Guinea-Bissau Population: 1,660,870

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 History
Since independence from Portugal in 1974, Guinea-Bissau has experienced considerable political and military upheaval. In 1980, a military coup established authoritarian dictator Joao Bernardo 'Nino' VIEIRA as president. Despite setting a path to a market economy and multiparty system, VIEIRA's regime was characterized by the suppression of political opposition and the purging of political rivals. Several coup attempts through the 1980s and early 1990s failed to unseat him. In 1994 VIEIRA was elected president in the country's first free elections. A military mutiny and resulting civil war in 1998 eventually led to VIEIRA's ouster in May 1999. In February 2000, a transitional government turned over power to opposition leader Kumba YALA after he was elected president in transparent polling. In September 2003, after only three years in office, YALA was overthrown in a bloodless military coup, and businessman Henrique ROSA was sworn in as interim president. In 2005, former President VIEIRA was re-elected president pledging to pursue economic development and national reconciliation; he was assassinated in March 2009. Malam Bacai SANHA was elected in an emergency election held in June 2009, but he passed away in January 2012 from an existing illness. A military coup in April 2012 prevented Guinea-Bissau's second-round presidential election - to determine SANHA's successor - from taking place.

 Geography
This small country is swampy along its western coast and low-lying inland
Location: Western Africa, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Guinea and Senegal
Geographic coordinates: 12 00 N, 15 00 W
Area: total: 36,125 sq km
land: 28,120 sq km
water: 8,005 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than three times the size of Connecticut
Land Boundaries: total: 724 km
border countries: Guinea 386 km, Senegal 338 km
Coastline: 350 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; generally hot and humid; monsoonal-type rainy season (June to November) with southwesterly winds; dry season (December to May) with northeasterly harmattan winds
Terrain: mostly low coastal plain rising to savanna in east
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: unnamed elevation in the eastern part of the country 300 m
Natural resources: fish, timber, phosphates, bauxite, clay, granite, limestone, unexploited deposits of petroleum
Land use: arable land: 8.3%
permanent crops: 6.92%
other: 84.78% (2011)
Irrigated land: 225.6 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: hot, dry, dusty harmattan haze may reduce visibility during dry season; brush fires
Current Environment Issues: deforestation; soil erosion; overgrazing; overfishing
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Bissau-Guinean(s)
adjective: Bissau-Guinean
Ethnic groups: African 99% (includes Balanta 30%, Fula 20%, Manjaca 14%, Mandinga 13%, Papel 7%), European and mulatto less than 1%
Languages: Portuguese (official), Crioulo, African languages
Religions: Muslim 50%, indigenous beliefs 40%, Christian 10%
Population: 1,660,870 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 40% (male 331,406/female 332,662)
15-24 years: 20.2% (male 166,339/female 168,906)
25-54 years: 31.9% (male 263,190/female 266,963)
55-64 years: 4.7% (male 28,333/female 49,322)
65 years and over: 3.2% (male 20,807/female 32,942) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 79.7 %
youth dependency ratio: 74.5 %
elderly dependency ratio: 5.2 %
potential support ratio: 19.3 (2013)
Median age: total: 19.7 years
male: 19.1 years
female: 20.2 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.95% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 34.28 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 14.77 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 43.9% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.59% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BISSAU (capital) 302,000 (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.58 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 790 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 92.66 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 102.42 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 82.61 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 49.5 years
male: 47.53 years
female: 51.52 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.37 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 14% (2010)
Health expenditures: 8.5% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 0.96 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 91% of population
rural: 53% of population
total: 64% of population

unimproved:
urban: 9% of population
rural: 47% of population
total: 36% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 44% of population
rural: 9% of population
total: 20% of population

