China Population: 1,373,541,278

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 History
For centuries China stood as a leading civilization, outpacing the rest of the world in the arts and sciences, but in the 19th and early 20th centuries, the country was beset by civil unrest, major famines, military defeats, and foreign occupation. After World War II, the communists under MAO Zedong established an autocratic socialist system that, while ensuring China's sovereignty, imposed strict controls over everyday life and cost the lives of tens of millions of people. After 1978, MAO's successor DENG Xiaoping and other leaders focused on market-oriented economic development and by 2000 output had quadrupled. For much of the population, living standards have improved dramatically and the room for personal choice has expanded, yet political controls remain tight. Since the early 1990s, China has increased its global outreach and participation in international organizations.

 Geography
World's fourth largest country (after Russia, Canada, and US) and largest country situated entirely in Asia; Mount Everest on the border with Nepal is the world's tallest peak
Location: Eastern Asia, bordering the East China Sea, Korea Bay, Yellow Sea, and South China Sea, between North Korea and Vietnam
Geographic coordinates: 35 00 N, 105 00 E
Area: total: 9,596,960 sq km
land: 9,326,410 sq km
water: 270,550 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than the US
Land Boundaries: total: 22,457 km border countries (14): Afghanistan 91 km, Bhutan 477 km, Burma 2,129 km, India 2,659 km, Kazakhstan 1,765 km, North Korea 1,352 km, Kyrgyzstan 1,063 km, Laos 475 km, Mongolia 4,630 km, Nepal 1,389 km, Pakistan 438 km, Russia (northeast) 4,133 km, Russia (northwest) 46 km, Tajikistan 477 km, Vietnam 1,297 km regional borders: Hong Kong 33 km, Macau 3 km
Coastline: 14,500 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200 nm or to the edge of the continental margin
Climate: extremely diverse; tropical in south to subarctic in north
Terrain: mostly mountains, high plateaus, deserts in west; plains, deltas, and hills in east
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: coal, iron ore, petroleum, natural gas, mercury, tin, tungsten, antimony, manganese, molybdenum, vanadium, magnetite, aluminum, lead, zinc, rare earth elements, uranium, hydropower potential (world's largest), arable land
Land use: agricultural land: 54.7% arable land 11.3%; permanent crops 1.6%; permanent pasture 41.8% forest: 22.3%
other: 23% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 690,070 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: frequent typhoons (about five per year along southern and eastern coasts); damaging floods; tsunamis; earthquakes; droughts; land subsidence volcanism: China contains some historically active volcanoes including Changbaishan (also known as Baitoushan, Baegdu, or P'aektu-san), Hainan Dao, and Kunlun although most have been relatively inactive in recent centuries
Current Environment Issues: air pollution (greenhouse gases, sulfur dioxide particulates) from reliance on coal produces acid rain; China is the world's largest single emitter of carbon dioxide from the burning of fossil fuels; water shortages, particularly in the north; water pollution from untreated wastes; deforestation; estimated loss of one-fifth of agricultural land since 1949 to soil erosion and economic development; desertification; trade in endangered species
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Chinese (singular and plural)
adjective: Chinese
Ethnic groups: Han Chinese 91.6%, Zhuang 1.3%, other (includes Hui, Manchu, Uighur, Miao, Yi, Tujia, Tibetan, Mongol, Dong, Buyei, Yao, Bai, Korean, Hani, Li, Kazakh, Dai and other nationalities) 7.1% note: the Chinese Government officially recognizes 56 ethnic groups (2010 est.)
Languages: Standard Chinese or Mandarin (official; Putonghua, based on the Beijing dialect), Yue (Cantonese), Wu (Shanghainese), Minbei (Fuzhou), Minnan (Hokkien-Taiwanese), Xiang, Gan, Hakka dialects, minority languages (see Ethnic groups entry) note: Zhuang is official in Guangxi Zhuang, Yue is official in Guangdong, Mongolian is official in Nei Mongol, Uighur is official in Xinjiang Uygur, Kyrgyz is official in Xinjiang Uygur, and Tibetan is official in Xizang (Tibet)
Religions: Buddhist 18.2%, Christian 5.1%, Muslim 1.8%, folk religion 21.9%, Hindu

