Greenland Population: 57,728

3 VISITORS FROM HERE!


« Previous Country | Next Country »   Back to Flag Counter Overview
  
 History
Greenland, the world's largest island, is about 81% ice-capped. Vikings reached the island in the 10th century from Iceland; Danish colonization began in the 18th century, and Greenland became an integral part of the Danish Realm in 1953. It joined the European Community (now the EU) with Denmark in 1973 but withdrew in 1985 over a dispute centered on stringent fishing quotas. Greenland remains a member of the Overseas Countries and Territories Association of the EU. Greenland was granted self-government in 1979 by the Danish parliament; the law went into effect the following year. Greenland voted in favor of increased self-rule in November 2008 and acquired greater responsibility for internal affairs when the Act on Greenland Self-Government was signed into law in June 2009. Denmark, however, continues to exercise control over several policy areas on behalf of Greenland, including foreign affairs, security, and financial policy in consultation with Greenland's Self-Rule Government.

 Geography
Dominates North Atlantic Ocean between North America and Europe; sparse population confined to small settlements along coast; close to one-quarter of the population lives in the capital, Nuuk; world's second largest ice sheet after that of Antarctica
Location: Northern North America, island between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic Ocean, northeast of Canada
Geographic coordinates: 72 00 N, 40 00 W
Area: total: 2,166,086 sq km
land: 2,166,086 sq km (410,449 sq km ice-free, 1,755,637 sq km ice-covered)

Size comparison: slightly more than three times the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 44,087 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 3 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm or agreed boundaries or median line
continental shelf: 200 nm or agreed boundaries or median line
Climate: arctic to subarctic; cool summers, cold winters
Terrain: flat to gradually sloping icecap covers all but a narrow, mountainous, barren, rocky coast
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: coal, iron ore, lead, zinc, molybdenum, diamonds, gold, platinum, niobium, tantalite, uranium, fish, seals, whales, hydropower, possible oil and gas
Land use: agricultural land: 0.6% arable land 0%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0.6% forest: 0%
other: 99.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: continuous permafrost over northern two-thirds of the island
Current Environment Issues: protection of the arctic environment; preservation of the Inuit traditional way of life, including whaling and seal hunting
^Back to Top
 People
Nationality: noun: Greenlander(s)
adjective: Greenlandic
Ethnic groups: Inuit 88%, Danish and other 12% (2010 est.)
Languages: Greenlandic (East Inuit) (official), Danish (official), English
Religions: Evangelical Lutheran, traditional Inuit spiritual beliefs
Population: 57,728 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 21.26% (male 6,237/female 6,034)
15-24 years: 15.81% (male 4,612/female 4,514)
25-54 years: 41.6% (male 12,597/female 11,416)
55-64 years: 12.43% (male 4,001/female 3,177)
65 years and over: 8.9% (male 2,754/female 2,386) (2016 est.)
Median age: total: 33.8 years
male: 35 years
female: 32.6 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: -0.02% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 14.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8.6 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -6 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 86.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.74% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: NUUK (capital) 17,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.1 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.26 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 1.15 male(s)/female
total population: 1.1 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 9 deaths/1,000 live births male: 10.3 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 72.4 years male: 69.7 years
female: 75.2 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.01 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Physicians density: 1.67 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 5.8 beds/1,000 population (2009)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Literacy:
^Back to Top
 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Greenland
local long form: none
local short form: Kalaallit Nunaat note: named by Norwegian adventurer Erik THORVALDSSON (Erik the Red) in 985 in order to entice settlers to the island
Government type: parliamentary democracy (Parliament of Greenland); part of the Kingdom of Denmark
Capital: name: Nuuk (Godthaab)
geographic coordinates: 64 11 N, 51 45 W
time difference: UTC-3 (2 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: Greenland has four time zones
Administrative divisions: 4 municipalities (kommuner, singular kommune); Kujalleq, Qaasuitsup, Qeqqata, Sermersooq