unimproved:
urban: 56% of population
rural: 91% of population
total: 80% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.5% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 22,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,200 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 4.9% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 17.2% (2008)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 55.3%
male: 68.9%
female: 42.1% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 9.5 years (2006)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Guinea-Bissau
conventional short form: Guinea-Bissau
local long form: Republica da Guine-Bissau
local short form: Guine-Bissau
former: Portuguese Guinea
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Bissau
geographic coordinates: 11 51 N, 15 35 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 9 regions (regioes, singular - regiao); Bafata, Biombo, Bissau, Bolama, Cacheu, Gabu, Oio, Quinara, Tombali; note - Bolama may have been renamed Bolama-Bijagos
Independence: 24 September 1973 (declared); 10 September 1974 (from Portugal)
National holiday: Independence Day, 24 September (1973)
Constitution: 16 May 1984; amended several times
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law (influenced by the early French Civil Code) and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: [Transitional] President Manuel Serifo NHAMADJO (since 11 May 2012)

note: in the aftermath of the April 2012 coup that deposed the government, an agreement was reached between ECOWAS mediators and the military junta to name NHAMADJO as transitional president with a one-year term; the transitional government has scheduled a presidential election for 24 November 2013

head of government: [Transitional] Prime Minister Rui Duarte BARROS (since 16 May 2012)

cabinet: NA (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (no term limits); election last held on 18 March 2012 with a runoff between the two leading candidates scheduled for 22 April 2012; prime minister appointed by the president after consultation with party leaders in the legislature

election results: with no candidate receiving a minimum 50% of the vote in the first round, a runoff between the two leading candidates was scheduled for 22 April 2012; percent of vote (first round) - Carlos GOMES Junior 49.0%, Kumba YALA 23.4%, others 27.6%
Legislative branch: unicameral National People's Assembly or Assembleia Nacional Popular (100 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 16 November 2008 (legislative elections scheduled for 24 November 2013)

election results: percent of vote by party - PAIGC 49.8%, PRS 25.3%, PRID 7.5%, PND 2.4%, AD 1.4%, other parties 13.6%; seats by party - PAIGC 67, PRS 28, PRID 3, PND 1, AD 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (consists of 9 judges and organized into Civil, Criminal, and Social and Administrative Disputes Chambers) note - the Supreme Court has both appellate and constitutional jurisdiction judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Higher Council of the Magistrate, a major government organ responsible for judge appointments, dismissals, and discipline of the judiciary; judges appointed by the president with tenure for life

subordinate courts: Appeal Court; regional (first instance) courts; military court
Political parties and leaders: African Party for the Independence of Guinea-Bissau and Cape Verde or PAIGC [Rui Dia de SOUSA] Democratic Alliance or AD [Victor MANDINGA] New Democracy Party or PND Party for Social Renewal or PRS [Sory DJALO] Republican Party for Independence and Development or PRID [Aristides GOMES]
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AOSIS, AU (suspended), CPLP, ECOWAS, FAO, FZ, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National anthem: name: "Esta e a Nossa Patria Bem Amada" (This Is Our Beloved Country)
lyrics/music: Amilcar Lopes CABRAL/XIAO He