note: officially atheist (2010 est.)
Population: 1,373,541,278 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.1% (male 126,732,020/female 108,172,771)
15-24 years: 13.27% (male 97,126,460/female 85,135,228)
25-54 years: 48.42% (male 339,183,101/female 325,836,319)
55-64 years: 10.87% (male 75,376,730/female 73,859,424)
65 years and over: 10.35% (male 67,914,015/female 74,205,210) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 36.6%
youth dependency ratio: 23.5%
elderly dependency ratio: 13%
potential support ratio: 7.7% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 37.1 years
male: 36.2 years
female: 38.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.43% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 12.4 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 7.7 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 55.6% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 3.05% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: Shanghai 23.741 million; BEIJING (capital) 20.384 million; Chongqing 13.332 million; Guangdong 12.458 million; Tianjin 11.21 million; Shenzhen 10.749 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.15 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.17 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.14 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.02 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.92 male(s)/female
total population: 1.06 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 27 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 12.2 deaths/1,000 live births male: 12.4 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 12 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 75.5 years male: 73.5 years
female: 77.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.6 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 84.6% (2006)
Health expenditures: 5.5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 1.49 physicians/1,000 population (2011)
Hospital bed density: 3.8 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 93% of population
total: 95.5% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 7% of population
total: 4.5% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 86.6% of population
rural: 63.7% of population
total: 76.5% of population

unimproved:
urban: 13.4% of population
rural: 36.3% of population
total: 23.5% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.1% (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 780,000 (2012 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 7.3% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 3.4% (2010)
Education expenditures: NA
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 96.4%
male: 98.2%
female: 94.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 14 years
female: 14 years (2014)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: People's Republic of China
conventional short form: China
local long form: Zhonghua Renmin Gongheguo
local short form: Zhongguo
abbreviation: PRC
etymology: English name derives from the Qin (Chin) rulers of the 3rd century B.C., who comprised the first imperial dynasty of ancient China; the Chinese name Zhongguo translates as "Central Nation"
Government type: communist state
Capital: name: Beijing
geographic coordinates: 39 55 N, 116 23 E
time difference: UTC+8 (13 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)

note: despite its size, all of China falls within one time zone; many people in Xinjiang Province observe an unofficial "Xinjiang time zone" of UTC+6, two hours behind Beijing
Administrative divisions: 23 provinces (sheng, singular and plural), 5 autonomous regions (zizhiqu, singular and plural), and 4 municipalities (shi, singular and plural) provinces: Anhui, Fujian, Gansu, Guangdong, Guizhou, Hainan, Hebei, Heilongjiang, Henan, Hubei, Hunan, Jiangsu, Jiangxi, Jilin, Liaoning, Qinghai, Shaanxi, Shandong, Shanxi, Sichuan, Yunnan, Zhejiang; (see note on Taiwan) autonomous regions: Guangxi, Nei Mongol (Inner Mongolia), Ningxia, Xinjiang Uygur, Xizang (Tibet) municipalities: Beijing, Chongqing, Shanghai, Tianjin

note: China considers Taiwan its 23rd province; see separate entries for the special administrative regions of Hong Kong and Macau
Independence: 1 October 1949 (People's Republic of China established);

notable earlier dates: 221 B.C. (unification under the Qin Dynasty); 1 January 1912 (Qing Dynasty replaced by the Republic of China)
National holiday: National Day, the anniversary of the founding of the People's Republic of China, 1 October (1949)
Constitution: several previous; latest promulgated 4 December 1982; amended several times, last in 2004 (2016)
Legal system: civil law influenced by Soviet and continental European civil law systems; legislature retains power to interpret statutes; note - criminal procedure law revised in early 2012
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President XI Jinping (since 14 March 2013); Vice President LI Yuanchao (since 14 March 2013)

head of government: Premier LI Keqiang (since 16 March 2013); Executive Vice Premiers ZHANG Gaoli (since 16 March 2013), LIU Yandong (since 16 March 2013), MA Kai (since 16 March 2013), WANG Yang (since 16 March 2013)

cabinet: State Council appointed by National People's Congress elections/appointments: president and vice president indirectly elected by National People's Congress for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 5-17 March 2013 (next to be held in March 2018); premier nominated by president, confirmed by National People's Congress

