Djibouti Population: 792,198

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 History
The French Territory of the Afars and the Issas became Djibouti in 1977. Hassan Gouled APTIDON installed an authoritarian one-party state and proceeded to serve as president until 1999. Unrest among the Afar minority during the 1990s led to a civil war that ended in 2001 with a peace accord between Afar rebels and the Somali Issa-dominated government. In 1999, Djibouti's first multiparty presidential elections resulted in the election of Ismail Omar GUELLEH as president; he was reelected to a second term in 2005 and extended his tenure in office via a constitutional amendment, which allowed him to begin a third term in 2011. Djibouti occupies a strategic geographic location at the intersection of the Red Sea and the Gulf of Aden and serves as an important shipping portal for goods entering and leaving the east African highlands and transshipments between Europe, the Middle East, and Asia. The government holds longstanding ties to France, which maintains a significant military presence in the country, and has strong ties with the United States. Djibouti hosts several thousand members of US armed services at US-run Camp Lemonnier.

 Geography
Strategic location near world's busiest shipping lanes and close to Arabian oilfields; terminus of rail traffic into Ethiopia; mostly wasteland; Lac Assal (Lake Assal) is the lowest point in Africa and the saltiest lake in the world
Location: Eastern Africa, bordering the Gulf of Aden and the Red Sea, between Eritrea and Somalia
Geographic coordinates: 11 30 N, 43 00 E
Area: total: 23,200 sq km
land: 23,180 sq km
water: 20 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Massachusetts
Land Boundaries: total: 516 km
border countries: Eritrea 109 km, Ethiopia 349 km, Somalia 58 km
Coastline: 314 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
Climate: desert; torrid, dry
Terrain: coastal plain and plateau separated by central mountains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lac Assal -155 m
highest point: Moussa Ali 2,028 m
Natural resources: potential geothermal power, gold, clay, granite, limestone, marble, salt, diatomite, gypsum, pumice, petroleum
Land use: arable land: 0.09%
permanent crops: 0%
other: 99.91% (2011)
Irrigated land: 10.12 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: earthquakes; droughts; occasional cyclonic disturbances from the Indian Ocean bring heavy rains and flash floods volcanism: experiences limited volcanic activity; Ardoukoba (elev. 298 m) last erupted in 1978; Manda-Inakir, located along the Ethiopian border, is also historically active
Current Environment Issues: inadequate supplies of potable water; limited arable land; desertification; endangered species
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Djiboutian(s)
adjective: Djiboutian
Ethnic groups: Somali 60%, Afar 35%, other 5% (includes French, Arab, Ethiopian, and Italian)
Languages: French (official), Arabic (official), Somali, Afar
Religions: Muslim 94%, Christian 6%
Population: 792,198 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 33.6% (male 133,401/female 132,836)
15-24 years: 22% (male 82,174/female 92,321)
25-54 years: 36.3% (male 119,588/female 167,711)
55-64 years: 4.6% (male 17,416/female 19,269)
65 years and over: 3.5% (male 12,352/female 15,130) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 60.5 %
youth dependency ratio: 54.1 %
elderly dependency ratio: 6.4 %
potential support ratio: 15.7 (2013)
Median age: total: 22.4 years
male: 20.8 years
female: 23.7 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.26% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 24.5 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 7.96 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 6.04 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 77.1% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 1.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: DJIBOUTI (capital) 496,000 (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.89 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.72 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.92 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.82 male(s)/female
total population: 0.86 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 200 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 51.77 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 59.2 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.11 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 61.99 years
male: 59.52 years
female: 64.52 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.55 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 17.8% (2006)
Health expenditures: 7.2% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.23 physicians/1,000 population (2006)
Hospital bed density: 1.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 54% of population
total: 88% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 46% of population
total: 12% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 63% of population
rural: 10% of population
total: 50% of population

unimproved:
urban: 37% of population
rural: 90% of population
total: 50% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 2.5% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 14,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 1,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 9.4% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 29.6% (2006)
Education expenditures: 8.4% of GDP (2007)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.9%
male: 78%
female: 58.4% (2003 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 6 years
male: 6 years
female: 5 years (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Djibouti
conventional short form: Djibouti
local long form: Republique de Djibouti/Jumhuriyat Jibuti
local short form: Djibouti/Jibuti
former: French Territory of the Afars and Issas, French Somaliland
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Djibouti
geographic coordinates: 11 35 N, 43 09 E
time difference: UTC+3 (8 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 6 districts (cercles, singular - cercle); Ali Sabieh, Arta, Dikhil, Djibouti, Obock, Tadjourah
Independence: 27 June 1977 (from France)
National holiday: Independence Day, 27 June (1977)
Constitution: approved by referendum 4 September 1992; note - constitution allows for multiple parties
Legal system: mixed legal system based primarily on the French civil code (as it existed in 1997), Islamic religious law (in matters of family law and successions), and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Ismail Omar GUELLEH (since 8 May 1999)

