Egypt Population: 85,294,388


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The regularity and richness of the annual Nile River flood, coupled with semi-isolation provided by deserts to the east and west, allowed for the development of one of the world's great civilizations. A unified kingdom arose circa 3200 B.C., and a series of dynasties ruled in Egypt for the next three millennia. The last native dynasty fell to the Persians in 341 B.C., who in turn were replaced by the Greeks, Romans, and Byzantines. It was the Arabs who introduced Islam and the Arabic language in the 7th century and who ruled for the next six centuries. A local military caste, the Mamluks took control about 1250 and continued to govern after the conquest of Egypt by the Ottoman Turks in 1517. Completion of the Suez Canal in 1869 elevated Egypt as an important world transportation hub. Ostensibly to protect its investments, Britain seized control of Egypt's government in 1882, but nominal allegiance to the Ottoman Empire continued until 1914. Partially independent from the UK in 1922, Egypt acquired full sovereignty from Britain in 1952. The completion of the Aswan High Dam in 1971 and the resultant Lake Nasser have altered the time-honored place of the Nile River in the agriculture and ecology of Egypt. A rapidly growing population (the largest in the Arab world), limited arable land, and dependence on the Nile all continue to overtax resources and stress society. The government has struggled to meet the demands of Egypt's population through economic reform and massive investment in communications and physical infrastructure. Inspired by the 2010 Tunisian revolution, Egyptian opposition groups led demonstrations and labor strikes countrywide, culminating in President Hosni MUBARAK's ouster. Egypt's military assumed national leadership until a new parliament was in place in early 2012. That same year, Mohammed MURSI won the presidential election and a new constitution was affirmed. In July 2013, the military ousted MURSI and he was replaced by interim president Adly MANSOUR.

Controls Sinai Peninsula, only land bridge between Africa and remainder of Eastern Hemisphere; controls Suez Canal, a sea link between Indian Ocean and Mediterranean Sea; size, and juxtaposition to Israel, establish its major role in Middle Eastern geopolitics; dependence on upstream neighbors; dominance of Nile basin issues; prone to influxes of refugees from Sudan and the Palestinian territories
Location: Northern Africa, bordering the Mediterranean Sea, between Libya and the Gaza Strip, and the Red Sea north of Sudan, and includes the Asian Sinai Peninsula
Geographic coordinates: 27 00 N, 30 00 E
Area: total: 1,001,450 sq km
land: 995,450 sq km
water: 6,000 sq km

Size comparison: slightly more than three times the size of New Mexico
Land Boundaries: total: 2,665 km
border countries: Gaza Strip 11 km, Israel 266 km, Libya 1,115 km, Sudan 1,273 km
Coastline: 2,450 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 m depth or to the depth of exploitation
Climate: desert; hot, dry summers with moderate winters
Terrain: vast desert plateau interrupted by Nile valley and delta
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Qattara Depression -133 m
highest point: Mount Catherine 2,629 m
Natural resources: petroleum, natural gas, iron ore, phosphates, manganese, limestone, gypsum, talc, asbestos, lead, rare earth elements, zinc
Land use: arable land: 2.87%
permanent crops: 0.79%
other: 96.34% (2011)
Irrigated land: 34,220 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; frequent earthquakes; flash floods; landslides; hot, driving windstorms called khamsin occur in spring; dust storms; sandstorms
Current Environment Issues: agricultural land being lost to urbanization and windblown sands; increasing soil salination below Aswan High Dam; desertification; oil pollution threatening coral reefs, beaches, and marine habitats; other water pollution from agricultural pesticides, raw sewage, and industrial effluents; limited natural freshwater resources away from the Nile, which is the only perennial water source; rapid growth in population overstraining the Nile and natural resources
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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Nationality: noun: Egyptian(s)
adjective: Egyptian
Ethnic groups: Egyptian 99.6%, other 0.4% (2006 census)
Languages: Arabic (official), English and French widely understood by educated classes
Religions: Muslim (mostly Sunni) 90%, Coptic 9%, other Christian 1%
Population: 85,294,388 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.3% (male 14,100,807/female 13,474,763)
15-24 years: 18% (male 7,861,197/female 7,471,045)
25-54 years: 38.3% (male 16,565,411/female 16,072,992)
55-64 years: 6.6% (male 2,801,205/female 2,842,786)
65 years and over: 4.8% (male 1,844,456/female 2,259,726) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 58.5 %
youth dependency ratio: 49.4 %
elderly dependency ratio: 9.1 %
potential support ratio: 10.9 (2013)
Median age: total: 24.8 years
male: 24.5 years
female: 25.2 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.88% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 23.79 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 4.79 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.2 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 43.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.04% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: CAIRO (capital) 11.169 million; Alexandria 4.387 million (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.05 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.06 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 1.03 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 22.9 (2008 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 66 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 23.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 24.83 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 21.7 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 73.19 years
male: 70.57 years
female: 75.93 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.9 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 60.3% (2008)
Health expenditures: 4.7% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 2.83 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 1.7 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 100% of population
rural: 99% of population
total: 99% of population

