France Population: 66,836,154

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 History
France today is one of the most modern countries in the world and is a leader among European nations. It plays an influential global role as a permanent member of the United Nations Security Council, NATO, the G-8, the G-20, the EU, and other multilateral organizations. France rejoined NATO's integrated military command structure in 2009, reversing DE GAULLE's 1966 decision to withdraw French forces from NATO. Since 1958, it has constructed a hybrid presidential-parliamentary governing system resistant to the instabilities experienced in earlier, more purely parliamentary administrations. In recent decades, its reconciliation and cooperation with Germany have proved central to the economic integration of Europe, including the introduction of a common currency, the euro, in January 1999. In the early 21st century, five French overseas entities - French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion - became French regions and were made part of France proper.

 Geography
Largest West European nation; most major French rivers - the Meuse, Seine, Loire, Charente, Dordogne, and Garonne - flow northward or westward into the Atlantic Ocean, only the Rhone flows southward into the Mediterranean Sea
Location: metropolitan France: Western Europe, bordering the Bay of Biscay and English Channel, between Belgium and Spain, southeast of the UK; bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Italy and Spain French Guiana: Northern South America, bordering the North Atlantic Ocean, between Brazil and Suriname Guadeloupe: Caribbean, islands between the Caribbean Sea and the North Atlantic Ocean, southeast of Puerto Rico Martinique: Caribbean, island between the Caribbean Sea and North Atlantic Ocean, north of Trinidad and Tobago Mayotte: Southern Indian Ocean, island in the Mozambique Channel, about halfway between northern Madagascar and northern Mozambique Reunion: Southern Africa, island in the Indian Ocean, east of Madagascar
Geographic coordinates: metropolitan France: 46 00 N, 2 00 E French Guiana: 4 00 N, 53 00 W Guadeloupe: 16 15 N, 61 35 W Martinique: 14 40 N, 61 00 W Mayotte: 12 50 S, 45 10 E Reunion: 21 06 S, 55 36 E
Area: total: 643,801 sq km; 551,500 sq km (metropolitan France)
land: 640,427 sq km; 549,970 sq km (metropolitan France)
water: 3,374 sq km; 1,530 sq km (metropolitan France)

note: the first numbers include the overseas regions of French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion

