Chile Population: 17,216,945

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 History
Prior to the arrival of the Spanish in the 16th century, the Inca ruled northern Chile while the Mapuche inhabited central and southern Chile. Although Chile declared its independence in 1810, decisive victory over the Spanish was not achieved until 1818. In the War of the Pacific (1879-83), Chile defeated Peru and Bolivia and won its present northern regions. It was not until the 1880s that the Mapuche were brought under central government control. After a series of elected governments, the three-year-old Marxist government of Salvador ALLENDE was overthrown in 1973 by a military coup led by Augusto PINOCHET, who ruled until a freely elected president was inaugurated in 1990. Sound economic policies, maintained consistently since the 1980s, have contributed to steady growth, reduced poverty rates by over half, and have helped secure the country's commitment to democratic and representative government. Chile has increasingly assumed regional and international leadership roles befitting its status as a stable, democratic nation.

 Geography
The longest north-south trending country in the world, extending across 38 degrees of latitude; strategic location relative to sea lanes between the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Strait of Magellan, Beagle Channel, Drake Passage); Atacama Desert - the driest desert in the world - spreads across the northern part of the country; the crater lake of Ojos del Salado is the world's highest lake (at 6,390 m)
Location: Southern South America, bordering the South Pacific Ocean, between Argentina and Peru
Geographic coordinates: 30 00 S, 71 00 W
Area: total: 756,102 sq km
land: 743,812 sq km
water: 12,290 sq km

note: includes Easter Island (Isla de Pascua) and Isla Sala y Gomez

Size comparison: slightly smaller than twice the size of Montana
Land Boundaries: total: 6,339 km
border countries: Argentina 5,308 km, Bolivia 860 km, Peru 171 km
Coastline: 6,435 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 24 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: 200/350 nm
Climate: temperate; desert in north; Mediterranean in central region; cool and damp in south
Terrain: low coastal mountains; fertile central valley; rugged Andes in east
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m
highest point: Nevado Ojos del Salado 6,880 m
Natural resources: copper, timber, iron ore, nitrates, precious metals, molybdenum, hydropower
Land use: arable land: 1.74%
permanent crops: 0.6%
other: 97.65% (2011)
Irrigated land: 11,990 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: severe earthquakes; active volcanism; tsunamis volcanism: significant volcanic activity due to more than three-dozen active volcanoes along the Andes Mountains; Lascar (elev. 5,592 m), which last erupted in 2007, is the most active volcano in the northern Chilean Andes; Llaima (elev. 3,125 m) in central Chile, which last erupted in 2009, is another of the country's most active; Chaiten's 2008 eruption forced major evacuations; other notable historically active volcanoes include Cerro Hudson, Copahue, Guallatiri, Llullaillaco, Nevados de Chillan, Puyehue, San Pedro, and Villarrica
Current Environment Issues: widespread deforestation and mining threaten natural resources; air pollution from industrial and vehicle emissions; water pollution from raw sewage
International Environment Agreements: party to: Antarctic-Environmental Protocol, Antarctic-Marine Living Resources, Antarctic Seals, Antarctic Treaty, Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands, Whaling
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Chilean(s)
adjective: Chilean
Ethnic groups: white and white-Amerindian 95.4%, Mapuche 4%, other indigenous groups 0.6% (2002 census)
Languages: Spanish (official), Mapudungun, German, English
Religions: Roman Catholic 70%, Evangelical 15.1%, Jehovah's Witnesses 1.1%, other Christian 1%, other 4.6%, none 8.3% (2002 census)
Population: 17,216,945 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 21% (male 1,846,433/female 1,771,225)
15-24 years: 16.6% (male 1,457,772/female 1,398,684)
25-54 years: 43.2% (male 3,694,178/female 3,738,355)
55-64 years: 9.6% (male 771,790/female 872,824)
65 years and over: 9.7% (male 694,570/female 971,114) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 45 %
youth dependency ratio: 30.6 %
elderly dependency ratio: 14.5 %
potential support ratio: 6.9 (2013)
Median age: total: 33 years
male: 31.8 years
female: 34.3 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 0.86% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 14.12 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 5.86 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0.35 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 89% of total population (2010)
rate of urbanization: 1.1% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: SANTIAGO (capital) 6.034 million; Valparaiso 865,000 (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.88 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.71 male(s)/female
total population: 0.97 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 23.7 (2004 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 25 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 7.19 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 7.67 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 6.68 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 78.27 years
male: 75.25 years
female: 81.42 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.85 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 64.2% note: percent of women aged 15-44 (2006)
Health expenditures: 8% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 1.09 physicians/1,000 population (2003)
Hospital bed density: 2.1 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99% of population
rural: 75% of population
total: 96% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1% of population
rural: 25% of population
total: 4% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 98% of population
rural: 83% of population
total: 96% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2% of population
rural: 17% of population
total: 4% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.4% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 40,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 29.4% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 0.5% (2008)
Education expenditures: 4.2% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 98.6%
male: 98.6%
female: 98.5% (2009 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 15 years
male: 15 years
female: 15 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 17.5%
male: 15.2%
female: 21.1% (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Chile
conventional short form: Chile
local long form: Republica de Chile
local short form: Chile
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Santiago
geographic coordinates: 33 27 S, 70 40 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
daylight saving time: +1hr, under a new pilot program begins second Sunday in September; ends fourth Sunday in April