urban: 0% of population
rural: 1% of population
total: 1% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 97% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 95% of population

urban: 3% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 5% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 11,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 500 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 33.1% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 6.8% (2008)
Education expenditures: 3.8% of GDP (2008)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 73.9%
male: 81.7%
female: 65.8% (2012 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 12 years
male: 13 years
female: 12 years (2010)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 24.8%
male: 14.7%
female: 54.1% (2010)
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Country name: conventional long form: Arab Republic of Egypt
conventional short form: Egypt
local long form: Jumhuriyat Misr al-Arabiyah
local short form: Misr
former: United Arab Republic (with Syria)
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Cairo
geographic coordinates: 30 03 N, 31 15 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 27 governorates (muhafazat, singular - muhafazat); Ad Daqahliyah, Al Bahr al Ahmar (Red Sea), Al Buhayrah, Al Fayyum, Al Gharbiyah, Al Iskandariyah (Alexandria), Al Isma'iliyah (Ismailia), Al Jizah (Giza), Al Minufiyah, Al Minya, Al Qahirah (Cairo), Al Qalyubiyah, Al Uqsur (Luxor), Al Wadi al Jadid (New Valley), As Suways (Suez), Ash Sharqiyah, Aswan, Asyut, Bani Suwayf, Bur Sa'id (Port Said), Dumyat (Damietta), Janub Sina' (South Sinai), Kafr ash Shaykh, Matruh, Qina, Shamal Sina' (North Sinai), Suhaj
Independence: 28 February 1922 (from UK protectorate status; the revolution that began on 23 July 1952 led to a republic being declared on 18 June 1953 and all British troops withdrawn on 18 June 1956); note - it was ca. 3200 B.C. that the Two Lands of Upper (southern) and Lower (northern) Egypt were first united politically
National holiday: Revolution Day, 23 July (1952)
Constitution: new constitution passed by referendum 15-22 December 2012, signed by the president 26 December 2012 (suspended 3 July 2013 by the military)
Legal system: mixed legal system based on Napoleonic civil law and Islamic religious law; judicial review by Supreme Court and Council of State (oversees validity of administrative decisions)
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: Interim President Adly MANSOUR (since July 2013)

head of government: Interim Prime Minister Hazem el-BEBLAWI (since July 2013); Deputy Prime Ministers Hossam EISSA, Abdelfattah Said ELSISI, Lt. Gen., Ziad Bahaa EL-DIN

cabinet: in an early January 2013 cabinet reshuffle, 10 new ministers were sworn in (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: presidential election (first round held on 23-24 May 2012; runoff held on 16-17 June 2012 (next election NA)