head of government: Prime Minister Abdoulkader Kamil MOHAMED (since 1 April 2013)

cabinet: Council of Ministers responsible to the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term; president is eligible to hold office until age 75; election last held on 8 April 2011 (next to be held by 2016); prime minister appointed by the president

election results: Ismail Omar GUELLEH reelected president for a third term; percent of vote - Ismail Omar GUELLEH 80.6%, Mohamed Warsama RAGUEH 19.4%
Legislative branch: unicameral Chamber of Deputies or Chambre des Deputes (65 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms); note - constitutional amendments in 2010 provided for the establishment of a senate

elections: last held on 22 February 2013 (next to be held in 2018)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats - UMP (coalition of parties associated with President Ismail Omar GUELLEH) 49, USN 16
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Cour Supreme (consists of NA magistrates); Constitutional Council (consists of 6 magistrates) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court magistrates appointed by the president with the advice of the Superior Council of the Magistracy; magistrates appointed for life with retirement at age 65; Constitutional magistrates - 2 appointed by the president, 2 by the president of the National Assembly, and 2 by High Council of the Judiciary; magistrates appointed for 8-year, non-renewable terms

subordinate courts: High Court of Appeal; 5 Courts of First Instance; customary courts
Political parties and leaders: Democratic National Party or PND [ADEN Robleh Awaleh] Democratic Renewal Party or PRD [Abdillahi HAMARITEH] Djibouti Development Party or PDD [Mohamed Daoud CHEHEM] Front pour la Restauration de l'Unite Democratique or FRUD [Ali Mohamed DAOUD] Movement for Development and Liberty or MODEL [Sheikh Guirreh MEIDAL] People's Rally for Progress or RPP [Ismail Omar GUELLEH] (governing party) Peoples Social Democratic Party or PPSD [Moumin Bahdon FARAH] Republican Alliance for Democracy or ARD [Ahmed YOUSSOUF] Union for a Presidential Majority or UMP [Mohamed Dileita DILEITA] (a coalition of parties including RPP, FRUD, PND, and PPSD) Union for Democracy and Justice or UDJ Union for National Salvation or USN (an umbrella coalition comprising PRD, PDD, MODEL, ARD, and UDJ)
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AFESD, AMF, AU, CAEU (candidates), COMESA, FAO, G-77, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IGAD, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAS, MIGA, MINURSO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National anthem: name: "Jabuuti" (Djibouti)
lyrics/music: Aden ELMI/Abdi ROBLEH