note: Valparaiso is the seat of the national legislature
Administrative divisions: 15 regions (regiones, singular - region); Aisen del General Carlos Ibanez del Campo, Antofagasta, Araucania, Arica y Parinacota, Atacama, Biobio, Coquimbo, Libertador General Bernardo O'Higgins, Los Lagos, Los Rios, Magallanes y de la Antartica Chilena, Maule, Region Metropolitana (Santiago), Tarapaca, Valparaiso

note: the US does not recognize claims to Antarctica
Independence: 18 September 1810 (from Spain)
National holiday: Independence Day, 18 September (1810)
Constitution: 11 September 1980, effective 11 March 1981; amended several times
Legal system: civil law system influenced by several West European civil legal systems; judicial review of legislative acts by the Constitutional Tribunal
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and voluntary
Executive branch: chief of state: President Sebastian PINERA Echenique (since 11 March 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Sebastian PINERA Echenique (since 11 March 2010)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a single four-year term; election last held on 13 December 2009 with runoff election held on 17 January 2010 (next to be held 17 November 2013)

election results: Sebastian PINERA Echenique elected president; percent of vote - Sebastian PINERA Echenique 51.6%; Eduardo FREI 48.4%
Legislative branch: bicameral National Congress or Congreso Nacional consists of the Senate or Senado (38 seats; members elected by popular vote to serve eight-year terms; one-half elected every four years) and the Chamber of Deputies or Camara de Diputados (120 seats; members are elected by popular vote to serve four-year terms)

elections: Senate - last held on 13 December 2009 (next to be held in November 2013); Chamber of Deputies - last held on 13 December 2009 (next to be held in November 2013)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CPD 9 (PDC 4, PPD 3, PS 2), APC 9 (RN 6, UDI 3); Chamber of Deputies - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - APC 58 (UDI 37, RN 18, other 3), CPD 57 (PDC 19, PPD 18, PS 11, PRSD 5, PC 3, other 1), PRI 3, independent 2; note - as of 19 February 2013, the composition of the entire legislature is as follows: Senate - seats by party - CPD 19 (PDC 9, PPD 4, PS 5, PRSD 1), Coalition for Change (former APC) 16 (RN 8, UDI 8), independent 2, MAS 1; Chamber of Deputies - seats by party - Coalition for Change (former APC) 56 (UDI 39, RN 17), CPD 53 (PDC 19, PPD 18, PS 11, PRSD 5), independent 5, PC 3, PRI 2, IC 1
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court or Corte Suprema (consists of a court president and 20 members or ministros); Constitutional Court (consists of 7 members); Electoral Court (consists of 5 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judges appointed by the president and ratified by the Senate from lists of candidates provided by the court itself; judges appointed for life with mandatory retirement at age 70; Constitutional Court members appointed - 3 by the Supreme Court, 1 by the president of the republic, 2 by the National Security Council, and 1 by the Senate; members serve 8-year terms with partial court replacement every 4 years (the court reviews constitutionality of legislation); Electoral Court member appointments - 4 by the Supreme Court and 1 a former president or vice-president of the Senate or Chamber of Deputies selected by the Supreme Court; member term NA