election results: XI Jinping elected president; National People's Congress vote - 2,952 ; LI Yuanchao elected vice president with 2,940 votes
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National People's Congress or Quanguo Renmin Daibiao Dahui (2,987 seats; members indirectly elected by municipal, regional, and provincial people's congresses, and the People's Liberation Army; members serve 5-year terms); note - in practice, only members of the Chinese Communist Party (CCP), its 8 allied parties, and CCP-approved independent candidates are elected

elections: last held in December 2012-February 2013 (next to be held in late 2017 to early 2018)

election results: percent of vote - NA; seats - 2,987
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme People's Court (consists of over 340 judges including the chief justice, 13 grand justices organized into a civil committee and tribunals for civil, economic, administrative, complaint and appeal, and communication and transportation cases) judge selection and term of office: chief justice appointed by the People's National Congress (NPC); term limited to 2 consecutive 5-year terms; other justices and judges nominated by the chief justice and appointed by the Standing Committee of the NPC; term of other justices and judges determined by the NPC

subordinate courts: Higher People's Courts; Intermediate People's Courts; District and County People's Courts; Autonomous Region People's Courts; Special People's Courts for military, maritime, transportation, and forestry issues note: in late 2014, China unveiled planned judicial reforms
Political parties and leaders: Chinese Communist Party or CCP [XI Jinping] note: China has eight nominally independent small parties ultimately controlled by the CCP
Political pressure groups and leaders: no substantial political opposition groups exist
International organization participation: ADB, AfDB (nonregional member), APEC, Arctic Council (observer), ARF, ASEAN (dialogue partner), BIS, BRICS, CDB, CICA, EAS, FAO, FATF, G-20, G-24 (observer), G-5, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM (observer), IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, LAIA (observer), MIGA, MINURSO, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM (observer), NSG, OAS (observer), OPCW, Pacific Alliance (observer), PCA, PIF (partner), SAARC (observer), SCO, SICA (observer), UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNOCI, UNSC (permanent), UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO, ZC
National symbol(s): dragon; national colors: red, yellow
National anthem: name: "Yiyongjun Jinxingqu" (The March of the Volunteers)
lyrics/music: TIAN Han/NIE Er

