Italy Population: 62,246,674

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 History
Italy became a nation-state in 1861 when the regional states of the peninsula, along with Sardinia and Sicily, were united under King Victor EMMANUEL II. An era of parliamentary government came to a close in the early 1920s when Benito MUSSOLINI established a Fascist dictatorship. His alliance with Nazi Germany led to Italy's defeat in World War II. A democratic republic replaced the monarchy in 1946 and economic revival followed. Italy is a charter member of NATO and the European Economic Community (EEC) and its subsequent successors the EC and the EU. It has been at the forefront of European economic and political unification, joining the Economic and Monetary Union in 1999. Persistent problems include sluggish economic growth, high youth and female unemployment, organized crime, corruption, and economic disparities between southern Italy and the more prosperous north.

 Geography
    Strategic location dominating central Mediterranean as well as southern sea and air approaches to Western Europe
Location: Southern Europe, a peninsula extending into the central Mediterranean Sea, northeast of Tunisia
Geographic coordinates: 42 50 N, 12 50 E
Area: total: 301,340 sq km
land: 294,140 sq km
water: 7,200 sq km

note: includes Sardinia and Sicily

Size comparison: almost twice the size of Georgia; slightly larger than Arizona
Land Boundaries: total: 1,836.4 km border countries (6): Austria 404 km, France 476 km, Holy See (Vatican City) 3.4 km, San Marino 37 km, Slovenia 218 km, Switzerland 698 km
Coastline: 7,600 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: predominantly Mediterranean; alpine in far north; hot, dry in south
Terrain: mostly rugged and mountainous; some plains, coastal lowlands
Natural resources: coal, antimony, mercury, zinc, potash, marble, barite, asbestos, pumice, fluorspar, feldspar, pyrite (sulfur), natural gas and crude oil reserves, fish, arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 47.1% (2011 est.) arable land: 22.8% (2011 est.)
permanent crops: 8.6% (2011 est.) permanent pasture: 15.7% (2011 est.) forest: 31.4% (2011 est.)
other: 21.5% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 39,500 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: regional risks include landslides, mudflows, avalanches, earthquakes, volcanic eruptions, flooding; land subsidence in Venice volcanism: significant volcanic activity; Etna (3,330 m), which is in eruption as of 2010, is Europe's most active volcano; flank eruptions pose a threat to nearby Sicilian villages; Etna, along with the famous Vesuvius, which remains a threat to the millions of nearby residents in the Bay of Naples area, have both been deemed Decade Volcanoes by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to their explosive history and close proximity to human populations; Stromboli, on its namesake island, has also been continuously active with moderate volcanic activity; other historically active volcanoes include Campi Flegrei, Ischia, Larderello, Pantelleria, Vulcano, and Vulsini
Current Environment Issues: air pollution from industrial emissions such as sulfur dioxide; coastal and inland rivers polluted from industrial and agricultural effluents; acid rain damaging lakes; inadequate industrial waste treatment and disposal facilities
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling

signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Italian(s)
adjective: Italian
Ethnic groups: Italian (includes small clusters of German-, French-, and Slovene-Italians in the north and Albanian-Italians and Greek-Italians in the south)
Languages: Italian (official), German (parts of Trentino-Alto Adige region are predominantly German speaking), French (small French-speaking minority in Valle d'Aosta region), Slovene (Slovene-speaking minority in the Trieste-Gorizia area)
Religions: Christian 83.3% (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic with very small groups of Jehovah's Witnesses and Protestants), Muslim 3.7%, unaffiliated 12.4%, other 0.6% (2010 est.)
Population: 62,246,674 (July 2018 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 13.6% (male 4,326,862 /female 4,136,562)
15-24 years: 9.61% (male 2,994,651 /female 2,984,172)
25-54 years: 41.82% (male 12,845,442 /female 13,183,240)
55-64 years: 13.29% (male 4,012,640 /female 4,261,956)
65 years and over: 21.69% (male 5,817,819 /female 7,683,330) (2018 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 56.5 (2015 est.)
youth dependency ratio: 21.5 (2015 est.)
elderly dependency ratio: 35 (2015 est.)
potential support ratio: 2.9 (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 45.8 years
male: 44.7 years
female: 46.9 years (2018 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.16% (2018 est.)
Birth rate: 8.5 births/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Death rate: 10.5 deaths/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Net migration rate: 3.6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2018 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 70.4% of total population (2018)
rate of urbanization: 0.29% annual rate of change (2015-20 est.)
Major urban areas - population: 4.21 million ROME (capital)
3.132 million Milan
2.198 million Naples
1.786 million Turin
874,000 Bergamo
854,000 Palermo (2018)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.06 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.97 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.94 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.76 male(s)/female
total population: 0.93 male(s)/female (2018 est.)

