Honduras Population: 8,893,259

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 History
Once part of Spain's vast empire in the New World, Honduras became an independent nation in 1821. After two and a half decades of mostly military rule, a freely elected civilian government came to power in 1982. During the 1980s, Honduras proved a haven for anti-Sandinista contras fighting the Marxist Nicaraguan Government and an ally to Salvadoran Government forces fighting leftist guerrillas. The country was devastated by Hurricane Mitch in 1998, which killed about 5,600 people and caused approximately $2 billion in damage. Since then, the economy has slowly rebounded.

 Geography
Has only a short Pacific coast but a long Caribbean shoreline, including the virtually uninhabited eastern Mosquito Coast
Location: Central America, bordering the Caribbean Sea, between Guatemala and Nicaragua and bordering the Gulf of Fonseca (North Pacific Ocean), between El Salvador and Nicaragua
Geographic coordinates: 15 00 N, 86 30 W
Area: total: 112,090 sq km
land: 111,890 sq km
water: 200 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Tennessee
Land Boundaries: total: 1,575 km border countries (3): Guatemala 244 km, El Salvador 391 km, Nicaragua 940 km
Coastline: 823 km (Caribbean Sea 669 km, Gulf of Fonseca 163 km)
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: natural extension of territory or to 200 nm
Climate: subtropical in lowlands, temperate in mountains
Terrain: mostly mountains in interior, narrow coastal plains
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: timber, gold, silver, copper, lead, zinc, iron ore, antimony, coal, fish, hydropower
Land use: agricultural land: 28.8% arable land 9.1%; permanent crops 4%; permanent pasture 15.7% forest: 45.3%
other: 25.9% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 900 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: frequent, but generally mild, earthquakes; extremely susceptible to damaging hurricanes and floods along the Caribbean coast
Current Environment Issues: urban population expanding; deforestation results from logging and the clearing of land for agricultural purposes; further land degradation and soil erosion hastened by uncontrolled development and improper land use practices such as farming of marginal lands; mining activities polluting Lago de Yojoa (the country's largest source of fresh water), as well as several rivers and streams, with heavy metals
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Honduran(s)
adjective: Honduran
Ethnic groups: mestizo (mixed Amerindian and European) 90%, Amerindian 7%, black 2%, white 1%
Languages: Spanish (official), Amerindian dialects
Religions: Roman Catholic 97%, Protestant 3%
Population: 8,893,259 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.55% (male 1,524,195/female 1,459,679)
15-24 years: 21.09% (male 956,315/female 918,925)
25-54 years: 36.19% (male 1,627,072/female 1,591,025)
55-64 years: 4.99% (male 207,821/female 235,776)
65 years and over: 4.19% (male 161,734/female 210,717) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 57.8%
youth dependency ratio: 50.1%
elderly dependency ratio: 7.7%
potential support ratio: 13.1% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 22.6 years
male: 22.3 years
female: 23 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.64% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 22.8 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 5.2 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 54.7% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.14% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: TEGUCIGALPA (capital) 1.123 million; San Pedro Sula 852,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.77 male(s)/female
total population: 1.01 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.4 note: median age a first birth among women 25-29 (2011-12 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 129 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 17.7 deaths/1,000 live births male: 20 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 15.2 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 71.1 years male: 69.5 years
female: 72.8 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.72 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 73.2% (2011/12)
Health expenditures: 8.7% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.37 physicians/1,000 population (2005)
Hospital bed density: 0.7 beds/1,000 population (2012)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.4% of population
rural: 83.8% of population
total: 91.2% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.6% of population
rural: 16.2% of population
total: 8.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 86.7% of population
rural: 77.7% of population
total: 82.6% of population

unimproved:
urban: 13.3% of population
rural: 22.3% of population
total: 17.4% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.37% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 20,000 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,000 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 16.3% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 7.1% (2012)
Education expenditures: 5.9% of GDP (2013)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.5%
male: 88.4%
female: 88.6% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years male: 11 years
female: 12 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 8% male: 5.5%
female: 13.8% (2011 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Honduras
conventional short form: Honduras
local long form: Republica de Honduras
local short form: Honduras
etymology: the name means "depths" in Spanish and refers to the deep anchorage in the northern Bay of Trujillo
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Tegucigalpa
geographic coordinates: 14 06 N, 87 13 W
time difference: UTC-6 (1 hour behind Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: none scheduled for 2013
Administrative divisions: 18 departments (departamentos, singular - departamento); Atlantida, Choluteca, Colon, Comayagua, Copan, Cortes, El Paraiso, Francisco Morazan, Gracias a Dios, Intibuca, Islas de la Bahia, La Paz, Lempira, Ocotepeque, Olancho, Santa Barbara, Valle, Yoro
Independence: 15 September 1821 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 15 September (1821)
Constitution: several previous; latest approved 11 January 1982, effective 20 January 1982; amended many times, last in 2012; note - in 2015, the Honduran Supreme Court struck down several constitutional articles on presidential term limits (2016)
Legal system: civil law system
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (since 27 January 2014); Vice Presidents Ricardo ALVAREZ, Rossana GUEVARA, and Lorena HERRERA (since 27 January 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (since 27 January 2014); Vice Presidents Ricardo ALVAREZ, Rossana GUEVARA, and Lorena HERRERA (since 27 January 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by president elections/appointments: president directly elected by simple majority popular vote for a single 4-year term; election last held on 24 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2017)