note: adopted 1949; the anthem, though banned during the Cultural Revolution, is more commonly known as "Zhongguo Guoge" (Chinese National Song); it was originally the theme song to the 1935 Chinese movie, "Sons and Daughters in a Time of Storm"
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador CUI Tiankai (since 3 April 2013)
chancery: 3505 International Place NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 495-2266
FAX: [1] (202) 495-2138
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Houston, Los Angeles, New York, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Max Sieben BAUCUS (since 18 March 2014)
embassy: 55 An Jia Lou Lu, 100600 Beijing
mailing address: PSC 461, Box 50, FPO AP 96521-0002
telephone: [86] (10) 8531-3000
FAX: [86] (10) 8531-3300
consulate(s) general: Chengdu, Guangzhou, Shanghai, Shenyang, Wuhan
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 Economy
Since the late 1970s, China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role; in 2010, China became the world's largest exporter. Reforms began with the phaseout of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, growth of the private sector, development of stock markets and a modern banking system, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors considered important to "economic security," explicitly looking to foster globally competitive industries. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2015 stood as the largest economy in the world, surpassing the US in 2014 for the first time in modern history. Still, China's per capita income is below the world average. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, China in July 2005 moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid-2005 to late 2008, cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar was more than 20%, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual appreciation. In 2015, the People’s Bank of China announced it would continue to carefully push for full convertibility of the renminbi after the currency was accepted as part of the IMF’s special drawing rights basket. The Chinese Government faces numerous economic challenges including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic consumption; (b) facilitating higher-wage job opportunities for the aspiring middle class, including rural migrants and increasing numbers of college graduates; (c) reducing corruption and other economic crimes; and (d) containing environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2014 more than 274 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of population control policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. The Chinese government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on nuclear and alternative energy development. Several factors are converging to slow China's growth, including debt overhang from its credit-fueled stimulus program, industrial overcapacity, inefficient allocation of capital by state-owned banks, and the slow recovery of China's trading partners. The government's 13th Five-Year Plan, unveiled in November 2015, emphasizes continued economic reforms and the need to increase innovation and domestic consumption in order to make the economy less dependent in the future on fixed investments, exports, and heavy industry. However, China has made only marginal progress toward these rebalancing goals. The new government of President XI Jinping has signaled a greater willingness to undertake reforms that focus on China's long-term economic health, including giving the market a more decisive role in allocating resources. In 2014, China agreed to begin limiting carbon dioxide emissions by 2030. Since the late 1970s, China has moved from a closed, centrally planned system to a more market-oriented one that plays a major global role; in 2010, China became the world's largest exporter. Reforms began with the phaseout of collectivized agriculture, and expanded to include the gradual liberalization of prices, fiscal decentralization, increased autonomy for state enterprises, growth of the private sector, development of stock markets and a modern banking system, and opening to foreign trade and investment. China has implemented reforms in a gradualist fashion. In recent years, China has renewed its support for state-owned enterprises in sectors considered important to "economic security," explicitly looking to foster globally competitive industries. The restructuring of the economy and resulting efficiency gains have contributed to a more than tenfold increase in GDP since 1978. Measured on a purchasing power parity (PPP) basis that adjusts for price differences, China in 2015 stood as the largest economy in the world, surpassing the US in 2014 for the first time in modern history. Still, China's per capita income is below the world average. After keeping its currency tightly linked to the US dollar for years, China in July 2005 moved to an exchange rate system that references a basket of currencies. From mid-2005 to late 2008, cumulative appreciation of the renminbi against the US dollar was more than 20%, but the exchange rate remained virtually pegged to the dollar from the onset of the global financial crisis until June 2010, when Beijing allowed resumption of a gradual appreciation. In 2015, the People’s Bank of China announced it would continue to carefully push for full convertibility of the renminbi after the currency was accepted as part of the IMF’s special drawing rights basket. The Chinese Government faces numerous economic challenges including: (a) reducing its high domestic savings rate and correspondingly low domestic consumption; (b) facilitating higher-wage job opportunities for the aspiring middle class, including rural migrants and increasing numbers of college graduates; (c) reducing corruption and other economic crimes; and (d) containing environmental damage and social strife related to the economy's rapid transformation. Economic development has progressed further in coastal provinces than in the interior, and by 2014 more than 274 million migrant workers and their dependents had relocated to urban areas to find work. One consequence of population control policy is that China is now one of the most rapidly aging countries in the world. Deterioration in the environment - notably air pollution, soil erosion, and the steady fall of the water table, especially in the North - is another long-term problem. China continues to lose arable land because of erosion and economic development. The Chinese government is seeking to add energy production capacity from sources other than coal and oil, focusing on nuclear and alternative energy development. Several factors are converging to slow China's growth, including debt overhang from its credit-fueled stimulus program, industrial overcapacity, inefficient allocation of capital by state-owned banks, and the slow recovery of China's trading partners. The government's 13th Five-Year Plan, unveiled in November 2015, emphasizes continued economic reforms and the need to increase innovation and domestic consumption in order to make the economy less dependent in the future on fixed investments, exports, and heavy industry. However, China has made only marginal progress toward these rebalancing goals. The new government of President XI Jinping has signaled a greater willingness to undertake reforms that focus on China's long-term economic health, including giving the market a more decisive role in allocating resources. In 2014, China agreed to begin limiting carbon dioxide emissions by 2030.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $21.27 trillion (2016 est.) $19.95 trillion (2015 est.) $18.67 trillion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars GDP (purchasing power parity): $21.27 trillion (2016 est.) $19.95 trillion (2015 est.) $18.67 trillion (2014 est.) note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $11.39 trillion (2015 est.) note: because China's exchange rate is determined by fiat rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China GDP (official exchange rate): $11.39 trillion (2015 est.) note: because China's exchange rate is determined by fiat rather than by market forces, the official exchange rate measure of GDP is not an accurate measure of China's output; GDP at the official exchange rate substantially understates the actual level of China
GDP - real growth rate: 6.6% (2016 est.) 6.9% (2015 est.) 7.3% (2014 est.) 6.6% (2016 est.) 6.9% (2015 est.) 7.3% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $15,400 (2016 est.) $14,500 (2015 est.) $13,600 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars GDP - per capita (PPP): $15,400 (2016 est.) $14,500 (2015 est.) $13,600 (2014 est.) note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 46% of GDP (2016 est.) 47.9% of GDP (2015 est.) 49.3% of GDP (2014 est.) 46% of GDP (2016 est.) 47.9% of GDP (2015 est.) 49.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 38.7%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 42.3%
investment in inventories: 1.5%
exports of goods and services: 20.5%
imports of goods and services: -17.2% (2016 est.) household consumption: 38.7% government consumption: 14.2% investment in fixed capital: 42.3% investment in inventories: 1.5% exports of goods and services: 20.5% imports of goods and services: -17.2% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 38.7%
government consumption: 14.2%
investment in fixed capital: 42.3%
investment in inventories: 1.5%
exports of goods and services: 20.5%
imports of goods and services: -17.2% (2016 est.) household consumption: 38.7% government consumption: 14.2% investment in fixed capital: 42.3% investment in inventories: 1.5% exports of goods and services: 20.5% imports of goods and services: -17.2% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: world leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish world leader in gross value of agricultural output; rice, wheat, potatoes, corn, peanuts, tea, millet, barley, apples, cotton, oilseed; pork; fish
Industries: world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products (including footwear world leader in gross value of industrial output; mining and ore processing, iron, steel, aluminum, and other metals, coal; machine building; armaments; textiles and apparel; petroleum; cement; chemicals; fertilizers; consumer products (including footwear
Industrial production growth rate: 6.1% (2016 est.) 6.1% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 805.9 million note: by the end of 2012, China's population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.004 billion (2016 est.) 805.9 million note: by the end of 2012, China's population at working age (15-64 years) was 1.004 billion (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 33.6%
industry: 30.3%
services: 36.1% (2012 est.) agriculture: 33.6% industry: 30.3% services: 36.1% (2012 est.)
Unemployment rate: 4.2% (2016 est.) 4% (2015 est.) note: data are for registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants 4.2% (2016 est.) 4% (2015 est.) note: data are for registered urban unemployment, which excludes private enterprises and migrants
Population below poverty line: 6.1%