Mother's mean age at first birth: 30.7 years (2014 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 4 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.2 deaths/1,000 live births male: 3.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 3 deaths/1,000 live births (2018 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 82.4 years male: 79.7 years
female: 85.2 years (2018 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.45 children born/woman (2018 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 65.1% (2013) note: percent of women aged 18-49
Physicians density: 4.09 physicians/1,000 population (2017)
Hospital bed density: 3.4 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 99.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 99.6% of population (2015 est.)
total: 99.5% of population (2015 est.)

unimproved:
urban: 0.5% of population (2015 est.)
rural: 0.4% of population (2015 est.)
total: 0.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.2% (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 130,000 (2017 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: <1000 (2017 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 19.9% (2016)
Education expenditures: 4.1% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write (2015 est.)
total population: 99.2%
male: 99.4%
female: 99% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years male: 16 years female: 17 years (2016)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 34.7% male: 33% female: 37.3% (2017 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Italian Republic
conventional short form: Italy
local long form: Repubblica Italiana
local short form: Italia
former: Kingdom of Italy
etymology: derivation is unclear, but the Latin "Italia" may come from the Oscan "Viteliu" meaning "[Land] of Young Cattle" (the bull was a symbol of southern Italic tribes)
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Rome
geographic coordinates: 41 54 N, 12 29 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October
etymology: by tradition, named after Romulus, one of the legendary founders of the city and its first king
Administrative divisions: 15 regions (regioni, singular - regione) and 5 autonomous regions (regioni autonome, singular - regione autonoma) regions: Abruzzo, Basilicata, Calabria, Campania, Emilia-Romagna, Lazio (Latium), Liguria, Lombardia, Marche, Molise, Piemonte (Piedmont), Puglia (Apulia), Toscana (Tuscany), Umbria, Veneto; autonomous regions: Friuli Venezia Giulia; Sardegna (Sardinia); Sicilia (Sicily); Trentino-Alto Adige (Trentino-South Tyrol) or Trentino-Suedtirol (German); Valle d'Aosta (Aosta Valley) or Vallee d'Aoste (French)
Independence: 17 March 1861 (Kingdom of Italy proclaimed; Italy was not finally unified until 1871)
National holiday: Republic Day, 2 June (1946)
Constitution: history: previous 1848 (originally for the Kingdom of Sardinia and adopted by the Kingdom of Italy in 1861); latest enacted 22 December 1947, adopted 27 December 1947, entered into force 1 January 1948 amendments: proposed by both houses of Parliament; passage requires two successive debates and approval by absolute majority of each house on the second vote; a referendum is only required when requested by one-fifth of the members of either house, by voter petition, or by five Regional Councils (elected legislative assemblies of the 15 first-level administrative regions and 5 autonomous regions of Italy); referendum not required if an amendment has been approved by a two-thirds majority in each house in the second vote; amended many times, last in 2012; note - a referendum held on 4 December 2016 on constitutional amendments was defeated (2017)
Legal system: civil law system; judicial review of legislation under certain conditions in Constitutional Court
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal except in senatorial elections, where minimum age is 25
Executive branch: chief of state: President Sergio MATTARELLA (since 3 February 2015)

head of government: Prime Minister Giuseppe CONTE (since 1 June 2018); the prime minister's official title is President of the Council of Ministers

cabinet: Council of Ministers proposed by the prime minister, known officially as the President of the Council of Ministers and locally as the Premier; nominated by the president; the current deputy prime ministers, known officially as vice-presidents of the Council of Ministers, are Matteo Salvini (L) and Luigi Di Maio (M5S) (since 1 June 2018) elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by an electoral college consisting of both houses of Parliament and 58 regional representatives for a 7-year term (no term limits); election last held on 31 January 2015 (next to be held in 2022); prime minister appointed by the president, confirmed by parliament

election results: Sergio MATTARELLA (independent) elected president; electoral college vote count in fourth round - 665 out of 1,009 (505-vote threshold)
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Parlamento consists of: Senate or Senato della Repubblica (321 seats; 116 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 193 members in multi-seat constituencies and 6 members in multi-seat constituencies abroad directly elected by party-list proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms and 6 ex-officio members appointed by the president of the Republic to serve for life) Chamber of Deputies or Camera dei Deputati (630 seats; 629 members directly elected in single- and multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote and 1 member from Valle d'Aosta elected by simple majority vote; members serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 4 March 2018 (next to be held on March 2023) Chamber of Deputies - last held on 4 March 2018 (next to be held on March 2023); President MATTARELLA dissolved parliament on 28 December 2017