note: the North and East Greenland National Park (Avannaarsuani Tunumilu Nuna Allanngutsaaliugaq) and the Thule Air Base in Pituffik (in northwest Greenland) are two unincorporated areas; the national park's 972,000 sq km - about 46% of the island - makes it the largest national park in the world and also the most northerly
Independence: none (extensive self-rule as part of the Kingdom of Denmark; foreign affairs is the responsibility of Denmark, but Greenland actively participates in international agreements relating to Greenland)
National holiday: June 21 (longest day)
Constitution: previous 1953 (Greenland established as a constituency in the Danish constitution), 1979 (Greenland Home Rule Act); latest 21 June 2009 (Greenland Self-Government Act) (2016)
Legal system: the laws of Denmark apply where applicable and Greenlandic law applies to other areas
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: Queen MARGRETHE II of Denmark (since 14 January 1972), represented by High Commissioner Mikaela ENGELL (since April 2011)

head of government: Premier Kim KIELSEN (since 30 September 2014)

cabinet: Home Rule Government elected by the Parliament (Landsting) on the basis of the strength of parties elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; high commissioner appointed by the monarch; premier indirectly elected by Parliament

election results: Kim KIELSEN elected premier; Parliament vote - Kim KIELSEN (S) 34.3%, Sara OLSVIG (IA) 33.2%, Anda ULDUM (D) 11.8%, other 20.7%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament or Inatsisartut (Landsting) (31 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 4-year terms) note: two representatives were elected to the Danish Parliament or Folketing on 18 June 2015 (next to be held by June 2019); percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - Siumut 1, Inuit Ataqatigiit 1

elections: last held on 28 November 2014 (next to be held by 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - S 34.6%, IA 33.5%, D 11.9%, PN 11.7%, A 6.6%, other 1.7%; seats by party - S 11, IA 11, D 4, PN 3, A 2 (2013)
Judicial branch: highest court(s): High Court of Greenland (consists of the presiding professional judge and 2 lay assessors); note - appeals beyond the High Court of Greenland can be heard by the Supreme Court (in Copenhagen) judge selection and term of office: judges appointed by the monarch upon the recommendation of the Judicial Appointments Council, a 6-member independent body of judges and lawyers; judges appointed for life with retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Greenland; 18 district or magistrates' courts
Political parties and leaders: Democrats Party or D (Demokraatit) [Randi VESTERGAARD] Forward Party or S (Siumut) [Kim KIELSEN] Inuit Community or IA (Inuit Ataqatigiit) [Sara OLSVIG] Inuit Party or PI (Partii Inuit) [Nikku OLSEN] Partii Naleraq or PN [Hans ENOKSEN] Solidarity Party or A (Atassut) [Knud KRISTIANSEN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: conservationists; environmentalists; those wanting independence
International organization participation: Arctic Council, ICC, NC, NIB, UPU
National symbol(s): polar bear; national colors: red, white
National anthem: name: "Nunarput utoqqarsuanngoravit" ("Our Country, Who's Become So Old" also translated as "You Our Ancient Land")
lyrics/music: Henrik LUND/Jonathan PETERSEN