note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $400) (2013 est.) 6.1% note: in 2011, China set a new poverty line at RMB 2300 (approximately US $400) (2013 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.7%
highest 10%: 30% note: data are for urban households only (2009) lowest 10%: 1.7% highest 10%: 30% note: data are for urban households only (2009)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 46.9 (2014 est.) 47.3 (2013 est.) 46.9 (2014 est.) 47.3 (2013 est.)
Budget: revenues: $2.465 trillion
expenditures: $2.897 trillion (2016 est.) revenues: $2.465 trillion expenditures: $2.897 trillion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 21.6% of GDP (2016 est.) 21.6% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 20.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 15.3% of GDP (2015 est.)

note: official data; data cover both central government debt and local government debt; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, China Asset Management Company debt, and non-performing loans 20.1% of GDP (2016 est.) 15.3% of GDP (2015 est.) note: official data; data cover both central government debt and local government debt; data exclude policy bank bonds, Ministry of Railway debt, China Asset Management Company debt, and non-performing loans
Fiscal year: calendar year calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (2016 est.) 1.5% (2015 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): 2.3% (2016 est.) 1.5% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $270.9 billion (2016 est.) $330.6 billion (2015 est.) $270.9 billion (2016 est.) $330.6 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $2.011 trillion (2016 est.) $2.143 trillion (2015 est.) $2.011 trillion (2016 est.) $2.143 trillion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, furniture, textiles, integrated circuits electrical and other machinery, including data processing equipment, apparel, furniture, textiles, integrated circuits
Exports - partners: US 18%, Hong Kong 14.6%, Japan 6%, South Korea 4.5% (2015) US 18%, Hong Kong 14.6%, Japan 6%, South Korea 4.5% (2015)
Imports: $1.437 trillion (2016 est.) $1.576 trillion (2015 est.) $1.437 trillion (2016 est.) $1.576 trillion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels; nuclear reactor, boiler, and machinery components; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans electrical and other machinery, oil and mineral fuels; nuclear reactor, boiler, and machinery components; optical and medical equipment, metal ores, motor vehicles; soybeans
Imports - partners: South Korea 10.9%, US 9%, Japan 8.9%, Germany 5.5%, Australia 4.1% (2015) South Korea 10.9%, US 9%, Japan 8.9%, Germany 5.5%, Australia 4.1% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $3.092 trillion (31 December 2016 est.) $3.406 trillion (31 December 2015 est.) $3.092 trillion (31 December 2016 est.) $3.406 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $983.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $958.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.) $983.5 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $958.3 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $1.458 trillion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.221 trillion (31 December 2015 est.) $1.458 trillion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.221 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $1.285 trillion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.01 trillion (31 December 2015 est.) $1.285 trillion (31 December 2016 est.) $1.01 trillion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $8.188 trillion (31 December 2015 est.) $6.005 trillion (31 December 2014 est.) $6.499 trillion (31 December 2013 est.) $8.188 trillion (31 December 2015 est.) $6.005 trillion (31 December 2014 est.) $6.499 trillion (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Renminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar - 6.626 (2016 est.) 6.2275 (2015 est.) 6.2275 (2014 est.) 6.1958 (2013 est.) 6.3123 (2012 est.) Renminbi yuan (RMB) per US dollar - 6.626 (2016 est.) 6.2275 (2015 est.) 6.2275 (2014 est.) 6.1958 (2013 est.) 6.3123 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 5.388 trillion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 5.523 trillion kWh (2014)
Electricity - exports: 18.16 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - imports: 6.75 billion kWh (2014)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 1.505 billion kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 67.3% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 1.5% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 22.2% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 9% of total installed capacity (2014 est.)
Crude oil - production: 4.278 million bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 12,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 6.167 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 25 billion bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 10.35 million bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 11.12 million bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 593,400 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 600,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Natural gas - production: 123.5 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 181.1 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 2.613 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 60.3 billion cu m (2014 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 4.945 trillion cu m (1 January 2016 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 8.687 billion Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 1,305.738 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 95 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: domestic and international services are increasingly available for private use; unevenly distributed domestic system serves principal cities, industrial centers, and many towns; China continues to develop its telecommunications infrastructure; China in th