election results: Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado elected president; percent of vote - Juan Orlando HERNANDEZ Alvarado (PNH) 36.9%, Xiomara CASTRO (LIBRE) 28.8%, Mauricio VILLEDA (PL) 20.3%, Salvador NASRALLA (PAC) 13.4%, other 0.6%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional (128 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 24 November 2013 (next to be held in November 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - PNH 33.6%, LIBRE 27.5%, PL 17.0%, PAC 15.2%, PINU 1.9%, UD 1.7%, DC 1.6%, other 1.5%; seats by party - PNH 48, LIBRE 37, PL 27, PAC 13, PINU 1, UD 1, DC 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice or Corte Suprema de Justicia (15 principal judges - including the court president - and 7 alternates; court organized into civil, criminal, and labor chambers); note - the court has both judicial and constitutional jurisdiction judge selection and term of office: court president elected by his peers; judges elected by the National Congress from candidates proposed by the Nominating Board, a diverse 7-member group of judicial officials, other government and non-government officials selected by each of their organizations; judges elected by Congress for renewable, 7-year terms

subordinate courts: courts of appeal; courts of first instance; peace courts
Political parties and leaders: Anti-Corruption Party or PAC [Salvador NASRALLA] Christian Democratic Party or DC [Felicito AVILA Ordonez] Democratic Unification Party or UD [Cesar HAM] Freedom and Refounding Party or LIBRE [Jose Manuel ZELAYA Rosales] Liberal Party or PL [Mauricio VILLEDA Bermudez] National Party of Honduras or PNH [Gladys Aurora LOPEZ] Social Democratic Innovation and Unity Party or PINU [Jorge Rafael AGUILAR Paredes]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Beverage and Related Industries Syndicate or STIBYS Committee for the Defense of Human Rights in Honduras or CODEH Commiittee of the Relatives of the Disappeared in Honduras or COFADEH Confederation of Honduran Workers or CTH Coordinating Committee of Popular Organizations or CCOP General Workers Confederation or CGT Honduran Council of Private Enterprise or COHEP National Association of Honduran Campesinos or ANACH National Union of Campesinos or UNC Popular Bloc or BP United Confederation of Honduran Workers or CUTH United Farm Workers' Movement of the Aguan OR MUCA
International organization participation: BCIE, CACM, CD, CELAC, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-11, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC (suspended), IOM, IPU, ISO (subscriber), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OPANAL, OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, Petrocaribe, SICA, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WCO (suspended), WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): scarlet macaw, white-tailed deer; national colors: blue, white
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional de Honduras" (National Anthem of Honduras)
lyrics/music: Augusto Constancio COELLO/Carlos HARTLING

note: adopted 1915; the anthem's seven verses chronicle Honduran history; on official occasions, only the chorus and last verse are sung
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jorge Alberto MILLA Reyes (since 21 May 2014)
chancery: Suite 4-M, 3007 Tilden Street NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 966-2604
FAX: [1] (202) 966-9751 consulate(s): Dallas, McAllen (TX0
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James D. NEALON (since 21 August 2014)
embassy: Avenida La Paz, Apartado Postal No. 3453, Tegucigalpa
mailing address: American Embassy, APO AA 34022, Tegucigalpa
telephone: [504] 2236-9320, 2238-5114
FAX: [504] 2236-9037
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 Economy
Honduras, the second poorest country in Central America, suffers from extraordinarily unequal distribution of income, as well as high underemployment. While historically dependent on the export of bananas and coffee, Honduras has diversified its export base to include apparel and automobile wire harnessing. Honduras’s economy depends heavily on US trade and remittances. The US-Central America-Dominican Republic Free Trade Agreement came into force in 2006 and has helped foster foreign direct investment, but physical and political insecurity, as well as crime and perceptions of corruption, may deter potential investors; about 15% of foreign direct investment is from US firms. The economy registered modest economic growth of 2.6%-4.0% from 2010 to 2015, insufficient to improve living standards for the nearly 65% of the population in poverty. In 2015, Honduras faced rising public debt but its economy has performed better than expected due to low oil prices and improved investor confidence. The IMF continues to monitor the three-year standby arrangement signed in December 2014, aimed at easing Honduras’s poor fiscal position.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $43.19 billion (2016 est.) $41.68 billion (2015 est.) $40.22 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $20.93 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.6% (2016 est.) 3.6% (2015 est.) 3.1% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $5,300 (2016 est.) $5,200 (2015 est.) $5,100 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 20.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 18.8% of GDP (2015 est.) 14.6% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 81.3%
government consumption: 15.2%
investment in fixed capital: 23.3%
investment in inventories: 1%
exports of goods and services: 43.1%
imports of goods and services: -63.9% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 81.3%
government consumption: 15.2%
investment in fixed capital: 23.3%
investment in inventories: 1%
exports of goods and services: 43.1%
imports of goods and services: -63.9% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: bananas, coffee, citrus, corn, African palm; beef; timber; shrimp, tilapia, lobster, sugar, oriental vegetables
Industries: sugar, coffee, woven and knit apparel, wood products, cigars
Industrial production growth rate: 3.3% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 3.625 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 39.2%
industry: 20.9%
services: 39.8% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 3.9% (2016 est.) 4.1% (2015 est.) note: about one-third of the people are underemployed
Population below poverty line: 60% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 0.4%
highest 10%: 42.4% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 57.7 (2007) 53.8 (2003)
Budget: revenues: $3.982 billion
expenditures: $4.384 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 19% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 47.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 45.3% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.9% (2016 est.) 3.2% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$1.197 billion (2016 est.) -$1.291 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $8.165 billion (2016 est.) $8.041 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, apparel, coffee, shrimp, automobile wire harnesses, cigars, bananas, gold, palm oil, fruit, lobster, lumber
Exports - partners: US 36%, Germany 8.7%, El Salvador 8.5%, Guatemala 6%, Nicaragua 5.6%, Netherlands 4.1% (2015)
Imports: $11.25 billion (2016 est.) $11.1 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: communications equipment, machinery and transport, industrial raw materials, chemical products, fuels, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: US 35.2%, China 13.6%, Guatemala 9.2%, Mexico 6.6%, El Salvador 5.1% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.846 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $3.755 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $8.042 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $7.649 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: lempiras (HNL) per US dollar - 23.07 (2016 est.) 22.098 (2015 est.) 22.098 (2014 est.) 21.137 (2013 est.) 19.64 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 7.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 5.3 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 500 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 800 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.1 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 60.9% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 28.7% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 10.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 53,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 13,160 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 64,820 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 10 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 8.048 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 92 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: fixed-line connections are increasing but still limited; competition among multiple providers of mobile-cellular services is contributing to a sharp increase in subscribership