note: adopted 1916; the government also recognizes "Nuna asiilasooq" as a secondary anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark): note - Greenland has an office in the Danish Embassy to the US; it also has offices in the Danish consulates of Chicago and New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: none (self-governing overseas administrative division of Denmark); note - the US embassy in Copenhagen has an office devoted to Greenland
^Back to Top
 Economy
The economy remains critically dependent on exports of shrimp and fish, income from resource exploration and extraction, and on a substantial subsidy from the Danish Government. The subsidy was budgeted to be about $535 million in 2015, approximately 56% of government revenues that year. The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in Greenland's economy. Greenland's real GDP contracted about 5% from 2012 to 2014. Real growth is projected for 2015 and 2016 due to increasing world prices for fish and shellfish, public construction activities, and to a small degree from increased revenues from small-scale mining. During the last decade the Greenland Home Rule Government pursued conservative fiscal and monetary policies, but public pressure has increased for better schools, health care, and retirement systems. The public budget exhibited a deficit of 2% of GDP in 2014, but public debt remains low at about 5% of GDP. The Greenlandic economy has benefited from increasing catches and exports of shrimp, Greenland halibut and, more recently, mackerel. Due to Greenland's continued dependence on exports of fish - which accounted for 91% of exports in 2015 - the economy remains very sensitive to external demand and price fluctuations. The Greenlandic economy is expected to expand in 2016, but significant challenges face the island. High unemployment, structural challenges stemming from low levels of qualified labor, geographic dispersion, an undiversified economy, the long-term sustainability of the public budget, and a declining population due to emigration. Catches in fisheries have been declining in recent years and a reversal in prices will quickly lead to vulnerabilities. Hydrocarbon exploration has ceased with declining oil prices and currently only three mines are under development. The island has potential for natural resource exploitation with rare-earth, uranium, and iron ore mineral projects proposed. Tourism offers another avenue of economic growth for Greenland, with increasing numbers of cruise lines now operating in Greenland's western and southern waters during the peak summer tourism season. The economy remains critically dependent on exports of shrimp and fish, income from resource exploration and extraction, and on a substantial subsidy from the Danish Government. The subsidy was budgeted to be about $535 million in 2015, approximately 56% of government revenues that year. The public sector, including publicly owned enterprises and the municipalities, plays the dominant role in Greenland's economy. Greenland's real GDP contracted about 5% from 2012 to 2014. Real growth is projected for 2015 and 2016 due to increasing world prices for fish and shellfish, public construction activities, and to a small degree from increased revenues from small-scale mining. During the last decade the Greenland Home Rule Government pursued conservative fiscal and monetary policies, but public pressure has increased for better schools, health care, and retirement systems. The public budget exhibited a deficit of 2% of GDP in 2014, but public debt remains low at about 5% of GDP. The Greenlandic economy has benefited from increasing catches and exports of shrimp, Greenland halibut and, more recently, mackerel. Due to Greenland's continued dependence on exports of fish - which accounted for 91% of exports in 2015 - the economy remains very sensitive to external demand and price fluctuations. The Greenlandic economy is expected to expand in 2016, but significant challenges face the island. High unemployment, structural challenges stemming from low levels of qualified labor, geographic dispersion, an undiversified economy, the long-term sustainability of the public budget, and a declining population due to emigration. Catches in fisheries have been declining in recent years and a reversal in prices will quickly lead to vulnerabilities. Hydrocarbon exploration has ceased with declining oil prices and currently only three mines are under development. The island has potential for natural resource exploitation with rare-earth, uranium, and iron ore mineral projects proposed. Tourism offers another avenue of economic growth for Greenland, with increasing numbers of cruise lines now operating in Greenland's western and southern waters during the peak summer tourism season.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.173 billion (2014 est.) $2.154 billion (2013 est.) $2.165 billion (2012 est.)