domestic: interprovincial fiber-optic trunk lines and cellular telephone systems have been installed; mobile-cellular subscribership is increasing rapidly; the number of Internet users now over 50% of the population; a domestic satellite system with several earth s

international: country code - 86; a number of submarine cables provide connectivity to Asia, the Middle East, Europe, and the US; satellite earth stations - 7 (5 Intelsat - 4 Pacific Ocean and 1 Indian Ocean; 1 Intersputnik - Indian Ocean region; and 1 Inmarsat - Pacifi (2012)
Broadcast media: all broadcast media are owned by, or affiliated with, the Communist Party of China or a government agency; no privately owned TV or radio stations; state-run Chinese Central TV, provincial, and municipal stations offer more than 2,000 channels; the Centra
Internet country code: .cn
Internet users: total: 687.845 million percent of population: 50.3% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 507 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 463
over 3,047 m: 71
2,438 to 3,047 m: 158
1,524 to 2,437 m: 123
914 to 1,523 m: 25
under 914 m: 86 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 44
over 3,047 m: 4
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 9
under 914 m: 18 (2013)
Heliports: 47 (2013)
Pipelines: condensate 9 km; gas 48,502 km; oil 23,072 km; oil/gas/water 31 km; refined products 15,298 km; water 9 km (2013)
Railways: total 191,270 km
broad gauge: 100 km 1.520-m gauge standard gauge: 190,000 km 1.435-m gauge (92,000 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 670 km 1.000-m gauge; 500 km 0.762-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 4,106,387 km
paved: 3,453,890 km (includes 84,946 km of expressways)
unpaved: 652,497 km (2011)
Waterways: 110,000 km (navigable waterways) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 2,030

by type: barge carrier 7, bulk carrier 621, cargo 566, carrier 10, chemical tanker 140, container 206, liquefied gas 60, passenger 9, passenger/cargo 81, petroleum tanker 264, refrigerated cargo 33, roll on/roll off 8, specialized tanker 2, vehicle carrier 23

foreign-owned: 22 (Hong Kong 18, Indonesia 2, Japan 2)