election results: percent of vote (first round) - Mohammed MURSI 24.3%, Ahmed SHAFIQ 23.3%, Hamdin SABAHI 20.4%, Abdul Moneim Aboul FOTOUH 17.2%, Amr MOUSSA 11.1%, other 3.7%; (runoff) - Mohammed MURSI 51.7%, Ahmed SHAFIQ 48.3%
Legislative branch: bicameral parliament consists of the Shura Council or Majlis al-Shura that traditionally functions mostly in a consultative role (at least 150 seats with up to one-tenth of body appointed by the president to serve six-year terms - as stated in the 2012 constitution); and the House of Representatives (at least 350 seats - as stated in the 2012 constitution; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: People's Assembly and Advisory Council elections last held between November and January 2012; elections for new House of Representatives announced for April or May 2013, but probably will be delayed pending decision by the Administrative Court; election for the Shura Council to be held within one year note: the Supreme Court on 14 June 2012 dissolved the People's Assembly

election results: Advisory Council - percent of vote by party - Democratic Alliance for Egypt 45%, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 28.6%, New Wafd Party 8.5%, Egyptian Bloc 5.4%, other 12.5%; seats by party - Democratic Alliance for Egypt 105, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 45, New Wafd Party 14, Egyptian Bloc 8, other 4, independents 4, presidential appointees 90; People's Assembly - percent of vote by party - Democratic Alliance for Egypt 37.5%, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 27.8%, New Wafd Party 9.2%, Egyptian Bloc 8.9%, Al-Wasat Party 3.7%, The Revolution Continues Alliance 2.8%, Reform and Development Party 2.2%, National Party of Egypt 1.6%, Freedom Party 1.9%, Egyptian Citizen Party 0.9%, other 3.5%; seats by party - Democratic Alliance of Egypt 235, Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) 123, New Wafd Party 38, Egyptian Bloc 35, Al-Wasat 10, Reform and Development Party 9, The Revolution Continues Alliance 8, National Party of Egypt 5, Egyptian Citizen Party 4, Freedom Party 4, independents 21, other 6, SCAF appointees 10
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Cassation or Supreme Court (consists of the court president and NA judges); Supreme Constitutional Court or SCC (consists of the court president and 10 members) judge selection and term of office: Court of Cassation judge appointment and tenure NA; SCC judges appointed by the president of the republic; judge tenure NA;

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; Courts of First Instance; courts of limited jurisdiction; Family Court (established in 2004)
Political parties and leaders: Alliance for Egypt (Islamic Bloc) Al Nour Party or Light Party Al-Wasat Party Constitution Party [Mohammed ELBARADEI] Democratic Alliance for Egypt Democratic Peace Party Egyptian Citizen Party Freedom Party Nation Party [Hazem Abu ISMAIL] National Party of Egypt New Wafd Party People's Party Popular Current Party [Hamdin SABAHI] Reform and Development Party Revolution Continues Party Strong Egypt Party [Abdel Aboul FOTOUH] The Revolution Continues Alliance
National symbol(s): golden eagle
National anthem: name: "Bilady, Bilady, Bilady" (My Homeland, My Homeland, My Homeland)
lyrics/music: Younis-al QADI/Sayed DARWISH