Size comparison: slightly more than four times the size of Georgia; slightly less than the size of Texas
Land Boundaries: metropolitan France - total: 2,751 km border countries (8): Andorra 55 km, Belgium 556 km, Germany 418 km, Italy 476 km, Luxembourg 69 km, Monaco 6 km, Spain 646 km, Switzerland 525 km French Guiana - total: 1,205 km border countries (2): Brazil 649 km, Suriname 556 km
Coastline: total: 4,853 km metropolitan France: 3,427 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm (does not apply to the Mediterranean Sea)
continental shelf: 200-m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: metropolitan France: generally cool winters and mild summers, but mild winters and hot summers along the Mediterranean; occasional strong, cold, dry, north-to-northwesterly wind known as mistral French Guiana: tropical; hot, humid; little seasonal temperature variation Guadeloupe and Martinique: subtropical tempered by trade winds; moderately high humidity; rainy season (June to October); vulnerable to devastating cyclones (hurricanes) every eight years on average Mayotte: tropical; marine; hot, humid, rainy season during northeastern monsoon (November to May); dry season is cooler (May to November) Reunion: tropical, but temperature moderates with elevation; cool and dry (May to November), hot and rainy (November to April)
Terrain: metropolitan France: mostly flat plains or gently rolling hills in north and west; remainder is mountainous, especially Pyrenees in south, Alps in east French Guiana: low-lying coastal plains rising to hills and small mountains Guadeloupe: Basse-Terre is volcanic in origin with interior mountains; Grande-Terre is low limestone formation; most of the seven other islands are volcanic in origin Martinique: mountainous with indented coastline; dormant volcano Mayotte: generally undulating, with deep ravines and ancient volcanic peaks Reunion: mostly rugged and mountainous; fertile lowlands along coast
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: metropolitan France: coal, iron ore, bauxite, zinc, uranium, antimony, arsenic, potash, feldspar, fluorspar, gypsum, timber, arable land, fish French Guiana: gold deposits, petroleum, kaolin, niobium, tantalum, clay
Land use: agricultural land: 52.7% arable land 33.4%; permanent crops 1.8%; permanent pasture 17.5% forest: 29.2%
other: 18.1% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: total: 26,420 sq km 26,950 sq km metropolitan France: 26,000 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: metropolitan France: flooding; avalanches; midwinter windstorms; drought; forest fires in south near the Mediterranean overseas departments: hurricanes (cyclones); flooding; volcanic activity (Guadeloupe, Martinique, Reunion)
Current Environment Issues: some forest damage from acid rain; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from urban wastes, agricultural runoff
International Environment Agreements: party to: Air Pollution, Air Pollution-Nitrogen Oxides, Air Pollution-Persistent Organic Pollutants, Air Pollution-Sulfur 85, Air Pollution-Sulfur 94, Air Pollution-Volatile Organic Compounds, Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Frenchman(men), Frenchwoman(women)
adjective: French
Ethnic groups: Celtic and Latin with Teutonic, Slavic, North African, Indochinese, Basque minorities overseas departments: black, white, mulatto, East Indian, Chinese, Amerindian
Languages: French (official) 100%, rapidly declining regional dialects and languages (Provencal, Breton, Alsatian, Corsican, Catalan, Basque, Flemish) overseas departments: French, Creole patois, Mahorian (a Swahili dialect)
Religions: Christian (overwhelmingly Roman Catholic) 63-66%, Muslim 7-9%, Buddhist 0.5-0.75%, Jewish 0.5-0.75%, other 0.5-1.0%, none 23-28%

note: France maintains a tradition of secularism and has not officially collected data on religious affiliation since the 1872 national census, which complicates assessments of France's religious composition; an 1872 law prohibiting state authorities from collecting data on individuals' ethnicity or religious beliefs was reaffirmed by a 1978 law emphasizing the prohibition of the collection or exploitation of personal data revealing an individual's race, ethnicity, or political, philosophical, or religious opinions; a 1905 law codified France's separation of church and state (2015 est.)
Population: 66,836,154 note: the above figure is for metropolitan France and five overseas regions; the metropolitan France population is 62,814,233 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 18.59% (male 6,354,241/female 6,070,971)
15-24 years: 11.8% (male 4,035,407/female 3,853,153)
25-54 years: 38.04% (male 12,799,923/female 12,625,781)
55-64 years: 12.44% (male 4,011,853/female 4,303,261)
65 years and over: 19.12% (male 5,510,337/female 7,271,227) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 60.3%
youth dependency ratio: 29.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 30.6%
potential support ratio: 3.3% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 41.2 years
male: 39.5 years
female: 42.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.41% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 12.3 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 9.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 1.1 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 79.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 0.84% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: PARIS (capital) 10.843 million; Lyon 1.609 million; Marseille-Aix-en-Provence 1.605 million; Lille 1.027 million; Nice-Cannes 967,000; Toulouse 938,000 (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.75 male(s)/female
total population: 0.96 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 28.1 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 8 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 3.3 deaths/1,000 live births male: 3.6 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 2.9 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 81.8 years male: 78.7 years
female: 85.1 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.07 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 76.4% note: percent of women aged 20-49 (2008)
Health expenditures: 11.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 3.19 physicians/1,000 population (2013)
Hospital bed density: 6.4 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 100% of population
total: 100% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0% of population
rural: 0% of population
total: 0% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98.6% of population
rural: 98.9% of population
total: 98.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1.4% of population
rural: 1.1% of population
total: 1.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,500 (2013 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 25.7% (2014)
Education expenditures: 5.5% of GDP (2013)
Literacy:
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 16 years male: 16 years
female: 17 years (2014)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 23.2% male: 24.1%
female: 22.1% (2014 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: French Republic
conventional short form: France
local long form: Republique francaise
local short form: France
etymology: name derives from the Latin "Francia" meaning "Land of the Franks"; the Franks were a group of Germanic tribes located along the middle and lower Rhine River in the 3rd century A.D. who merged with Gallic-Roman populations in succeeding centuries and to whom they passed on their name
Government type: semi-presidential republic
Capital: name: Paris
geographic coordinates: 48 52 N, 2 20 E
time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, begins last Sunday in March; ends last Sunday in October

