Moldova Population: 3,510,485

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 History
Part of Romania during the interwar period, Moldova was incorporated into the Soviet Union at the close of World War II. Although the country has been independent from the USSR since 1991, Russian forces have remained on Moldovan territory east of the Nistru River supporting the breakaway region of Transnistria, composed of a Slavic majority population (mostly Ukrainians and Russians), but with a sizable ethnic Moldovan minority. Europe's poorest economy, Moldova became the first former Soviet state to elect a communist, Vladimir VORONIN, as its president in 2001. VORONIN served as Moldova's president until he resigned in September 2009. Four Moldovan opposition parties then formed a new coalition, the Alliance for European Integration (AEI), iterations of which acted as Moldova's governing coalitions over the next several years. In May 2013, two of the original AEI parties and a splinter group from a third re-formed a ruling coalition called the Pro-European Coalition. The Moldovan Government in summer 2014 signed and ratified an Association Agreement with the EU, advancing the Coalition's policy priority of EU integration. Following the country's most recent legislative election in November 2014, the three pro-European parties that entered Parliament won a total of 55 of the body's 101 seats. Infighting among coalition members led to prolonged legislative gridlock and political instability, as well as the collapse of two governments, all ruled by pro-European coalitions centered around the Liberal Democratic Party (PLDM) and the Democratic Party (PDM). A political impasse ended in January 2016 when a new parliamentary majority led by PDM, joined by defectors from the Communists and PLDM, supported Pavel FILIP as prime minister.

 Geography
Landlocked; well endowed with various sedimentary rocks and minerals including sand, gravel, gypsum, and limestone
Location: Eastern Europe, northeast of Romania
Geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 29 00 E
Area: total: 33,851 sq km
land: 32,891 sq km
water: 960 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Maryland
Land Boundaries: total: 1,885 km border countries (2): Romania 683 km, Ukraine 1,202 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: moderate winters, warm summers
Terrain: rolling steppe, gradual slope south to Black Sea
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: lignite, phosphorites, gypsum, limestone, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 74.9% arable land 55.1%; permanent crops 9.1%; permanent pasture 10.7% forest: 11.9%
other: 13.2% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 2,283 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: landslides
Current Environment Issues: heavy use of agricultural chemicals, including banned pesticides such as DDT, has contaminated soil and groundwater; extensive soil erosion from poor farming methods
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Moldovan(s)
adjective: Moldovan
Ethnic groups: Moldovan 75.8%, Ukrainian 8.4%, Russian 5.9%, Gagauz 4.4%, Romanian 2.2%, Bulgarian 1.9%, other 1%, unspecified 0.4% (2004 est.) note: internal disputes with ethnic Slavs in the Transnistrian region
Languages: Moldovan 58.8% (official; virtually the same as the Romanian language), Romanian 16.4%, Russian 16%, Ukrainian 3.8%, Gagauz 3.1% (a Turkish language), Bulgarian 1.1%, other 0.3%, unspecified 0.4% (2004 est.) note: represents language usually spoken
Religions: Orthodox 93.3%, Baptist 1%, other Christian 1.2%, other 0.9%, atheist 0.4%, none 1%, unspecified 2.2% (2004 est.)
Population: 3,510,485 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.03% (male 326,244/female 306,543)
15-24 years: 12.87% (male 233,694/female 218,189)
25-54 years: 43.55% (male 768,933/female 760,002)
55-64 years: 13.36% (male 214,852/female 254,224)
65 years and over: 12.19% (male 165,811/female 261,993) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 34.6%
youth dependency ratio: 21.2%
elderly dependency ratio: 13.4%
potential support ratio: 7.5% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 36.3 years
male: 34.5 years
female: 38.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: -1.04% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 11.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 12.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -9.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 45% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.73% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: CHISINAU (capital) 725,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.07 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.85 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 24 (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 23 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 12.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 14.1 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 10.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.7 years male: 66.9 years
female: 74.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.56 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 67.8% (2005)
Health expenditures: 10.3% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 2.98 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density: 6.2 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 96.9% of population
rural: 81.4% of population
total: 88.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 3.1% of population
rural: 18.6% of population
total: 11.6% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 87.8% of population
rural: 67.1% of population
total: 76.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 12.2% of population
rural: 32.9% of population
total: 23.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.64% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 18,000 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 800 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 15.7% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 2.2% (2012)
Education expenditures: 7.5% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 99.4%
male: 99.7%
female: 99.1% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years male: 12 years
female: 12 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 9.8% male: 9.6%
female: 10.2% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Moldova
conventional short form: Moldova
local long form: Republica Moldova
local short form: Moldova
former: Moldavian Soviet Socialist Republic, Moldovan Soviet Socialist Republic
etymology: named for the Moldova River in neighboring eastern Romania
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Chisinau in Romanian (Kishinev in Russian)