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - center-right coalition 37.5% (L 17.6%, FI 14.4%, FdI 4.3%, UdC 1.2%), M5S 32.2%, center-left coalition (PD 19.1%, +E 2.3%, I 0.5%, CP 0.5%, SVP-PATT 0.4%), LeU 3.3%; seats by party - center-right coalition 77(L 37, FI 33, FdI 7), M5S 68, center-left coalition 44(PD 43, SVP-PATT 1), LeU 4; composition - men 208, women 113, percent of women 35.2% Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - center-right coalition 37% (L 17.4%, FI 14%, FdI 4.4%, UdC 1.3%), M5S 33%, center-left coalition 22.9% (PD 18.8%, E+ 2.6%, I 0.6%, CP 0.5%, SVP-PATT 0.4%); seats by party - center-right coalition 151 (L73, FI 59, FdI 19), M5S 133, center-left coalition 88 (PD 86, SVP 2), LeU 14; composition - men 405, women 225, percent of women 35.7%; note - total Parliament percent of women 35.5%
Judicial branch: highest courts: Supreme Court of Cassation or Corte Suprema di Cassazione (consists of the first president (chief justice), deputy president, 54 justices presiding over 6 civil and 7 criminal divisions, and 288 judges; an additional 30 judges of lower courts serve as supporting judges; cases normally heard by 5-judge panels; more complex cases heard by 9-judge panels); Constitutional Court or Corte Costituzionale (consists of the court president and 14 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the High Council of the Judiciary, headed by the president of the republic; judges may serve for life; Constitutional Court judges - 5 appointed by the president, 5 elected by Parliament, 5 elected by select higher courts; judges serve up to 9 years

subordinate courts: various lower civil and criminal courts (primary and secondary tribunals, and courts of appeal)
Political parties and leaders: Governing Coalition : Northern League (Lega Nord) or Lega [Matteo SALVINI] Five Star Movement or M5S [Luigi DI MAIO] Left-center-right opposition: Democratic Party or PD [Nicola ZINGARETTI] Forza Italia or FI [Silvio BERLUSCONI] Brothers of Italy [Giorgia MELONI] Free and Equal (Liberi e Uguali) or LeU [Pietro GRASSO] More Europe or +EU [Emma BONINO] Popular Civic List or CP [Beatrice LORENZIN] Other parties and parliamentary groups: Possible [Beatrice BRIGNONE] Us with Italy [Raffaele FITTO] South Tyrolean People's Party or SVP [Philipp ACHAMMER] Trentino Tyrolean Autonomist Party (Partito Autonomista Trentino Tirolese) or PATT [Franco PANIZZA, secretary] Article One or Art.1-MDP [Roberto SPERANZA]
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CD, CDB, CE, CEI, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SICA (observer), UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNRWA, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): white, five-pointed star (Stella d'Italia);
national colors: red, white, green
National anthem: name: "Il Canto degli Italiani" (The Song of the Italians)
lyrics/music: Goffredo MAMELI/Michele NOVARO

note: adopted 1946; the anthem, originally written in 1847, is also known as "L'Inno di Mameli" (Mameli's Hymn), and "Fratelli D'Italia" (Brothers of Italy)
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Armando VARRICCHIO (since 2 March 2016)
chancery: 3000 Whitehaven Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 612-4400
FAX: [1] (202) 518-2151
consulate(s) general: Boston, Chicago, Detroit, Houston, Miami, New York, Los Angeles, Philadelphia, San Francisco consulate(s): Charlotte (NC), Cleveland (OH), Detroit (MI), Hattiesburg (MS), Honolulu (HI), New Orleans, Newark (NJ), Norfolk (VA), Pittsburgh (PA), Portland (OR), Seattle
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Lewis EISENBERG (since 4 October 2017); note - also accredited to San Marino
embassy: Via Vittorio Veneto 121, 00187-Rome
mailing address: PSC 59, Box 100, APO AE 09624
telephone: [39] 06-4674-1
FAX: [39] 06-488-2672
consulate(s) general: Florence, Milan, Naples
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 Economy
Italy’s economy comprises a developed industrial north, dominated by private companies, and a less-developed, highly subsidized, agricultural south, with a legacy of unemployment and underdevelopment. The Italian economy is driven in large part by the manufacture of high-quality consumer goods produced by small and medium-sized enterprises, many of them family-owned. Italy also has a sizable underground economy, which by some estimates accounts for as much as 17% of GDP. These activities are most common within the agriculture, construction, and service sectors. Italy is the third-largest economy in the euro zone, but its exceptionally high public debt and structural impediments to growth have rendered it vulnerable to scrutiny by financial markets. Public debt has increased steadily since 2007, reaching 131% of GDP in 2017. Investor concerns about Italy and the broader euro-zone crisis eased in 2013, bringing down Italy's borrowing costs on sovereign government debt from euro-era records. The government still faces pressure from investors and European partners to sustain its efforts to address Italy's longstanding structural economic problems, including labor market inefficiencies, a sluggish judicial system, and a weak banking sector. Italy’s economy returned to modest growth in late 2014 for the first time since 2011. In 2015-16, Italy’s economy grew at about 1% each year, and in 2017 growth accelerated to 1.5% of GDP. In 2017, overall unemployment was 11.4%, but youth unemployment remained high at 37.1%. GDP growth is projected to slow slightly in 2018.
GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.317 trillion (2017 est.) $2.282 trillion (2016 est.) $2.263 trillion (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): $1.939 trillion (2017 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.5% (2017 est.) 0.9% (2016 est.) 1% (2015 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): $38,200 (2017 est.) $37,600 (2016 est.) $37,200 (2015 est.)