note: adopted 1979; after the signing of the 1979 peace with Israel, Egypt sought to create an anthem less militaristic than its previous one; Sayed DARWISH, commonly considered the father of modern Egyptian music, composed the anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Mohamed M. TAWFIK
chancery: 3521 International Court NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 895-5400
FAX: [1] (202) 244-5131
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Ann W. PATTERSON
embassy: 5 Tawfik Diab St., Garden City, Cairo
mailing address: Unit 64900, Box 15, APO AE 09839-4900; 5 Tawfik Diab Street, Garden City, Cairo
telephone: [20] (2) 2797-3300
FAX: [20] (2) 2797-3200
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Occupying the northeast corner of the African continent, Egypt is bisected by the highly fertile Nile valley, where most economic activity takes place. Egypt's economy was highly centralized during the rule of former President Gamal Abdel NASSER but opened up considerably under former Presidents Anwar EL-SADAT and Mohamed Hosni MUBARAK. Cairo from 2004 to 2008 aggressively pursued economic reforms to attract foreign investment and facilitate GDP growth. Despite the relatively high levels of economic growth in recent years, living conditions for the average Egyptian remained poor and contributed to public discontent. After unrest erupted in January 2011, the Egyptian Government backtracked on economic reforms, drastically increasing social spending to address public dissatisfaction, but political uncertainty at the same time caused economic growth to slow significantly, reducing the government's revenues. Tourism, manufacturing, and construction were among the hardest hit sectors of the Egyptian economy, and economic growth is likely to remain slow during the next several years. The government drew down foreign exchange reserves by more than 50% in 2011 and 2012 to support the Egyptian pound and the dearth of foreign financial assistance - as a result of unsuccessful negotiations with the International Monetary Fund over a multi-billion dollar loan agreement which have dragged on more than 20 months - could precipitate fiscal and balance of payments crises in 2013.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $548.8 billion (2012 est.) $536.9 billion (2011 est.) $527.6 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $256.7 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.2% (2012 est.) 1.8% (2011 est.) 5.1% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $6,700 (2012 est.) $6,700 (2011 est.) $6,700 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 14% of GDP (2012 est.) 13.8% of GDP (2011 est.) 16.9% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 79.3%
government consumption: 11.6%
investment in fixed capital: 16%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 18.6%
imports of goods and services: -26.2% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 79.3%
government consumption: 11.6%
investment in fixed capital: 16%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 18.6%
imports of goods and services: -26.2% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, rice, corn, wheat, beans, fruits, vegetables; cattle, water buffalo, sheep, goats
Industries: textiles, food processing, tourism, chemicals, pharmaceuticals, hydrocarbons, construction, cement, metals, light manufactures
Industrial production growth rate: 1.1% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 26.42 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 32%
industry: 17%
services: 51% (2001 est.)
Unemployment rate: 13.5% (2012 est.) 12% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 20% (2005 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 3.9%
highest 10%: 27.6% (2005)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 34.4 (2001)
Budget: revenues: $50.08 billion
expenditures: $77.69 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 19.5% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 88% of GDP (2012 est.) 84.3% of GDP (2011 est.)

note: data cover central government debt, and includes debt instruments issued (or owned) by government entities other than the treasury; the data include treasury debt held by foreign entities; the data include debt issued by subnational entities, as well as intra-governmental debt; intra-governmental debt consists of treasury borrowings from surpluses in the social funds, such as for retirement, medical care, and unemployment; debt instruments for the social funds are sold at public auctions
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 7.1% (2012 est.) 10.1% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$8.417 billion (2012 est.) -$6.521 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $26.83 billion (2012 est.) $27.91 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: crude oil and petroleum products, cotton, textiles, metal products, chemicals, processed food
Exports - partners: US 8.2%, India 7%, Italy 6.7%, Saudi Arabia 6.3%, Germany 4.4%, France 4.2% (2012)
Imports: $59.72 billion (2012 est.) $56.13 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, foodstuffs, chemicals, wood products, fuels
Imports - partners: China 11.9%, US 8%, Turkey 5.3%, Italy 5.1%, Germany 4.6%, Russia 4.4%, India 4.1% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $14.93 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $17.66 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $38.92 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $35 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $75.41 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $72.61 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $6.285 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $6.074 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $48.68 billion (31 December 2011) $82.49 billion (31 December 2010) $89.95 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Egyptian pounds (EGP) per US dollar - 6.0625 (2012 est.) 5.9358 (2011 est.) 5.6219 (2010 est.) 5.545 (2009) 5.4 (2008)
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Electricity - production: 136.6 billion kWh (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 27
Electricity - consumption: 115.8 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 1.118 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports: 183 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 24.67 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 86.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 11.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 1.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 711,500 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 86,720 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 48,590 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 4.45 billion bbl (1 January 2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 628,100 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 816,300 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 91,680 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 114,600 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 61.33 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 46.16 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 15.17 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 2.186 trillion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 196.5 million Mt (2010 est.)
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Telephones in use: 8.714 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 23
Cellular Phones in use: 83.425 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: underwent extensive upgrading during 1990s; principal centers at Alexandria, Cairo, Al Mansurah, Ismailia, Suez, and Tanta are connected by coaxial cable and microwave radio relay

