240,681/female 238,722) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 100.7 %
youth dependency ratio: 95.1 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6 %
potential support ratio: 17.9 (2013)
Median age: total: 16 years
male: 15.4 years
female: 16.6 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.01% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 46.06 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 13.55 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.41 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 34.9% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 4.77% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BAMAKO (capital) 1.628 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.91 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.01 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.6 (2006 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 540 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 106.49 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 113.23 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 99.56 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 54.55 years
male: 52.75 years
female: 56.41 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6.25 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 8.2% (2006)
Health expenditures: 5% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 0.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 87% of population
rural: 51% of population
total: 64% of population

unimproved:
urban: 13% of population
rural: 49% of population
total: 36% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 35% of population
rural: 14% of population
total: 22% of population

unimproved:
urban: 65% of population
rural: 86% of population
total: 78% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 76,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 4,400 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 4.3% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 27.9% (2006)
Education expenditures: 4.8% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 33.4%
male: 43.1%
female: 24.6% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 7 years (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Mali
conventional short form: Mali
local long form: Republique de Mali
local short form: Mali
former: French Sudan and Sudanese Republic
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Bamako
geographic coordinates: 12 39 N, 8 00 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 8 regions (regions, singular - region), 1 district*; District de Bamako*, Gao, Kayes, Kidal, Koulikoro, Mopti, Segou, Sikasso, Tombouctou (Timbuktu)
Independence: 22 September 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 22 September (1960)
Constitution: adopted 12 January 1992
Legal system: civil law system based on the French civil law model and influenced by customary law; judicial review of legislative acts in Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA (since 4 September 2013)

head of government: Prime Minister Oumar Tatum LY (since 5 September 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); the election scheduled for 29 April 2012 and delayed following the March 2012 coup took place 28 July 2013 and a runoff election was held on 11 August 2013; prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA elected president in a runoff election; percent of vote Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA 77.6%, Soumaila CISSE 22.4%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (147 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 1 and 22 July 2007 (July 2012 scheduled election delayed after the military coup)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - ADP coalition 113 (ADEMA 51, URD 34, MPR 8, CNID 7, UDD 3, and other 10), FDR coalition 15 (RPM 11, PARENA 4), SADI 4, independent 15
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of 19 members organized into 3 civil chambers and a criminal chamber); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court members appointed by the Ministry of Justice to serve 5-year terms; Constitutional Court members selected - 3 each by the president, the National Assembly, and the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; members serve single renewable 7-year terms

subordinate courts: High Court of Justice (jurisdiction limited to cases of high treason or criminal offenses by the president or ministers while in office)
Political parties and leaders: African Solidarity for Democracy and Independence or SADI [Oumar MARIKO, secretary general] Alliance for Democracy or ADEMA [Diounconda TRAORE] Alliance for Democracy and Progress or ADP (a coalition of political parties including ADEMA and URD formed in December 2006 to support the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE) Alliance for Democratic Change (political group comprised mainly of Tuareg from Mali's northern region) Convergence 2007 [Soumeylou Boubeye MAIGA] Convergence for the development of Mali or CODEM [Housseyni GUINDO] Front for Democracy and the Republic or FDR (a coalition of political parties including RPM and PARENA formed to oppose the presidential candidacy of Amadou TOURE) National Congress for Democratic Initiative or CNID [Mountaga TALL] Party for Democracy and Progress or PDP [Mady KONATE] Party for National Renewal or PARENA [Tiebile DRAME] Patriotic Movement for Renewal or MPR [Choguel MAIGA] Rally for Democracy and Labor or RDT [Amadou Ali NIANGADOU] Rally for Mali or RPM [Ibrahim Boubacar KEITA] Sudanese Union/African Democratic Rally or US/RDA [Mamadou Basir GOLOGO] Union for Democracy and Development or UDD [Moussa Balla COULIBALY] Union for Republic and Democracy or URD [Soumaila CISSE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: the army; Islamic authorities; state-run cotton company CMDT
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National anthem: name: "Le Mali" (Mali)
lyrics/music: Seydou Badian KOUYATE/Banzoumana SISSOKO