note: applies to metropolitan France only, not to its overseas departments, collectivities, or territories
Administrative divisions: 18 regions (regions, singular - region); Auvergne-Rhone-Alpes, Bourgogne-Franche-Comte (Burgundy-Free County), Bretagne (Brittany), Centre-Val de Loire (Center-Loire Valley), Corse (Corsica), Grand Est (Grand East), Guadeloupe, Guyane (French Guiana), Hauts-de-France (Upper France), Ile-de-France, Martinique, Mayotte, Normandie (Normandy), Nouvelle-Aquitaine (New Aquitaine), Occitanie (Occitania), Pays de la Loire (Lands of the Loire), Provence-Alpes-Cote d'Azur, Reunion

note: France is divided into 13 metropolitan regions (including the "territorial collectivity" of Corse or Corsica) and 5 overseas regions (French Guiana, Guadeloupe, Martinique, Mayotte, and Reunion) and is subdivided into 96 metropolitan departments and 5 overseas departments (which are the same as the overseas regions)
Dependent areas: Clipperton Island, French Polynesia, French Southern and Antarctic Lands, New Caledonia, Saint Barthelemy, Saint Martin, Saint Pierre and Miquelon, Wallis and Futuna note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica; New Caledonia has been considered a "sui generis" collectivity of France since 1998, a unique status falling between that of an independent country and a French overseas department
Independence: no official date of independence: 486 (Frankish tribes unified under Merovingian kingship); 10 August 843 (Western Francia established from the division of the Carolingian Empire); 14 July 1789 (French monarchy overthrown); 22 September 1792 (First French Republic founded); 4 October 1958 (Fifth French Republic established)
National holiday: Fete de la Federation, 14 July (1790); note - although often incorrectly referred to as Bastille Day, the celebration actually commemorates the holiday held on the first anniversary of the storming of the Bastille (on 14 July 1789) and the establishment of a constitutional monarchy; other names for the holiday are Fete Nationale (National Holiday) and quatorze juillet (14th of July)
Constitution: history: many previous; latest effective 4 October 1958 amendments: proposed by the president of the republic (upon recommendation of the prime minister and Parliament) or by members of Parliament; proposals submitted by Parliament members require passage by both houses followed by approval in a referendum; passage of proposals submitted by the government can bypass a referendum if submitted by the president to Parliament and passed by at least three-fifths majority vote by Parliament’s National Assembly; amended many times, last in 2008 (2016)
Legal system: civil law; review of administrative but not legislative acts
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Francois HOLLANDE (since 15 May 2012)