domestic: largest fixed-line system in the region; as of 2011 there were multiple mobile-cellular networks with a total of roughly 83 million subscribers

international: country code - 20; landing point for Aletar, the SEA-ME-WE-3 and SEA-ME-WE-4 submarine cable networks, Link Around the Globe (FLAG) Falcon and FLAG FEA; satellite earth stations - 4 (2 Intelsat - Atlantic Ocean and Indian Ocean, 1 Arabsat, and 1 Inmarsat); tropospheric scatter to Sudan; microwave radio relay to Israel; a participant in Medarabtel (2011)
Broadcast media: mix of state-run and private broadcast media; state-run TV operates 2 national and 6 regional terrestrial networks as well as a few satellite channels; about 20 private satellite channels and a large number of Arabic satellite channels are available via subscription; state-run radio operates about 70 stations belonging to 8 networks; 2 privately owned radio stations operational (2008)
Internet country code: .eg
Internet hosts: 200,430 (2012)
Internet users: 20.136 million (2009)
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Airports: 83 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 65
Airports (paved runways): total 72
over 3,047 m: 15
2,438 to 3,047 m: 36
1,524 to 2,437 m: 15
under 914 m: 6 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 11

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 3 (2013)
Heliports: 7 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 486 km; condensate/gas 74 km; gas 7,986 km; liquid petroleum gas 957 km; oil 5,225 km; oil/gas/water 37 km; refined products 895 km; water 65 km (2013)
Railways: total 5,083 km
standard gauge: 5,083 km 1.435-m gauge (62 km electrified) (2009)
Roadways: total 137,430 km
paved: 126,742 km (includes 838 km of expressways)
unpaved: 10,688 km (2010)
Waterways: 3,500 km (includes the Nile River, Lake Nasser, Alexandria-Cairo Waterway, and numerous smaller canals in Nile Delta; the Suez Canal (193.5 km including approaches) is navigable by oceangoing vessels drawing up to 17.68 m) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 67

by type: bulk carrier 16, cargo 20, container 3, passenger/cargo 7, petroleum tanker 12, roll on/roll off 9

foreign-owned: 13 (Denmark 1, France 1, Greece 8, Jordan 2, Lebanon 1)

registered in other countries: 42 (Cambodia 4, Georgia 7, Honduras 2, Liberia 3, Malta 1, Marshall Islands 1, Moldova 5, Panama 11, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 2, Saudi Arabia 1, Sierra Leone 3, unknown 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Mediterranean Sea - Alexandria, Damietta, El Dekheila, Port Said; Gulf of Suez - Suez
oil/gas terminal(s): Ain Sukhna terminal, Sidi Kerir terminal
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Military branches: Army, Navy, Egyptian Air Force (Al-Quwwat al-Jawwiya il-Misriya), Egyptian Air Defense Command (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18-30 years of age for male conscript military service; service obligation - 18-36 months, followed by a 9-year reserve obligation; voluntary enlistment possible from age 16 (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 21,012,199
females age 16-49: 20,145,021 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 18,060,543
females age 16-49: 17,244,838 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 783,405
female: 748,647 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 2.2% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Sudan claims but Egypt de facto administers security and economic development of Halaib region north of the 22nd parallel boundary; Egypt no longer shows its administration of the Bir Tawil trapezoid in Sudan on its maps; Gazan breaches in the security wall with Egypt in January 2008 highlight difficulties in monitoring the Sinai border; Saudi Arabia claims Egyptian-administered islands of Tiran and Sanafir
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 70,028 (West Bank and Gaza Strip); 12,124 (Sudan); 5,703 (Iraq) (2012); 111,424 (Syria); 7,957 (Somalia) (2013)
stateless persons: 60 (2012)
Illicit drugs: transit point for cannabis, heroin, and opium moving to Europe, Israel, and North Africa; transit stop for Nigerian drug couriers; concern as money laundering site due to lax enforcement of financial regulations
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