note: pronounced KEE-shee-now (KIH-shi-nyov)
geographic coordinates: 47 00 N, 28 51 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
Administrative divisions: 32 raions (raioane, singular - raion), 3 municipalities (municipii, singular - municipiul), 1 autonomous territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala autonoma), and 1 territorial unit (unitatea teritoriala) raions: Anenii Noi, Basarabeasca, Briceni, Cahul, Cantemir, Calarasi, Causeni, Cimislia, Criuleni, Donduseni, Drochia, Dubasari, Edinet, Falesti, Floresti, Glodeni, Hincesti, Ialoveni, Leova, Nisporeni, Ocnita, Orhei, Rezina, Riscani, Singerei, Soldanesti, Soroca, Stefan-Voda, Straseni, Taraclia, Telenesti, Ungheni municipalities: Balti, Bender, Chisinau autonomous territorial unit: Gagauzia territorial unit: Stinga Nistrului (Transnistria)
Independence: 27 August 1991 (from the Soviet Union)
National holiday: Independence Day, 27 August (1991)
Constitution: history: previous 1978; latest adopted 29 July 1994, effective 27 August 1994 amendments: proposed by voter petition (at least 200,000 eligible voters), by one-third of Parliament members, or by the government; passage requires two-thirds majority vote of Parliament within one year of initial proposal; revisions to constitutional articles on sovereignty, independence, and neutrality require majority vote by referendum; articles on fundamental rights and freedoms cannot be amended; amended several times, last in 2010; note – in early 2016, a Moldovan Constitutional Court decision allowed for direct presidential elections, reversing a constitutional amendment allowing Parliament to select the president (2016)
Legal system: civil law system with Germanic law influences; Constitutional Court review of legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Igor DODON (since 23 December 2016)

head of government: Prime Minister Pavel FILIP (since 20 January 2016)

cabinet: Cabinet proposed by the prime minister-designate, nominated by the president, approved through a vote of confidence in Parliament elections/appointments: president directly elected for a 4-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 13 November 2016 (next to be held in fall 2020); prime minister designated by the president upon consultation with Parliament; within 15 days from designation, the prime minister-designate must request a vote of confidence for his/her proposed work program from the Parliament

election results: Igor DODON elected president; percent of vote - Igor DODON (Socialist Party) 52.2%, Maia SANDU (Action and Solidarity Party) 47.8%; Pavel FILIP (Democratic Party) designated prime minister; Parliament vote - 57 of 101
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament (101 seats; members directly elected in a single, nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 30 November 2014 (next to be held in November 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - PSRM 20.5%, PLDM 20.2%, PCRM 17.5%, PDM 15.8%, PL 9.7%, other 16.3%; seats by party - PSRM 25, PLDM 23, PCRM 21, PDM 19, PL 13
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of a chief judge, 3 deputy-chief judges, 45 judges, and 7 assistant judges); Constitutional Court (consists of the court president and 6 judges); note - the Constitutional Court is autonomous to the other branches of government; the Court interprets the Constitution and reviews the constitutionality of parliamentary laws and decisions, decrees of the president, and acts of the government judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges appointed by Parliament upon the recommendation of the Supreme Council of the Magistracy; all judges serve 4-year renewable terms; Constitutional Court judges appointed 2 each by Parliament, the Moldovan president, and the Higher Council of Magistracy; court president elected by other court judges for a 3-year term; other judges appointed for 6-year terms