head of government: Prime Minister Bernard CAZENEUVE (since 6 December 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president at the suggestion of the prime minister elections/appointments: president directly elected by absolute majority popular vote in 2 rounds if needed for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 22 April and 6 May 2012 (next to be held in the spring of 2017); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Francois HOLLANDE elected president; percent of vote in first round - Francois HOLLANDE (PS) 28.6%, Nicolas SARKOZY (UMP) 27.2%, Marine LE PEN (FN) 17.9%, Jean-Luc MELENCHON (PG) 11.1%, Francois BAYROU (moDem) 9.1%, other 6.1%; percent of vote in second round - HOLLANDE 51.6%, SARKOZY 48.4%
Legislative branch: description: bicameral Parliament or Parlement consists of the Senate or Senat (348 seats - 328 for metropolitan France and overseas departments and regions of Guadeloupe, Martinque, French Guiana, Reunion, and Mayotte, 2 for New Caledonia, 2 for French Polynesia, 1 for Saint-Pierre and Miquelon, 1 for Saint-Barthelemy, 1 for Saint-Martin, 1 for Wallis and Futuna, and 12 for French nationals abroad; members indirectly elected by departmental electoral colleges using absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed for departments with 1-3 members and proportional representation vote in departments with 4 or more members; members serve 6-year terms with one-half of the membership renewed every 3 years) and the National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (577 seats - 556 for metropolitan France, 10 for overseas departments, and 11 for citizens abroad; members directly elected by absolute majority vote in two rounds if needed to serve 5-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 28 September 2014 (next to be held in September 2017); National Assembly - last held on 10 and 17 June 2012 (next to be held in June 2017)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - UMP 187, PS 152, other 9; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - PS 48.5%, UMP 33.6%, miscellaneous left wing parties 3.8%, Greens 3.0%, miscellaneous right wing parties 2.6%, NC 2.1%, PRG 2.1%, FDG 1.7%, other 2.6%; seats by party - PS 280, UMP 194, miscellaneous left wing parties 22, Greens 17, miscellaneous right wing parties 15, NC 12, PRG 12, FDG 10, other 15
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Cour de Cassation (consists of the court president, 6 divisional presiding judges, 120 trial judges, and 70 deputy judges organized into 6 divisions - 3 civil, 1 commercial, 1 labor, and 1 criminal); Constitutional Council (consists of 9 members) judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judges appointed by the president of the republic from nominations from the High Council of the Judiciary, presided by the Court of Cassation and 15 appointed members; judges appointed for life; Constitutional Council members appointed - 3 by the president of the republic and 3 each by the National Assembly and Senate presidents; members serve 9-year, non-renewable terms with one third of the membership renewed every 3 years

subordinate courts: appellate courts or Cour d'Appel; regional courts or Tribunal de Grande Instance; first instance courts or Tribunal d'instance