note: data are in 2011 US dollars GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.173 billion (2014 est.) $2.154 billion (2013 est.) $2.165 billion (2012 est.) note: data are in 2011 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $2.16 billion (2011 est.) GDP (official exchange rate): $2.16 billion (2011 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 0.9% (2014 est.) -0.5% (2013 est.) 1.5% (2012 est.) 0.9% (2014 est.) -0.5% (2013 est.) 1.5% (2012 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $37,900 (2008 est.) $38,100 (2007 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $37,900 (2008 est.) $38,100 (2007 est.)
Agriculture - products: sheep, cow, reindeer, fish sheep, cow, reindeer, fish
Industries: fish processing (mainly shrimp and Greenland halibut); gold, zinc, anorthosite and ruby mining; handicrafts, hides and skins, small shipyards fish processing (mainly shrimp and Greenland halibut); gold, zinc, anorthosite and ruby mining; handicrafts, hides and skins, small shipyards
Industrial production growth rate: NA% NA%
Labor force: 26,990 (2012 est.) 26,990 (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 13.9%
industry: 19.2%
services: 67% (2012 est.) agriculture: 13.9% industry: 19.2% services: 67% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 9.4% (2013 est.) 4.2% (2010 est.) 9.4% (2013 est.) 4.2% (2010 est.)
Population below poverty line: 9.2% (2007 est.) 9.2% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $1.72 billion
expenditures: $1.68 billion (2010) revenues: $1.72 billion expenditures: $1.68 billion (2010)
Taxes and other revenues: 79.6% of GDP (2010) 79.6% of GDP (2010)
Fiscal year: calendar year calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (2012 est.) 2.8% (2011 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.8% (2012 est.) 2.8% (2011 est.)
Exports: $384.3 million (2010) $358 million (2009) $384.3 million (2010) $358 million (2009)
Exports - commodities: fish and fish products 91% (2015 est.) fish and fish products 91% (2015 est.)
Exports - partners: Denmark 51.6%, China 11.1%, Japan 9.1%, Russia 7.2% (2015) Denmark 51.6%, China 11.1%, Japan 9.1%, Russia 7.2% (2015)
Imports: $814.2 million (2010) $726 million (2009) $814.2 million (2010) $726 million (2009)
Imports - commodities: machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, petroleum products machinery and transport equipment, manufactured goods, food, petroleum products
Imports - partners: Denmark 67.1%, Sweden 14.1%, Iceland 5.1% (2015) Denmark 67.1%, Sweden 14.1%, Iceland 5.1% (2015)
Debt - external: $36.4 million (2010) $58 million (2009) $36.4 million (2010) $58 million (2009)
Exchange rates: Danish kroner (DKK) per US dollar - 6.865 (2016 est.) 6.7236 (2015 est.) 6.7236 (2014 est.) 5.3687 (2013 est.) 5.79 (2012 est.) Danish kroner (DKK) per US dollar - 6.865 (2016 est.) 6.7236 (2015 est.) 6.7236 (2014 est.) 5.3687 (2013 est.) 5.79 (2012 est.)
^Back to Top
 Energy
Electricity - production: 300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 300 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 96,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 6,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 4,633 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 600,000 Mt (2013 est.)
^Back to Top
 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 61,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 106 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: adequate domestic and international service provided by satellite, cables, and microwave radio relay; totally digital since 1995

domestic: microwave radio relay and satellite; the fundamental telecommunications infrastructure consists of a digital radio link from Nanortalik in south Greenland to Uummannaq in north Greenland; satellites cover north and east Greenland for domestic and foreign

international: country code - 299; satellite earth stations - 15 (12 Intelsat, 1 Eutelsat, 2 Americom GE-2 (all Atlantic Ocean)) (2015)
Broadcast media: the Greenland Broadcasting Company provides public radio and TV services throughout the island with a broadcast station and a series of repeaters; a few private local TV and radio stations; Danish public radio rebroadcasts are available (2015)
Internet country code: .gl
Internet users: total: 39,000 percent of population: 67.6% (July 2015 est.)
^Back to Top
 Transportation
Airports: 15 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 10

2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 5

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 2
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Roadways:

note: although there are short roads in towns, there are no roads between towns; inter-urban transport is either by sea or by air (2015)
Merchant marine:

registered in other countries: 1 (Denmark 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Sisimiut
^Back to Top
 Military
Defense is the responsibility of Denmark
Military branches: no regular military forces; the Government of Denmark has responsibility for defense; as such the Danish military’s Joint Arctic Command is responsible for territorial defense of Greenland (2016)
^Back to Top
 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: managed dispute between Canada and Denmark over Hans Island in the Kennedy Channel between Canada's Ellesmere Island and Greenland; Denmark (Greenland) and Norway have made submissions to the Commission on the Limits of the Continental Shelf (CLCS) and Russia is collecting additional data to augment its 2001 CLCS submission
^Back to Top


« Previous Country | Next Country »   Back to Flag Counter Overview


   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

Flag Counter