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Court of Business Audit; municipal courts
Political parties and leaders: represented in Parliament: Communist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PCRM [Vladimir VORONIN] Democratic Party of Moldova or PDM [Marian LUPU] Liberal Democratic Party of Moldova or PLDM [Valeriu STRELET, acting] Liberal Party or PL [Mihai GHIMPU] Socialist Party of the Republic of Moldova or PSRM [Zinaida GRECEANII, acting] not represented in Parliament: Action and Solidarity Party or PAS [Maia SANDU] Anti-Mafia Movement or MPA [Sergiu MOCANU] Centrist Union of Moldova or UCM [Mihai PETRACHE] Christian Democratic People's Party or PPCD [Iurie ROSCA] Conservative Party or PC [Natalia NIRCA] Democracy at Home Party or PPDA [Vasile COSTIUC] Democratic Action Party or PAD [Mihai GODEA] Dignity and Truth Platform or PDA [Andrei NASTASE] Ecologist Green Party or PVE [Anatolie PROHNITCHI] European People’s Party of Moldova or EPPM [Iurie LEANCA] Popular Democratic Party of Moldova or PPDM [Valeriu PASAT] Labor Party or PM [Marcel DARIE] Liberal Reformers Party or PLR [Ion HADARCA] “Motherland” Party or PP [Emilian CIOBU] National Liberal Party or PNL [Vitalia PAVLICENKO] Our Home Moldova or PCNM [Grigore PETRENCO] Our Party or PN [Renato USATII] People’s Party of Moldova or PPRM [Alexandru OLEINIC] Progressive Society Party or PSP [Oleg MATVEI] Regions Party of Moldova or PRM [Alexandr KALININ] “Right” Party or PD [Ana GUTU] Russian-Slavean Party of Moldova or PRSM [Oleg TOPOLNITKI] Shor Party or PS [Ilan SHOR] Social Democratic Party or PSD [Victor SELIN] Social-Political Movement “New Force” or MFN [Valeriu PLESCA] Socialist People’s Party of Moldova or PPSM [Victor STEPANIUC] United Moldova Party or PMUEM [Vladimir TURCAN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: NA
International organization participation: BSEC, CD, CE, CEI, CIS, EAEC (observer), EAPC, EBRD, FAO, GCTU, GUAM, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, PFP, SELEC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): aurochs (a type of wild cattle); national colors: blue, yellow, red
National anthem: name: "Limba noastra" (Our Language)
lyrics/music: Alexei MATEEVICI/Alexandru CRISTEA

note: adopted 1994
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Veaceslav PITUSCAN (since 26 August 2015)
chancery: 2101 S Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 667-1130
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1204
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James D. PETTIT (since 29 January 2015)
embassy: 103 Mateevici Street, Chisinau MD-2009
mailing address: use embassy street address
telephone: [373] (22) 40-8300
FAX: [373] (22) 23-3044
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 Economy
Despite recent progress, Moldova remains one of the poorest countries in Europe. With a moderate climate and productive farmland, Moldova's economy relies heavily on its agriculture sector, featuring fruits, vegetables, wine, and tobacco. Moldova also depends on annual remittances of about $1.12 billion from the roughly one million Moldovans working in Europe, Russia, and other former Soviet Bloc countries. With few natural energy resources, Moldova imports almost all of its energy supplies from Russia and Ukraine. Moldova's dependence on Russian energy is underscored by a more than $5 billion debt to Russian natural gas supplier Gazprom, largely the result of unreimbursed natural gas consumption in the breakaway region of Transnistria. Moldova and Romania inaugurated the Ungheni-Iasi natural gas interconnector project in August 2014. The 43-kilometer pipeline between Moldova and Romania, allows for both the import and export of natural gas. Several technical and regulatory delays kept gas from flowing into Moldova until March 2015. Romanian gas exports to Moldova are largely symbolic. Moldova hopes to build a pipeline connecting Ungheni to Chisinau, bringing the gas to Moldovan population centers. The government's stated goal of EU integration has resulted in some market-oriented progress. Moldova experienced better than expected economic growth in 2014 due to increased agriculture production, to economic policies adopted by the Moldovan government since 2009, and to the receipt of EU trade preferences. Moldova signed an Association Agreement and a Deep and Comprehensive Free Trade Agreement with the EU during fall 2014, connecting Moldovan products to the world’s largest market. Still, a $1 billion asset-stripping heist of Moldovan banks in late 2014 delivered a significant shock to the economy in 2015; a subsequent bank bailout increased inflationary pressures and contributed to the depreciation of the leu. Moldova’s growth has also been hampered by endemic corruption and a Russian import ban on Moldova’s agricultural products. Over the longer term, Moldova's economy remains vulnerable to corruption, political uncertainty, weak administrative capacity, vested bureaucratic interests, higher fuel prices, Russian political and economic pressure, and unresolved separatism in Moldova's Transnistria region.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $18.54 billion (2016 est.) $18.18 billion (2015 est.) $18.26 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $6.65 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2% (2016 est.) -0.5% (2015 est.) 4.8% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,200 (2016 est.) $5,100 (2015 est.) $5,100 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 18.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 18% of GDP (2015 est.) 22.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 89.5%
government consumption: 20.6%
investment in fixed capital: 23.7%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 43%
imports of goods and services: -78.1% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 89.5%
government consumption: 20.6%
investment in fixed capital: 23.7%
investment in inventories: 1.3%
exports of goods and services: 43%
imports of goods and services: -78.1% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: vegetables, fruits, grapes, grain, sugar beets, sunflower seeds, tobacco; beef, milk; wine
Industries: sugar, vegetable oil, food processing, agricultural machinery; foundry equipment, refrigerators and freezers, washing machines; hosiery, shoes, textiles
Industrial production growth rate: 3.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 1.253 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 30.5%
industry: 12.2%
services: 57.3% (2014 est.)
Unemployment rate: 6.3% (2016 est.) 5.2% (2015 est.)
Population below poverty line: 20.8% (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.3%
highest 10%: 26% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 28.5 (2013) 33.2 (2003)
Budget: revenues: $2.297 billion
expenditures: $2.456 billion note: National Public Budget (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 34.5% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 44.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.4% (2016 est.) 9.7% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$189 million (2016 est.) -$304 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $1.45 billion (2016 est.) $1.507 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: foodstuffs, textiles, machinery
Exports - partners: Romania 23.1%, Italy 10.2%, Turkey 9.4%, Russia 8%, Germany 6.6%, Belarus 6.4% (2015)
Imports: $3.45 billion (2016 est.) $3.595 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: mineral products and fuel, machinery and equipment, chemicals, textiles
Imports - partners: Russia 22.7%, Romania 18.1%, Ukraine 11.5%, Germany 7%, Italy 4.8%, Turkey 4.4% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.85 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.757 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $6.362 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $6.207 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $3.647 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $3.615 billion (31 December 2013 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $108.2 million (31 December 2012) $88.42 million (31 December 2011)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $9.723 million (31 December 2014 est.) $50.47 million (31 December 2014 est.) $51.46 million (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange rates: Moldovan lei (MDL) per US dollar - 20.4 (2016 est.) 19.83 (2015 est.) 19.83 (2014 est.) 14.036 (2013 est.) 12.11 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 4.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 4.305 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 731 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 500,000 kW note: excludes Transnistria (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 96.4% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 3.6% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2013 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 20 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 354.3 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 17,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 586.1 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 16,700 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2015 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 3.15 billion cu m note: includes Transnistria; excluding Transnistria, consumption amounted to 2.92 billion cu m in 2015 (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 3.15 billion cu m note: includes Transnistria; excluding Transnistria, imports amounted to 2.92 billion cu m in 2015 (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 9.3 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 3.713 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 105 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: the mobile market has extended the reach of service to outside the cities and across most of the country