Political parties and leaders: Europe Ecology - The Greens or EELV [David CORMAND] French Communist Party or PCF [Pierre LAURENT] Left Front Coalition or FDG [Jean-Luc MELENCHON] Left Party or PG [Jean-Luc MELENCHON and Martine BILLARD] Left Radical Party or PRG [Sylvia PINEL] (previously Radical Socialist Party or PRS and the Left Radical Movement or MRG) Movement for France or MPF [Philippe DE VILLIERS] National Front or FN [Marine LE PEN] New Anticapitalist Party or NPA [collective leadership; main spokesperson Christine POUPIN] New Center or NC [Herve MORIN] Radical Party [Jean-Louis BORLOO] Rally for France or RPF [Igor KUREK] Republican and Citizen Movement or MRC [Jean-Luc LAURENT] Socialist Party or PS [Jean-Christophe CAMBADELIS] The Republicans (formerly Union for a Popular Movement or UMP) [Francois FILLON] Union des Democrates et Independants or UDI [Jean-Christohe LAGARDE] and Democratic Movement or MoDem [Francois BAYROU] (previously Union for French Democracy or UDF); together known as UDI-Modem United Republic or RS [Dominique DE VILLEPIN] Worker's Struggle (Lutte Ouvriere) or LO [collective leadership; spokespersons Nathalie ARTHAUD and Arlette LAQUILLER]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Confederation francaise de l'encadrement - Confederation generale des cadres (French Confederation of Management - General Confederation of Executives) or CFE-CGC [Francois HOMMERIL, president] (independent white-collar union with 140,000 members) Confederation Francaise Democratique du Travail (French Democratic Confederation of Labor) or CFDT [Laurent BERGER, secretary general] (left-leaning labor union with approximately 875,000 members) Confederation francaise des travailleurs chretiens (French Confederation of Christian Workers) or CFTC [Philippe LOUIS, president] (independent labor union founded by Catholic workers that claims 142,000 members) Confederation generale du travail (General Confederation of Labor) or CGT [Philippe MARTINEZ, secretary general] (historically communist labor union with approximately 710,000 members) Confederation generale du travail - Force ouvriere (General Confederation of Labor - Worker's Force) or FO [Jean-Claude MAILLY, secretary general] (independent labor union with an estimated 300,000 members) Mouvement des entreprises de France or MEDEF [Pierre GATTAZ, president] (employers' union with claimed 750,000 companies as members) French Guiana: conservationists; gold mining pressure groups; hunting pressure groups Guadeloupe: Christian Movement for the Liberation of Guadeloupe or KLPG General Federation of Guadeloupe Workers or CGT-G General Union of Guadeloupe Workers or UGTG Movement for an Independent Guadeloupe or MPGI The Socialist Renewal Movement Martinique: Caribbean Revolutionary Alliance or ARC Central Union for Martinique Workers or CSTM Frantz Fanon Circle League of Workers and Peasants Proletarian Action Group or GAP Reunion: NA
International organization participation: ADB (nonregional member), AfDB (nonregional member), Arctic Council (observer), Australia Group, BDEAC, BIS, BSEC (observer), CBSS (observer), CE, CERN, EAPC, EBRD, ECB, EIB, EITI (implementing country), EMU, ESA, EU, FAO, FATF, FZ, G-5, G-7, G-8, G-10, G-20, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IEA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD (partners), IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, InOC, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MINUSTAH, MONUSCO, NATO, NEA, NSG, OAS (observer), OECD, OIF, OPCW, OSCE, Pacific Alliance (observer), Paris Club, PCA, PIF (partner), Schengen Convention, SELEC (observer), SPC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, Union Latina, UNMIL, UNOCI, UNRWA, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): Gallic rooster, fleur-de-lis, Marianne (female personification); national colors: blue, white, red
National anthem: name: "La Marseillaise" (The Song of Marseille)
lyrics/music: Claude-Joseph ROUGET de Lisle