note: adopted 1962; the anthem is also known as "Pour L'Afrique et pour toi, Mali" (For Africa and for You, Mali) and "A ton appel Mali" (At Your Call, Mali)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Al Maamoun Baba Lamine KEITA
chancery: 2130 R Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-2249, 939-8950
FAX: [1] (202) 332-6603
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mary Beth LEONARD
embassy: located just off the Roi Bin Fahad Aziz Bridge just west of the Bamako central district
mailing address: ACI 2000, Rue 243, Porte 297, Bamako
telephone: [223] 2070-2300
FAX: [223] 2070-2479
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 Economy
Among the 25 poorest countries in the world, Mali is a landlocked country highly dependent on gold mining and agricultural exports for revenue. The country's fiscal status fluctuates with gold and agricultural commodity prices and the harvest. Mali remains dependent on foreign aid. Economic activity is largely confined to the riverine area irrigated by the Niger River and about 65% of its land area is desert or semidesert. About 10% of the population is nomadic and about 80% of the labor force is engaged in farming and fishing. Industrial activity is concentrated on processing farm commodities. The government in 2011 completed an IMF extended credit facility program that has helped the economy grow, diversify, and attract foreign investment. Mali is developing its cotton and iron ore extraction industries to diversify foreign exchange revenue away from gold. Mali has invested in tourism but security issues are hurting the industry. Mali experienced economic growth of about 5% per year between 1996-2010, but the global recession and a military coup caused a decline in output in 2012. The interim government slashed public spending in the context of a declining state of security and declining international aid.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $18.28 billion (2012 est.) $18.5 billion (2011 est.) $18.01 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $10.32 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -1.2% (2012 est.) 2.7% (2011 est.) 5.8% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,100 (2012 est.) $1,200 (2011 est.) $1,200 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 19.9% of GDP (2012 est.) 12.1% of GDP (2011 est.) 8.5% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 67.6%
government consumption: 12.8%
investment in fixed capital: 26.4%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 27.1%
imports of goods and services: -34.5% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 67.6%
government consumption: 12.8%
investment in fixed capital: 26.4%
investment in inventories: 0.6%
exports of goods and services: 27.1%
imports of goods and services: -34.5% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, millet, rice, corn, vegetables, peanuts; cattle, sheep, goats
Industries: food processing; construction; phosphate and gold mining
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Labor force: 3.241 million (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 80% industry and
services: 20% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 30% (2004 est.)
Population below poverty line: 36.1% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.5%
highest 10%: 25.8% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 40.1 (2001) 50.5 (1994)
Budget: revenues: $1.821 billion
expenditures: $1.948 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 17.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 25.7% of GDP (2012 est.) 25.4% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 5.4% (2012 est.) 2.9% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.421 billion (2012 est.) -$1.301 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $2.755 billion (2012 est.) $2.373 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: cotton, gold, livestock
Exports - partners: China 53.7%, Malaysia 11.2%, Indonesia 5.4%, India 4.1% (2012)
Imports: $2.793 billion (2012 est.) $2.78 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum, machinery and equipment, construction materials, foodstuffs, textiles
Imports - partners: France 10.9%, Senegal 9.7%, China 8.4%, Cote dIvoire 8% (2012)
Debt - external: $2.789 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $2.693 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $2.545 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $2.34 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $540.5 million (31 December 2012 est.) $247.2 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 510.53 (2012 est.) 471.87 (2011 est.) 495.28 (2010 est.) 472.19 (2009) 447.81 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 520 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 160
Electricity - consumption: 483.6 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 304,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 48.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 51.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 4,994 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 4,568 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 893,700 Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 104,700 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 145
Cellular Phones in use: 10.822 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: domestic system unreliable but improving; increasing use of local radio loops to extend network coverage to remote areas

domestic: fixed-line subscribership remains less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular subscribership has increased sharply to about 70 per 100 persons

international: country code - 223; satellite communications center and fiber-optic links to neighboring countries; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (1 Atlantic Ocean, 1 Indian Ocean) (2010)
Broadcast media: national public TV broadcaster; 2 privately owned companies provide subscription services to foreign multi-channel TV packages; national public radio broadcaster supplemented by a large number of privately owned and community broadcast stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .ml
Internet hosts: 437 (2012)
Internet users: 249,800 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 25 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 129
Airports (paved runways): total 8
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 4
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 17

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Heliports: 2 (2013)
Railways: total 593 km

narrow gauge: 593 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 18,912 km
paved: 3,597 km
unpaved: 15,315 km (2004)
Waterways: 1,800 km (downstream of Koulikoro; low water levels on the River Niger cause problems in dry years; in the months before the rainy season the river is not navigable by commercial vessels) (2011)
Ports and terminals: Koulikoro
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 Military
Military branches: Malian Armed Forces: Army (Armee de Terre), Republic of Mali Air Force (Force Aerienne de la Republique du Mali, FARM), National Guard (Garde National du Mali) (2008)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for selective compulsory and voluntary military service; conscript service obligation - 2 years (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,848,412
females age 16-49: 2,981,106 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,825,779
females age 16-49: 1,968,563 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 158,031
female: 159,733 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.3% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: demarcation is underway with Burkina Faso
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 12,436 (Mauritania) (2012) IDPs: 301,027 (Tuareg rebellion since 2012) (2013)
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