Ghana Population: 25,199,609

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 History
Formed from the merger of the British colony of the Gold Coast and the Togoland trust territory, Ghana in 1957 became the first sub-Saharan country in colonial Africa to gain its independence. Ghana endured a long series of coups before Lt. Jerry RAWLINGS took power in 1981 and banned political parties. After approving a new constitution and restoring multiparty politics in 1992, RAWLINGS won presidential elections in 1992 and 1996 but was constitutionally prevented from running for a third term in 2000. John KUFUOR succeeded him and was reelected in 2004. John Atta MILLS took over as head of state in early 2009, but he died in July 2012 and was succeeded by his vice president John Dramani MAHAMA, who subsequently won a December 2012 special presidential election.

 Geography
Lake Volta is the world's largest artificial lake by surface area (8,482 sq km; 3,275 sq mi)
Location: Western Africa, bordering the Gulf of Guinea, between Cote d'Ivoire and Togo
Geographic coordinates: 8 00 N, 2 00 W
Area: total: 238,533 sq km
land: 227,533 sq km
water: 11,000 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Oregon
Land Boundaries: total: 2,094 km
border countries: Burkina Faso 549 km, Cote d'Ivoire 668 km, Togo 877 km
Coastline: 539 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm
Climate: tropical; warm and comparatively dry along southeast coast; hot and humid in southwest; hot and dry in north
Terrain: mostly low plains with dissected plateau in south-central area
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m
highest point: Mount Afadjato 885 m
Natural resources: gold, timber, industrial diamonds, bauxite, manganese, fish, rubber, hydropower, petroleum, silver, salt, limestone
Land use: arable land: 20.12%
permanent crops: 11.74%
other: 68.14% (2011)
Irrigated land: 309 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: dry, dusty, northeastern harmattan winds from January to March; droughts
Current Environment Issues: recurrent drought in north severely affects agricultural activities; deforestation; overgrazing; soil erosion; poaching and habitat destruction threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; inadequate supplies of potable water
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Marine Life Conservation
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 People
Nationality: noun: Ghanaian(s)
adjective: Ghanaian
Ethnic groups: Akan 47.5%, Mole-Dagbon 16.6%, Ewe 13.9%, Ga-Dangme 7.4%, Gurma 5.7%, Guan 3.7%, Grusi 2.5%, Mande-Busanga 1.1%, other 1.6% (2010 census)
Languages: Asante 14.8%, Ewe 12.7%, Fante 9.9%, Boron (Brong) 4.6%, Dagomba 4.3%, Dangme 4.3%, Dagarte (Dagaba) 3.7%, Akyem 3.4%, Ga 3.4%, Akuapem 2.9%, other (includes English (official)) 36.1% (2000 census)
Religions: Christian 71.2% (Pentecostal/Charismatic 28.3%, Protestant 18.4%, Catholic 13.1%, other 11.4%), Muslim 17.6%, traditional 5.2%, other 0.8%, none 5.2% (2010 census)
Population: 25,199,609 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 38.7% (male 4,902,094/female 4,858,630)
15-24 years: 18.8% (male 2,360,293/female 2,382,573)
25-54 years: 33.7% (male 4,120,921/female 4,363,889)
55-64 years: 4.7% (male 577,431/female 610,716)
65 years and over: 4.1% (male 476,297/female 546,765) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 72.2 %
youth dependency ratio: 66.2 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6 %
potential support ratio: 16.7 (2013)
Median age: total: 20.7 years
male: 20.3 years
female: 21.2 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.19% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 31.7 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 7.53 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -2.23 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 51.9% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 3.5% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: ACCRA (capital) 2.269 million; Kumasi 1.773 million (2009)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.95 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.88 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.8 note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 350 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 39.7 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 43.8 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 35.48 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 65.32 years
male: 62.99 years
female: 67.71 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.12 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 23.5% (2008)
Health expenditures: 5.2% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.09 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 0.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 91% of population
rural: 80% of population
total: 86% of population

unimproved:
urban: 9% of population
rural: 20% of population
total: 14% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 19% of population
rural: 8% of population
total: 14% of population

unimproved:
urban: 81% of population
rural: 92% of population
total: 86% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.8% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 260,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 18,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 7.5% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 14.3% (2008)
Education expenditures: 8.2% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 71.5%
male: 78.3%
female: 65.3% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2012)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 16.6%
male: 16.4%
female: 16.7% (2000)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Ghana
conventional short form: Ghana former: Gold Coast
Government type: constitutional democracy
Capital: name: Accra
geographic coordinates: 5 33 N, 0 13 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 regions; Ashanti, Brong-Ahafo, Central, Eastern, Greater Accra, Northern, Upper East, Upper West, Volta, Western
Independence: 6 March 1957 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day, 6 March (1957)
Constitution: approved 28 April 1992
Legal system: mixed system of English common law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President John Dramani MAHAMA (since 24 July 2012); Vice President Kwesi Bekoe AMISSAH-ARTHUR (since 6 August 2012); note - President MAHAMA assumed office due to the death of former president John Atta MILLS and subsequently won the December 2012 presidential election; the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President John Dramani MAHAMA (since 24 July 2012); Vice President Kwesi Bekoe AMISSAH-ARTHUR (since 6 August 2012); note - President MAHAMA assumed office due to the death of former president John Atta MILLS and subsequently won the December 2012 presidential election