note: adopted 1795, restored 1870; originally known as "Chant de Guerre pour l'Armee du Rhin" (War Song for the Army of the Rhine), the National Guard of Marseille made the song famous by singing it while marching into Paris in 1792 during the French Revolutionary Wars
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Gerard ARAUD (since 18 September 2014)
chancery: 4101 Reservoir Road NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 944-6000
FAX: [1] (202) 944-6166
consulate(s) general: Atlanta, Boston, Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, Miami, New Orleans, New York, San Francisco, Washington DC
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Jane D. HARTLEY (since 5 November 2014); note - also accredited to Monaco
embassy: 2 Avenue Gabriel, 75382 Paris Cedex 08
mailing address: PSC 116, APO AE 09777
telephone: [33] (1) 43-12-22-22
FAX: [33] (1) 42 66 97 83
consulate(s) general: Marseille, Strasbourg
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 Economy
The French economy is diversified across all sectors. The government has partially or fully privatized many large companies, including Air France, France Telecom, Renault, and Thales. However, the government maintains a strong presence in some sectors, particularly power, public transport, and defense industries. With more than 84 million foreign tourists per year, France is the most visited country in the world and maintains the third largest income in the world from tourism. France's leaders remain committed to a capitalism in which they maintain social equity by means of laws, tax policies, and social spending that mitigate economic inequality. France's real GDP increased by 1.1% in 2015. The unemployment rate (including overseas territories) increased from 7.8% in 2008 to 9.9% in the fourth quarter of 2014. Youth unemployment in metropolitan France decreased from a high of 25.4% in the fourth quarter of 2012 to 24.3% in the fourth quarter of 2014. Lower-than-expected growth and high spending have strained France's public finances. The budget deficit rose sharply from 3.3% of GDP in 2008 to 7.5% of GDP in 2009 before improving to 4% of GDP in 2014 and 2015, while France's public debt rose from 68% of GDP to more than 98% in 2015, and may hit 100% in 2016. Elected on a conventionally leftist platform, President Francois HOLLANDE surprised and angered many supporters with a January 2014 speech announcing a sharp change in his economic policy, recasting himself as a liberalizing reformer. The government's budget for 2014 shifted the balance of fiscal consolidation from taxes to a total of $24 billion in spending cuts. In December 2014, HOLLANDE announced additional reforms, including a plan to extend commercial business hours, liberalize professional services, and sell off $6.2-12.4 billion in state owned assets. France’s tax burden remains well above the EU average and income tax cuts over the past decade are being partly reversed, particularly for higher earners. The top rate of income tax is 41%. The government is allowing a 75% payroll tax on salaries over $1.24 million to lapse.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.737 trillion (2016 est.) $2.701 trillion (2015 est.) $2.667 trillion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $2.488 trillion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 1.3% (2016 est.) 1.3% (2015 est.) 0.6% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $42,400 (2016 est.) $42,000 (2015 est.) $41,700 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 21.9% of GDP (2016 est.) 22.2% of GDP (2015 est.) 21.4% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 54.8%
government consumption: 23.8%
investment in fixed capital: 21.8%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 29.9%
imports of goods and services: -31% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 54.8%
government consumption: 23.8%
investment in fixed capital: 21.8%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 29.9%
imports of goods and services: -31% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: wheat, cereals, sugar beets, potatoes, wine grapes; beef, dairy products; fish
Industries: machinery, chemicals, automobiles, metallurgy, aircraft, electronics; textiles, food processing; tourism
Industrial production growth rate: 1% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 30.48 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 3%
industry: 21.3%
services: 75.7% (2013 est.)
Unemployment rate: 9.7% (2016 est.) 10.1% (2015 est.) note: includes overseas territories
Population below poverty line: 8.1% (2012 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.6%
highest 10%: 25.4% (2013)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 30.1 (2013) 30.5 (2012)
Budget: revenues: $1.288 trillion
expenditures: $1.369 trillion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 51.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 96.5% of GDP (2016 est.) 96.2% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: data cover general government debt and include debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as int
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 0.3% (2016 est.) 0.1% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$11.52 billion (2016 est.) -$4.832 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $505.4 billion (2016 est.) $510.5 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: machinery and transportation equipment, aircraft, plastics, chemicals, pharmaceutical products, iron and steel, beverages
Exports - partners: Germany 15.9%, Spain 7.3%, US 7.2%, Italy 7.1%, UK 7.1%, Belgium 6.8% (2015)
Imports: $525.4 billion (2016 est.) $537.5 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, vehicles, crude oil, aircraft, plastics, chemicals
Imports - partners: Germany 19.5%, Belgium 10.7%, Italy 7.7%, Netherlands 7.5%, Spain 6.8%, US 5.5%, China 5.4%, UK 4.3% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $138.2 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $143.4 billion (31 December 2014 est.)
Debt - external: $5.36 trillion (31 March 2016 est.) $5.25 trillion (31 March 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $796.8 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $773.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $1.339 trillion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.316 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $2.088 trillion (31 December 2015 est.) $2.086 trillion (31 December 2014 est.) $2.301 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: euros (EUR) per US dollar - 0.9214 (2016 est.) 0.885 (2015 est.) 0.885 (2014 est.) 0.7634 (2013 est.) 0.7752 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 534 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 431 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 75 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 7.9 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 129 million kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 20.3% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 48.8% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 14.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 11.2% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 16,670 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 21,960 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 1.174 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 84.08 million bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 1.277 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 1.691 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 444,900 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 866,500 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Natural gas - production: 17 million cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 36.72 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 7.077 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 45.13 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 8.75 billion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 385.6 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 66.681 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 100 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: highly developed