note: adopted 1977
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Roble OLHAYE Oudine
chancery: Suite 515, 1156 15th Street NW, Washington, DC 20005
telephone: [1] (202) 331-0270
FAX: [1] (202) 331-0302
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Geeta PASI
embassy: Lot 350-B, Haramouss, Djibouti
mailing address: B. P. 185, Djibouti
telephone: [253] 21 45 30 00
FAX: [253] 21 45 30 20
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 Economy
Djibouti's economy is based on service activities connected with the country's strategic location and status as a free trade zone in the Horn of Africa. Three-fourths of Djibouti's inhabitants live in the capital city; the remainder are mostly nomadic herders. Scant rainfall limits crop production to small quantities of fruits and vegetables, and most food must be imported. Djibouti provides services as both a transit port for the region and an international transshipment and refueling center. Imports, exports, and re-exports - primarily of coffee from landlocked neighbor Ethiopia - represent 70% of port activity at Djibouti's container terminal. Djibouti has few natural resources and little industry. The nation is, therefore, heavily dependent on foreign assistance to help support its balance of payments and to finance development projects. An unemployment rate of nearly 60% continues to be a major problem. While inflation is not a concern, due to the fixed tie of the Djiboutian franc to the US dollar, the artificially high value of the Djiboutian franc adversely affects Djibouti's balance of payments. Djibouti holds foreign reserves amounting to less than six months of import coverage. Per capita consumption dropped an estimated 35% between 1999 and 2006 because of recession, civil war, and a high population growth rate (including immigrants and refugees). Djibouti has experienced relatively minimal impact from the global economic downturn, but its reliance on diesel-generated electricity and imported food leave average consumers vulnerable to global price shocks. Djibouti in 2012 began construction of a third port to secure its position as a critical transshipment hub in the Horn of Africa and the principal conduit for Ethiopia's trade. Djibouti also received funding in late 2012 for a desalination plant to begin address the severe freshwater shortage affecting Djibouti City, and particularly its poorest residents.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.418 billion (2012 est.) $2.307 billion (2011 est.) $2.208 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $1.354 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4.8% (2012 est.) 4.5% (2011 est.) 3.5% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,700 (2012 est.) $2,700 (2011 est.) $2,600 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 13.4% of GDP (2012 est.) 16.1% of GDP (2011 est.) 34.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 58%
government consumption: 25.2%
investment in fixed capital: 31.1%
exports of goods and services: 39.3%
imports of goods and services: -54.1% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 58%
government consumption: 25.2%
investment in fixed capital: 31.1%
exports of goods and services: 39.3%
imports of goods and services: -54.1% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: fruits, vegetables; goats, sheep, camels, animal hides
Industries: construction, agricultural processing
Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 351,700 (2007)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate: 59% (2007 est.) note: data are for urban areas, 83% in rural areas
Population below poverty line: 42% (2007 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.4%
highest 10%: 30.9% (2002)
Budget: revenues: $465.9 million
expenditures: $503 million (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 34.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.8% (2012 est.) 4.4% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: $4.2 million (2012 est.) $33 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $87.1 million (2012 est.) $85 million (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: reexports, hides and skins, coffee (in transit)
Exports - partners: Somalia 78.4%, Egypt 5.3%, UAE 4%, Yemen 4% (2012)
Imports: $579.5 million (2012 est.) $510.6 million (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: foods, beverages, transport equipment, chemicals, petroleum products
Imports - partners: China 24.4%, Saudi Arabia 16.1%, India 10.6%, Indonesia 7.3%, Pakistan 4.1% (2012)
Debt - external: $772.1 million (31 December 2012 est.) $767 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $510.6 million (31 December 2012 est.) $410.6 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Exchange rates: Djiboutian francs (DJF) per US dollar - 177.72 (2012 est.) 177.72 (2011 est.) 177.72 (2010 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 350 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 166
Electricity - consumption: 325.5 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 130,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 12,460 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 19.18 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 7,987 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 2.352 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 18,400 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 193
Cellular Phones in use: 193,000 (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: telephone facilities in the city of Djibouti are adequate, as are the microwave radio relay connections to outlying areas of the country

domestic: Djibouti Telecom is the sole provider of telecommunications services and utilizes mostly a microwave radio relay network; fiber-optic cable is installed in the capital; rural areas connected via wireless local loop radio systems; mobile cellular coverage is primarily limited to the area in and around Djibouti city

international: country code - 253; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-3 and EASSy fiber-optic submarine cable systems providing links to Asia, the Middle East, Europe and North America; satellite earth stations - 2 (1 Intelsat - Indian Ocean and 1 Arabsat); Medarabtel regional microwave radio relay telephone network (2009)
Broadcast media: state-owned Radiodiffusion-Television de Djibouti (RTD) operates the sole terrestrial TV station as well as the only 2 domestic radio networks; no private TV or radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .dj
Internet hosts: 215 (2012)
Internet users: 25,900 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 13 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 152
Airports (paved runways): total 3
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 10

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
914 to 1,523 m: 7
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Railways: total 100 km
(Djibouti segment of the 781 km Addis Ababa-Djibouti railway)
narrow gauge: 100 km 1.000-m gauge

note: railway is under joint control of Djibouti and Ethiopia but is largely inoperable (2008)
Roadways: total 3,065 km
paved: 1,226 km
unpaved: 1,839 km (2000)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Djibouti
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 Military
Military branches: Djibouti Armed Forces (Forces Armees Djiboutiennes, FAD): Djibouti National Army (includes Navy, Djiboutian Air Force (Force Aerienne Djiboutienne, FAD), National Gendarmerie (GN)) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; 16-25 years of age for voluntary military training; no conscription (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 170,386
females age 16-49: 221,411 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 114,557
females age 16-49: 154,173 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 8,360
female: 8,602 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 3.6% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Djibouti maintains economic ties and border accords with "Somaliland" leadership while maintaining some political ties to various factions in Somalia; Kuwait is chief investor in the 2008 restoration and upgrade of the Ethiopian-Djibouti rail link; in 2008, Eritrean troops moved across the border on Ras Doumera peninsula and occupied Doumera Island with undefined sovereignty in the Red Sea
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 18,725 (Somalia) (2013)
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