cabinet: Council of Ministers; president nominates members subject to approval by Parliament (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president and vice president elected on the same ticket by popular vote for four-year terms (eligible for a second term); election last held on 7 December 2012 (next to be held in December 2016)

election results: John Dramani MAHAMA elected president; percent of vote - John Dramani MAHAMA 50.7%, Nana Addo Dankwa AKUFO-ADDO 47.7%, other 1.6%
Legislative branch: unicameral Parliament (275 seats; members elected by direct, popular vote in single-seat constituencies to serve four-year terms)

elections: last held on 7 and 8 December 2012 (next to be held in December 2016)

election results: percent of vote by party - NPP 47.5%, NDC 46.4%, PNC 0.6%, independent 2.5%, other 3.0%; seats by party - NDC 151, NPP 120, PNC 1, independent 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of a chief justice and 12 justices) judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the president in consultation with the Council of State (a small advisory body of prominent citizens) and with the approval of Parliament; other justices appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Council (an 18-member independent body of judicial, military and police officials, and presidential nominees) and on the advice of the Council of State; justices can retire at age 60, with compulsory retirement at age 70

subordinate courts: Court of Appeal; High Court; Circuit Court; District Court; regional tribunals
Political parties and leaders: Convention People's Party or CPP [Samia NKRUMAH] Democratic Freedom Party or DFP [Obed Yao ASAMOAH] Democratic People’s Party or DPP [T.N. WARD BREW] Every Ghanaian Living Everywhere or EGLE [Henry GIDI] Great Consolidated Popular Party or GCPP [vacant] National Democratic Congress or NDC [Dr. Kwabena ADJEI] National Democratic Party or NDP [Nii Armah JOSIAH-AYEH] New Patriotic Party or NPP [Jake OBETSEBI-LAMPEY] People's National Convention or PNC [Alhaji Amed RAMADAN] National Reform Party [Peter KPORDUGBE] United Renaissance Party or URP [Kofi WAYO]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Christian Aid (water rights) Committee for Joint Action or CJA (education reform) National Coalition Against the Privatization of Water or CAP (water rights) Oxfam (water rights) Public Citizen (water rights) Students Coalition Against EPA [Kwabena Ososukene OKAI] (education reform) Third World Network (education reform)
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OAS (observer), OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): black star; golden eagle
National anthem: name: "God Bless Our Homeland Ghana"
lyrics/music: unknown/Philip GBEHO