domestic: extensive cable and microwave radio relay; extensive use of fiber-optic cable; domestic satellite system

international: country code - 33; numerous submarine cables provide links throughout Europe, Asia, Australia, the Middle East, and US; satellite earth stations - more than 3 (2 Intelsat (with total of 5 antennas - 2 for Indian Ocean and 3 for Atlantic Ocean), NA Eutelsa overseas departments: country codes: French Guiana - 594; Guadeloupe - 590; Martinique - 596; Mayotte - 262; Reunion - 262 (2015)
Broadcast media: a mix of both publicly operated and privately owned TV stations; state-owned France television stations operate 4 networks, one of which is a network of regional stations, and has part-interest in several thematic cable/satellite channels and internationa (2008)
Internet country code: metropolitan France - .fr; French Guiana - .gf; Guadeloupe - .gp; Martinique - .mq; Mayotte - .yt; Reunion - .re
Internet users: total: 56.367 million percent of population: 84.7% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 464 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 294
over 3,047 m: 14
2,438 to 3,047 m: 25
1,524 to 2,437 m: 97
914 to 1,523 m: 83
under 914 m: 75 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 170

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 64
under 914 m: 105 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 15,322 km; oil 2,939 km; refined products 5,084 km (2013)
Railways: total 29,640 km
standard gauge: 29,473 km 1.435-m gauge (15,561 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 167 km 1.000-m gauge (63 km electrified) (2014)
Roadways: total 1,028,446 km
(metropolitan France) paved: 1,028,446 km (includes 11,416 km of expressways)

note: not included are 5,100 km of roadways in overseas departments (2010)
Waterways: metropolitan France: 8,501 km (1,621 km navigable by craft up to 3,000 metric tons) (2010)
Merchant marine: total 162

by type: bulk carrier 3, cargo 7, chemical tanker 34, container 27, liquefied gas 12, passenger 10, passenger/cargo 41, petroleum tanker 16, refrigerated cargo 1, roll on/roll off 11

foreign-owned: 50 (Belgium 7, Bermuda 5, Denmark 11, French Polynesia 11, Germany 1, New Caledonia 3, Singapore 3, Sweden 4, Switzerland 5)

registered in other countries: 151 (Bahamas 15, Belgium 7, Bermuda 1, Canada 1, Cyprus 16, Egypt 1, Hong Kong 4, Indonesia 1, Ireland 2, Italy 2, Luxembourg 15, Malta 8, Marshall Islands 7, Mexico 1, Morocco 3, Netherlands 2, Norway 5, Panama 7, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Singapor (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Brest, Calais, Dunkerque, Le Havre, Marseille, Nantes,
river port(s): Paris, Rouen (Seine); Strasbourg (Rhine); Bordeaux (Garronne)
container port(s): Le Havre (2,215,262)(2011) cruise/ferry port(s): Calais, Cherbourg, Le Havre LNG terminal(s) (import): Fos Cavaou, Fos Tonkin, Montoir de Bretagne
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 Military
Military branches: Army (Armee de Terre; includes Marines, Foreign Legion, Army Light Aviation), Navy (Marine Nationale), Air Force (Armee de l'Air (AdlA); includes Air Defense) (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18-25 years of age for male and female voluntary military service; no conscription; 1-year service obligation; women serve in noncombat posts (2013)
Military expenditures: 1.8% of GDP (2014) 1.9% of GDP (2013) 1.9% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Madagascar claims the French territories of Bassas da India, Europa Island, Glorioso Islands, and Juan de Nova Island; Comoros claims Mayotte; Mauritius claims Tromelin Island; territorial dispute between Suriname and the French overseas department of French Guiana; France asserts a territorial claim in Antarctica (Adelie Land); France and Vanuatu claim Matthew and Hunter Islands, east of New Caledonia
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 24,220 (Sri Lanka); 14,195 (Russia); 14,182 (Democratic Republic of the Congo); 12,500 (Serbia and Kosovo); 11,824 (Cambodia); 10,652 (Turkey); 8,132 (Vietnam); 6,944 (Laos); 6,005 (Guinea); 5,179 (Syria); 5,006 (Mauritania) (2015)
stateless persons: 1,326 (2015)
Illicit drugs: metropolitan France: transshipment point for South American cocaine, Southwest Asian heroin, and European synthetics French Guiana: small amount of marijuana grown for local consumption; minor transshipment point to Europe Martinique: transshipment point for cocaine and marijuana bound for the US and Europe
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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