domestic: competition among mobile telephone providers has spurred subscriptions; little interest in expanding fixed-line service; mobile-cellular teledensity exceeds 100 per 100 persons

international: country code - 373; service through Romania and Russia via landline; satellite earth stations - at least 3 (Intelsat, Eutelsat, and Intersputnik) (2015)
Broadcast media: state-owned national radio-TV broadcaster operates 1 TV and 1 radio stations; a total of nearly 70 terrestrial TV channels and some 50 radio stations are in operation; Russian and Romanian channels also are available (2016)
Internet country code: .md
Internet users: total: 1.768 million percent of population: 49.8% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 7 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 5
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 1,906 km (2013)
Railways: total 1,171 km
broad gauge: 1,157 km 1.520-m gauge standard gauge: 14 km 1.435-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 9,352 km
paved: 8,835 km
unpaved: 517 km (2012)
Waterways: 558 km (in public use on Danube, Dniester and Prut rivers) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 121

by type: bulk carrier 7, cargo 88, carrier 1, chemical tanker 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 2, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 11, specialized tanker 1

foreign-owned: 63 (Bulgaria 1, Denmark 1, Egypt 5, Greece 1, Israel 2, Lebanon 1, Pakistan 1, Romania 2, Russia 5, Syria 5, Turkey 18, UK 3, Ukraine 14, Yemen 4) (2010)
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 Military
Military branches: National Army: Land Forces Command, Air Forces Command (includes air defense unit); Carabinieri Troops: a component of the Ministry of Internal Affairs that also has official status as a service of the Armed Forces (2016)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for compulsory or voluntary military service; male registration required at age 16; 1-year service obligation (2016)
Military expenditures: 0.3% of GDP (2016) 0.3% of GDP (2015) 0.3% of GDP (2014) 0.3% of GDP (2012) 0.3% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Moldova and Ukraine operate joint customs posts to monitor the transit of people and commodities through Moldova's break-away Transnistria region, which remains under the auspices of an Organization for Security and Cooperation in Europe-mandated peacekeeping mission comprised of Moldovan, Transnistrian, Russian, and Ukrainian troops
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 6,779 applicants for forms of legal stay other than asylum (Ukraine) (2015)
stateless persons: 5,014 (2015)
Illicit drugs: limited cultivation of opium poppy and cannabis, mostly for CIS consumption; transshipment point for illicit drugs from Southwest Asia via Central Asia to Russia, Western Europe, and possibly the US; widespread crime and underground economic activity
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