note: data are in 2017 dollars
Gross national saving: 20.3% of GDP (2017 est.) 19.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 18.8% of GDP (2015 est.) GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 61% (2017 est.) government consumption: 18.6% (2017 est.) investment in fixed capital: 17.5% (2017 est.) investment in inventories: -0.2% (2017 est.) exports of goods and services: 31.4% (2017 est.) imports of goods and services: -28.3% (2017 est.) GDP - composition, by sector of origin: agriculture: 2.1% (2017 est.) industry: 23.9% (2017 est.) services: 73.9% (2017 est.)
Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables, grapes, potatoes, sugar beets, soybeans, grain, olives; beef, dairy products; fish
Industries: tourism, machinery, iron and steel, chemicals, food processing, textiles, motor vehicles, clothing, footwear, ceramics
Industrial production growth rate: 2.1% (2017 est.)
Labor force: 25.94 million (2017 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 3.9%
industry: 28.3%
services: 67.8% (2011)
Unemployment rate: 11.3% (2017 est.) 11.7% (2016 est.)
Population below poverty line: 29.9% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3%
highest 10%: 26.8% (2000)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 31.9 (2012 est.) 27.3 (1995)
Budget: revenues: 903.3 billion (2017 est.)
expenditures: 948.1 billion (2017 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 46.6% (of GDP) (2017 est.) Budget surplus (+) or deficit (-): -2.3% (of GDP) (2017 est.)
Public debt: 131.8% of GDP (2017 est.) 132% of GDP (2016 est.)

note: Italy reports its data on public debt according to guidelines set out in the Maastricht Treaty; general government gross debt is defined in the Maastricht Treaty as consolidated general government gross debt at nominal value, outstanding at the end of the year, in the following categories of government liabilities (as defined in ESA95): currency and deposits (AF.2), securities other than shares excluding financial derivatives (AF.3, excluding AF.34), and loans (AF.4); the general government sector comprises central, state, and local government and social security funds
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.3% (2017 est.) -0.1% (2016 est.)
Current account balance: $53.42 billion (2017 est.) $47.64 billion (2016 est.)
Exports: $496.3 billion (2017 est.) $454.1 billion (2016 est.)
Exports - commodities: engineering products, textiles and clothing, production machinery, motor vehicles, transport equipment, chemicals; foodstuffs, beverages, and tobacco; minerals, nonferrous metals
Exports - partners: Germany 12.5%, France 10.3%, US 9%, Spain 5.2%, UK 5.2%, Switzerland 4.6% (2017)
Imports: $432.9 billion (2017 est.) $389.8 billion (2016 est.)
Imports - commodities: engineering products, chemicals, transport equipment, energy products, minerals and nonferrous metals, textiles and clothing; food, beverages, tobacco
Imports - partners: Germany 16.3%, France 8.8%, China 7.1%, Netherlands 5.6%, Spain 5.3%, Belgium 4.5% (2017)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $151.2 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $130.6 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $2.444 trillion (31 March 2016 est.) $2.3 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $552.1 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $471.7 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $671.8 billion (31 December 2017 est.) $584.1 billion (31 December 2016 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $587.3 billion (31 December 2014 est.) $615.5 billion (31 December 2013 est.) $480.5 billion (31 December 2012 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.885 (2017 est.) 0.903 (2016 est.) 0.9214 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 275.3 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 293.5 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - exports: 6.155 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - imports: 43.18 billion kWh (2016 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 114.2 million kW (2016 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 54% of total installed capacity (2016 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 14% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 32% of total installed capacity (2017 est.)
Crude oil - production: 77,530 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 13,790 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 1.341 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 487.8 million bbl (1 January 2018 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 1.607 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1.236 million bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 615,900 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 422,500 bbl/day (2017 est.)
Natural gas - production: 5.55 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 75.15 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 271.8 million cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 69.66 billion cu m (2017 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 38.11 billion cu m (1 January 2018 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 351 million Mt (2017 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total subscriptions: 83,871,543
subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 135 (2017 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern, well-developed, fast; fully automated telephone, telex, and data services; highest mobile penetration rates in Europe; leading edge of development with 5G; Rome, Turin and Naples have 5G commercially for users (2018)