registered in other countries: 1,559 (Bangladesh 1, Belize 61, Cambodia 177, Comoros 1, Cyprus 6, Georgia 10, Honduras 2, Hong Kong 500, India 1, Indonesia 1, Kiribati 26, Liberia 4, Malta 6, Marshall Islands 14, North Korea 3, Panama 534, Philippines 4, Saint Kitts and Nevis 1, Saint Vincen (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Dalian, Ningbo, Qingdao, Qinhuangdao, Shanghai, Shenzhen, Tianjin
river port(s): Guangzhou (Pearl) container port(s) (TEUs): Dalian (6,400,300), Guangzhou (14,260,400), Ningbo (14,719,200), Qingdao (13,020,100), Shanghai (31,739,000), Shenzhen (22,570,800), Tianjin (11,587,600)(2011) LNG terminal(s) (import): Fujian, Guangdong, Jiangsu, Shandong, Shanghai, Tangshan, Zhejiang
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 Military
Military branches: People's Liberation Army (PLA): Army, Navy (PLAN; includes marines and naval aviation), Air Force (Zhongguo Renmin Jiefangjun Kongjun, PLAAF; includes airborne forces), Rocket Force (strategic missile force), and Strategic Support Force (space and cyber forces); People's Armed Police (Renmin Wuzhuang Jingcha Budui, PAP); PLA Reserve Force (2016)
Military service age and obligation: 18-24 years of age for selective compulsory military service, with a 2-year service obligation; no minimum age for voluntary service (all officers are volunteers); 18-19 years of age for women high school graduates who meet requirements for specific military jobs; a recent military decision allows women in combat roles; the first class of women warship commanders was in 2011 (2012)
Military expenditures: 2% of GDP (2015) 2% of GDP (2014) 2% of GDP (2013) 1.99% of GDP (2012) 2% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: continuing talks and confidence-building measures work toward reducing tensions over Kashmir that nonetheless remains militarized with portions under the de facto administration of China (Aksai Chin), India (Jammu and Kashmir), and Pakistan (Azad Kashmir and Northern Areas); India does not recognize Pakistan's ceding historic Kashmir lands to China in 1964; China and India continue their security and foreign policy dialogue started in 2005 related to the dispute over most of their rugged, militarized boundary, regional nuclear proliferation, and other matters; China claims most of India's Arunachal Pradesh to the base of the Himalayas; lacking any treaty describing the boundary, Bhutan and China continue negotiations to establish a common boundary alignment to resolve territorial disputes arising from substantial cartographic discrepancies, the largest of which lie in Bhutan's northwest and along the Chumbi salient; Burmese forces attempting to dig in to the largely autonomous Shan State to rout local militias tied to the drug trade, prompts local residents to periodically flee into neighboring Yunnan Province in China; Chinese maps show an international boundary symbol off the coasts of the littoral states of the South China Seas, where China has interrupted Vietnamese hydrocarbon exploration; China asserts sovereignty over Scarborough Reef along with the Philippines and Taiwan, and over the Spratly Islands together with Malaysia, the Philippines, Taiwan, Vietnam, and Brunei; the 2002 Declaration on the Conduct of Parties in the South China Sea eased tensions in the Spratlys but is not the legally binding code of conduct sought by some parties; Vietnam and China continue to expand construction of facilities in the Spratlys and in March 2005, the national oil companies of China, the Philippines, and Vietnam signed a joint accord on marine seismic activities in the Spratly Islands; China occupies some of the Paracel Islands also claimed by Vietnam and Taiwan; the Japanese-administered Senkaku Islands are also claimed by China and Taiwan; certain islands in the Yalu and Tumen Rivers are in dispute with North Korea; North Korea and China seek to stem illegal migration to China by North Koreans, fleeing privations and oppression, by building a fence along portions of the border and imprisoning North Koreans deported by China; China and Russia have demarcated the once disputed islands at the Amur and Ussuri confluence and in the Argun River in accordance with their 2004 Agreement; China and Tajikistan have begun demarcating the revised boundary agreed to in the delimitation of 2002; the decade-long demarcation of the China-Vietnam land boundary was completed in 2009; citing environmental, cultural, and social concerns, China has reconsidered construction of 13 dams on the Salween River, but energy-starved Burma, with backing from Thailand, remains intent on building five hydro-electric dams downstream despite regional and international protests Chinese and Hong Kong authorities met in March 2008 to resolve ownership and use of lands recovered in Shenzhen River channelization, including 96-hectare Lok Ma Chau Loop
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 300,896 (Vietnam); undetermined (North Korea) (2015) IDPs: undetermined (2014)
Illicit drugs: major transshipment point for heroin produced in the Golden Triangle region of Southeast Asia; growing domestic consumption of synthetic drugs, and heroin from Southeast and Southwest Asia; source country for methamphetamine and heroin chemical precursors, despite new regulations on its large chemical industry; more people believed to be convicted and executed for drug offences than anywhere else in the world, according to NGOs (2008)
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   Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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