note: adopted 1974; a delegation from Portuguese Guinea visited China in 1963 and heard music by XIAO He; Amilcar Lopes CABRA, the leader of Guinea-Bissau's independence movement, asked the composer to create a piece that would inspire his people to struggle for independence
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: none; note - Guinea-Bissau does not have official representation in Washington, DC
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US Embassy suspended operations on 14 June 1998 in the midst of violent conflict between forces loyal to then President VIEIRA and military-led junta; the US Ambassador to Senegal is accredited to Guinea-Bissau
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 Economy
One of the poorest countries in the world, Guinea-Bissau's legal economy depends mainly on farming and fishing, but trafficking in narcotics is probably the most lucrative trade. The combination of limited economic prospects, a weak and faction-ridden government, and favorable geography have made this West African country a way station for drugs bound for Europe. Cashew crops have increased remarkably in recent years; low rainfall hindered cereals and other crops in 2011. Guinea-Bissau exports fish and seafood along with small amounts of peanuts, palm kernels, and timber. Rice is the major crop and staple food. However, intermittent fighting between Senegalese-backed government troops and a military junta destroyed much of the country's infrastructure and caused widespread damage to the economy in 1998; the civil war led to a 28% drop in GDP that year, with partial recovery in 1999-2002. In December 2003, the World Bank, IMF, and UNDP were forced to step in to provide emergency budgetary support in the amount of $107 million for 2004, representing over 80% of the total national budget. The government is successfully implementing a three-year $33 million extended credit arrangement with the IMF that runs through 2012. In December 2010 the World Bank and IMF announced support for $1.2 billion worth of debt relief. Guinea-Bissau made progress with debt relief in 2011 when members of the Paris Club opted to write-off much of the country''s obligations.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $1.963 billion (2012 est.) $1.992 billion (2011 est.) $1.891 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $870 million (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: -1.5% (2012 est.) 5.3% (2011 est.) 3.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,200 (2012 est.) $1,300 (2011 est.) $1,200 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 86.3%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 12.9%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 21.9%
imports of goods and services: -33.9% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 86.3%
government consumption: 12.9%
investment in fixed capital: 12.9%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 21.9%
imports of goods and services: -33.9% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, corn, beans, cassava (manioc), cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, cotton; timber; fish
Industries: agricultural products processing, beer, soft drinks
Industrial production growth rate: 0.2% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 632,700 (2007)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 82% industry and
services: 18% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 28% (2002)
Budget: revenues: $129.1 million
expenditures: $153.4 million (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 14.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.4% (2012 est.) 5% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$151.4 million (2012 est.) -$95.9 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $139.8 million (2012 est.) $244.6 million (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: fish, shrimp; cashew nuts, peanuts, palm kernels, sawn lumber
Exports - partners: India 56%, Nigeria 28.4%, Togo 6.6% (2012)
Imports: $237 million (2012 est.) $327.6 million (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery and transport equipment, petroleum products
Imports - partners: Portugal 27.8%, Senegal 16.8%, US 7.1%, China 4.8%, Cuba 4.2% (2012)
Debt - external: $1.095 billion (31 December 2010 est.) $941.5 million (31 December 2000 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 510.53 (2012 est.) 471.87 (2011 est.) 495.28 (2010 est.) 472.19 (2009) 447.81 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 65 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 201
Electricity - consumption: 60.45 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 21,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 2,922 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 2,578 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 461,700 Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 5,000 (2010)
country comparison to the world: 210
Cellular Phones in use: 869,100 (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: small system including a combination of microwave radio relay, open-wire lines, radiotelephone, and mobile-cellular communications

domestic: fixed-line teledensity less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity is roughly 50 per 100 persons

international: country code - 245 (2011)
Broadcast media: 1 state-owned TV station and a second station, Radio e Televisao de Portugal (RTP) Africa, is operated by Portuguese public broadcaster (RTP); 1 state-owned radio station, several private radio stations, and some community radio stations; multiple international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .gw
Internet hosts: 90 (2012)
Internet users: 37,100 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 8 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 161
Airports (paved runways): total 2
over 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 6

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Roadways: total 3,455 km
paved: 965 km
unpaved: 2,490 km (2002)
Waterways: (rivers are navigable for some distance; many inlets and creeks give shallow-water access to much of interior) (2012)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Bissau, Buba, Cacheu, Farim
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 Military
Military branches: People's Revolutionary Armed Force (FARP): Army, Navy, National Air Force (Forca Aerea Nacional); Presidential Guard (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for selective compulsory military service (Air Force service is voluntary); 16 years of age or younger, with parental consent, for voluntary service (2013)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 370,790
females age 16-49: 372,171 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 205,460
females age 16-49: 212,277 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 17,639
female: 17,865 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 4.3% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: in 2006, political instability within Senegal's Casamance region resulted in thousands of Senegalese refugees, cross-border raids, and arms smuggling into Guinea-Bissau
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 7,700 (Senegal) (2012)
Illicit drugs: increasingly important transit country for South American cocaine en route to Europe; enabling environment for trafficker operations thanks to pervasive corruption; archipelago-like geography around the capital facilitates drug smuggling
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