domestic: high-capacity cable and microwave radio relay trunks; 33 per 100 for fixed-line and 135 per 100 for mobile-cellular subscriptions (2018)

international: country code - 39; a series of submarine cables provide links to Asia, Middle East, Europe, North Africa, and US; satellite earth stations - 3 Intelsat (with a total of 5 antennas - 3 for Atlantic Ocean and 2 for Indian Ocean), 1 Inmarsat (Atlantic Ocean region), andn/aEutelsat; Global Cloud Xchange building the EAGLE submarine cable system linking Italy to Hong Kong;
Broadcast media: two Italian media giants dominate - the publicly owned Radiotelevisione Italiana (RAI) with 3 national terrestrial stations and privately owned Mediaset with 3 national terrestrial stations; a large number of private stations and Sky Italia - a satellite TV network; RAI operates 3 AM/FM nationwide radio stations; about 1,300 commercial radio stations
Internet country code: .it
Internet users: total: 38,025,661
percent of population: 61.3% (July 2016 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 129 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 98
(2017) over 3,047 m: 9 (2017)
2,438 to 3,047 m: 31 (2017)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 18 (2017)
914 to 1,523 m: 29 (2017)
under 914 m: 11 (2017)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 31
(2013)
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
914 to 1,523 m: 10 (2013)
under 914 m: 20 (2013)
Heliports: 5 (2013)
Pipelines: 20223 km gas, 1393 km oil, 1574 km refined products (2013)
Railways: total 20,182 km
(2014) standard gauge: 18,770.1 km 1.435-m gauge (12,893.6 km electrified) (2014)
narrow gauge: 122.3 km 1.000-m gauge (122.3 km electrified) (2014) 1289.3 0.950-m gauge (151.3 km electrified)
Roadways: total 487,700 km
(2007) paved: 487,700 km (includes 6,700 km of expressways) (2007)
Waterways: 2,400 km (used for commercial traffic; of limited overall value compared to road and rail) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 1,405

by type: bulk carrier 59, container ship 10, general cargo 142, oil tanker 128, other 1066 (2018)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Augusta, Cagliari, Genoa, Livorno, Taranto, Trieste, Venice oil terminal(s): Melilli (Santa Panagia) oil terminal, Sarroch oil terminal container port(s) (TEUs): Genoa (2,622,200), Gioia Tauro (2,448,600) (2017) LNG terminal(s) (import): La Spezia, Panigaglia, Porto Levante
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 Military
Military branches: Italian Armed Forces: Army (Esercito Italiano, EI), Navy (Marina Militare Italiana, MMI), Italian Air Force (Aeronautica Militare Italiana, AMI), Carabinieri Corps (Arma dei Carabinieri, CC), Financial Guard (Guardia di Finanza) (2015)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for voluntary military service; women may serve in any military branch; Italian citizenship required; 1-year service obligation (2013)
Military expenditures: 1.12% of GDP (2017) 1.51% of GDP (2016) 1.39% of GDP (2015) 1.47% of GDP (2014) 1.59% of GDP (2013)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Italy's long coastline and developed economy entices tens of thousands of illegal immigrants from southeastern Europe and northern Africa
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 22,319 (Nigeria), 18,249 (Pakistan), 16,941 (Afghanistan), 15,003 (Mali), 13,373 (Somalia), 12,549 (Gambia), 13,525 (Ukraine), 7,644 (Senegal), 7,174 (Cote d'Ivoire), 6,975 (Eritrea) (2018); note - estimate for Ukraine represents asylum applicants since the beginning of the Ukraine crisis in 2014 to July 2018
stateless persons: 732 (2018) note: 482,416 estimated refugee and migrant arrivals by sea (January 2015-August 2019); hosts an estimated 108,924 migrants and asylum seekers as of the end of June 2019; 23,370 arrivals in 2018
Illicit drugs: important gateway for and consumer of Latin American cocaine and Southwest Asian heroin entering the European market; money laundering by organized crime and from smuggling
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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