domestic: beginning in 2003, private sub-operators allowed to provide fixed lines in order to expand telephone coverage contributing to a small increase in fixed-line teledensity; mobile-cellular subscribership is roughly 90 per 100 persons

international: country code - 504; landing point for both the Americas Region Caribbean Ring System (ARCOS-1) and the MAYA-1 fiber-optic submarine cable system that together provide connectivity to South and Central America, parts of the Caribbean, and the US; satellite (2015)
Broadcast media: multiple privately owned terrestrial TV networks, supplemented by multiple cable TV networks; Radio Honduras is the lone government-owned radio network; roughly 300 privately owned radio stations (2007)
Internet country code: .hn
Internet users: total: 1.781 million percent of population: 20.4% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 103 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 13

2,438 to 3,047 m: 3
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 90

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 16
under 914 m: 73 (2013)
Railways: total 699 km

narrow gauge: 164 km 1.067-m gauge; 115 km 1.057-m gauge; 420 km 0.914-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 14,742 km
paved: 3,367 km
unpaved: 11,375 km (1,543 km summer only)

note: an additional 8,951 km of non-official roads used by the coffee industry (2012)
Waterways: 465 km (most navigable only by small craft) (2012)
Merchant marine: total 88

by type: bulk carrier 5, cargo 39, carrier 2, chemical tanker 5, container 1, passenger 4, passenger/cargo 1, petroleum tanker 21, refrigerated cargo 7, roll on/roll off 3

foreign-owned: 47 (Bahrain 5, Canada 1, Chile 1, China 2, Egypt 2, Greece 4, Israel 1, Japan 4, Lebanon 2, Montenegro 1, Panama 1, Singapore 11, South Korea 6, Taiwan 1, Thailand 2, UAE 1, UK 1, US 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): La Ceiba, Puerto Cortes, San Lorenzo, Tela
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 Military
Military branches: Honduran Armed Forces (Fuerzas Armadas de Honduras, FFAA): Army, Navy (includes Naval Infantry), Honduran Air Force (Fuerza Aerea Hondurena, FAH) (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary 2- to 3-year military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures: 1.05% of GDP (2012) 1.13% of GDP (2011) 1.05% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: International Court of Justice (ICJ) ruled on the delimitation of "bolsones" (disputed areas) along the El Salvador-Honduras border in 1992 with final settlement by the parties in 2006 after an Organization of American States survey and a further ICJ ruling in 2003; the 1992 ICJ ruling advised a tripartite resolution to a maritime boundary in the Gulf of Fonseca with consideration of Honduran access to the Pacific; El Salvador continues to claim tiny Conejo Island, not mentioned in the ICJ ruling, off Honduras in the Gulf of Fonseca; Honduras claims the Belizean-administered Sapodilla Cays off the coast of Belize in its constitution, but agreed to a joint ecological park around the cays should Guatemala consent to a maritime corridor in the Caribbean under the OAS-sponsored 2002 Belize-Guatemala Differendum
Refugees and internally displaced persons: IDPs: 174,000 (violence, extortion, threats, forced recruitment by urban gangs) (2015)
Illicit drugs: transshipment point for drugs and narcotics; illicit producer of cannabis, cultivated on small plots and used principally for local consumption; corruption is a major problem; some money-laundering activity
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