note: music adopted 1957, lyrics adopted 1966; the lyrics were changed twice, once when a republic was declared in 1960 and again after a 1966 coup
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Daniel Ohene AGYEKUM
chancery: 3512 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 686-4520
FAX: [1] (202) 686-4527
consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gene CRETZ
embassy: 24 Fourth Circular Rd., Cantonments, Accra mailing address: P. O. Box 194, Accra
telephone: [233] 30-2741-000
FAX: [233] 30-2741-389
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 Economy
Ghana's economy has been strengthened by a quarter century of relatively sound management, a competitive business environment, and sustained reductions in poverty levels. Ghana is well endowed with natural resources and agriculture accounts for roughly one-quarter of GDP and employs more than half of the workforce, mainly small landholders. The services sector accounts for 50% of GDP. Gold and cocoa production and individual remittances are major sources of foreign exchange. Oil production at Ghana's offshore Jubilee field began in mid-December, 2010, and is expected to boost economic growth. President MAHAMA faces challenges in managing new oil revenue while maintaining fiscal discipline and resisting debt accumulation. Estimated oil reserves have jumped to almost 700 million barrels. Ghana signed a Millennium Challenge Corporation (MCC) Compact in 2006, which aims to assist in transforming Ghana''s agricultural sector. Ghana opted for debt relief under the Heavily Indebted Poor Country (HIPC) program in 2002, and is also benefiting from the Multilateral Debt Relief Initiative that took effect in 2006. In 2009 Ghana signed a three-year Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF to improve macroeconomic stability, private sector competitiveness, human resource development, and good governance and civic responsibility. Sound macro-economic management along with higher prices for oil, gold and, cocoa helped sustain high GDP growth in 2008-12, despite the general slowdown in the global economy during that same time period.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $83.74 billion (2012 est.) $78.28 billion (2011 est.) $68.43 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $38.94 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7% (2012 est.) 14.4% (2011 est.) 8% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $3,400 (2012 est.) $3,200 (2011 est.) $2,900 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 18.1% of GDP (2012 est.) 17.5% of GDP (2011 est.) 17.2% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 60.9%
government consumption: 13.6%
investment in fixed capital: 29%
investment in inventories: 6.9%
exports of goods and services: 45.9%
imports of goods and services: -56.2% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 60.9%
government consumption: 13.6%
investment in fixed capital: 29%
investment in inventories: 6.9%
exports of goods and services: 45.9%
imports of goods and services: -56.2% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: cocoa, rice, cassava (manioc), peanuts, corn, shea nuts, bananas; timber
Industries: mining, lumbering, light manufacturing, aluminum smelting, food processing, cement, small commercial ship building
Industrial production growth rate: 7% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 11.79 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 56%
industry: 15%
services: 29% (2005 est.)
Unemployment rate: 11% (2000 est.)
Population below poverty line: 28.5% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2%
highest 10%: 32.8% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 39.4 (2005-06) 40.7 (1999)
Budget: revenues: $9.282 billion
expenditures: $14.13 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 23.8% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 49.3% of GDP (2012 est.) 41.8% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 9.2% (2012 est.) 8.7% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$4.559 billion (2012 est.) -$3.675 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $13.73 billion (2012 est.) $12.79 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: oil, gold, cocoa, timber, tuna, bauxite, aluminum, manganese ore, diamonds, horticultural products
Exports - partners: France 13.3%, Italy 12.1%, Netherlands 8.7%, China 7.2%, Germany 4.2% (2012)
Imports: $17.56 billion (2012 est.) $15.84 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital equipment, petroleum, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: China 25.8%, Nigeria 10.9%, US 7%, Netherlands 6.3%, Singapore 4.5%, UK 4.1%, India 4% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $5.705 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $5.805 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $12.71 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $11.29 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $NA
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $NA
Market value of publicly traded shares: $3.097 billion (31 December 2011) $3.531 billion (31 December 2010) $2.508 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: cedis (GHC) per US dollar - 1.796 (2012 est.) 1.512 (2011 est.) 1.431 (2010 est.) 1.409 (2009) 1.1 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 8.764 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 97
Electricity - consumption: 6.122 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 752 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports: 198 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.985 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 40.6% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 59.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 72,580 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 14,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 43,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 660 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 27,260 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 61,590 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 7,275 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 24,390 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 120 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 120 million cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 22.65 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 10.58 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 284,700 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 119
Cellular Phones in use: 21.166 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: primarily microwave radio relay; wireless local loop has been installed; outdated and unreliable fixed-line infrastructure heavily concentrated in Accra

domestic: competition among multiple mobile-cellular providers has spurred growth with a subscribership of more than 80 per 100 persons and rising

international: country code - 233; landing point for the SAT-3/WASC, Main One, and GLO-1 fiber-optic submarine cables that provide connectivity to South Africa, Europe, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 4 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean); microwave radio relay link to Panaftel system connects Ghana to its neighbors (2009)
Broadcast media: state-owned TV station, 2 state-owned radio networks; several privately owned TV stations and a large number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of multiple international broadcasters are accessible; several cable and satellite TV subscription services are obtainable (2007)
Internet country code: .gh
Internet hosts: 59,086 (2012)
Internet users: 1.297 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 10 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 156
Airports (paved runways): total 7
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 2 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 3

914 to 1,523 m: 3 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 394 km; oil 20 km; refined products 361 km (2013)
Railways: total 947 km

narrow gauge: 947 km 1.067-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 109,515 km
paved: 13,787 km
unpaved: 95,728 km (2009)
Waterways: 1,293 km (168 km for launches and lighters on Volta, Ankobra, and Tano rivers; 1,125 km of arterial and feeder waterways on Lake Volta) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 4

by type: petroleum tanker 1, refrigerated cargo 3

foreign-owned: 2 (Brazil 1, South Korea 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Takoradi, Tema
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 Military
Military branches: Ghana Army, Ghana Navy, Ghana Air Force (2012)
Military service age and obligation: 18-26 years of age for voluntary military service, with basic education certificate; no conscription; must be HIV/AIDS negative (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 6,268,191
females age 16-49: 6,194,339 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 4,136,406
females age 16-49: 4,220,761 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 267,896
female: 260,992 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.7% of GDP (2009)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: disputed maritime border between Ghana and Cote d'Ivoire
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 5,156 (Liberia) (2012); 8,532 (Cote d'Ivoire; flight from 2010 post-election fighting) (2013)
Illicit drugs: illicit producer of cannabis for the international drug trade; major transit hub for Southwest and Southeast Asian heroin and, to a lesser extent, South American cocaine destined for Europe and the US; widespread crime and money laundering problem, but the lack of a well-developed financial infrastructure limits the country's utility as a money laundering center; significant domestic cocaine and cannabis use
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