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; oral criminal tribunals; military tribunals; local police courts; specialized tribunals and courts in matters such as family, labor, customs, taxes, and electoral affairs
Political parties and leaders: Broad Social Movement or MAS [Alejandro NAVARRO Brain] Citizen Left or IC Equality Party [Lautaro GUANCA Vallejos] Coalition for Change or CC (also known as the Alliance for Chile (Alianza) or APC) (including National Renewal or RN [Carlos LARRAIN Pena], and Independent Democratic Union or UDI [Patricio MELERO] Coalition of Parties for Democracy (Concertacion) or CPD (including Christian Democratic Party or PDC [Ignacio WALKER Prieto], Party for Democracy or PPD [Jaime Daniel QUINTANA Leal], Radical Social Democratic Party or PRSD [Jose Antonio GOMEZ Urrutia], and Socialist Party or PS [Osvaldo ANDRADE Lara]) Communist Party of Chile (Partido Comunista de Chile) or PC [Guillermo TEILLIER del Valle] Ecological Green Party [Cristian VILLAROEL Novoa] Humanist Party or PH [Danilo MONTEVERDE Reyes] Independent Regionalist Party or PRI [Carlos OLIVARES Zepeda] Progressive Party or PRO [Marco ENRIQUEZ-OMINAMI Gumucio]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Roman Catholic Church, particularly conservative groups such as Opus Dei United Labor Central or CUT includes trade unionists from the country's five largest labor confederations other: university student federations at all major universities
International organization participation: APEC, BIS, BRICS, CAN (associate), CD, CELAC, FAO, G-15, G-77, IADB, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), LAES, LAIA, Mercosur (associate), MIGA, MINUSTAH, NAM, OAS, OECD (Enhanced Engagement, OPANAL, OPCW, PCA, SICA (observer), UN, UNASUR, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNFICYP, UNHCR, UNIDO, Union Latina, UNMOGIP, UNTSO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): huemul (mountain deer); Andean condor
National anthem: name: "Himno Nacional de Chile" (National Anthem of Chile)
lyrics/music: Eusebio LILLO Robles and Bernardo DE VERA y Pintado/Ramon CARNICER y Battle

note: music adopted 1828, original lyrics adopted 1818, adapted lyrics adopted 1847; under Augusto PINOCHET"s military rule, a verse glorifying the army was added; however, as a protest, some citizens refused to sing this verse; it was removed when democracy was restored in 1990
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Felipe BULNES Serrano
chancery: 1732 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 785-1746
FAX: [1] (202) 887-5579
consulate(s) general: Chicago, Los Angeles, Miami, New York, Philadelphia, San Francisco
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Alejandro D. WOLFF
embassy: Avenida Andres Bello 2800, Las Condes, Santiago
mailing address: APO AA 34033
telephone: [56] (2) 330-3000
FAX: [56] (2) 330-3710, 330-3160
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 Economy
Chile has a market-oriented economy characterized by a high level of foreign trade and a reputation for strong financial institutions and sound policy that have given it the strongest sovereign bond rating in South America. Exports account for approximately one-third of GDP, with commodities making up some three-quarters of total exports. Copper alone provides 19% of government revenue. From 2003 through 2012, real growth averaged almost 5% per year, despite the slight contraction in 2009 that resulted from the global financial crisis. Chile deepened its longstanding commitment to trade liberalization with the signing of a free trade agreement with the US, which took effect on 1 January 2004. Chile has 22 trade agreements covering 60 countries including agreements with the European Union, Mercosur, China, India, South Korea, and Mexico. Chile has joined the United States and nine other countries in negotiating the Trans-Pacific-Partnership trade agreement. In 2012, foreign direct investment inflows reached $28.2 billion, an increase of 63% over the previous record set in 2011. The Chilean Government has generally followed a countercyclical fiscal policy, accumulating surpluses in sovereign wealth funds during periods of high copper prices and economic growth, and generally allowing deficit spending only during periods of low copper prices and growth. As of 31 December 2012, those sovereign wealth funds - kept mostly outside the country and separate from Central Bank reserves - amounted to more than $20.9 billion. Chile used these funds to finance fiscal stimulus packages during the 2009 economic downturn. In May 2010 Chile signed the OECD Convention, becoming the first South American country to join the OECD.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $325.8 billion (2012 est.) $308.9 billion (2011 est.) $291.7 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $268.2 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.5% (2012 est.) 5.9% (2011 est.) 5.8% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $18,700 (2012 est.) $17,900 (2011 est.) $17,100 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 21.4% of GDP (2012 est.) 22.2% of GDP (2011 est.) 23.9% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 62.5%
government consumption: 12.1%
investment in fixed capital: 24.1%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 34.2%
imports of goods and services: -33.9% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 62.5%
government consumption: 12.1%
investment in fixed capital: 24.1%
investment in inventories: 0.8%
exports of goods and services: 34.2%
imports of goods and services: -33.9% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: grapes, apples, pears, onions, wheat, corn, oats, peaches, garlic, asparagus, beans; beef, poultry, wool; fish; timber
Industries: copper, lithium, other minerals, foodstuffs, fish processing, iron and steel, wood and wood products, transport equipment, cement, textiles
Industrial production growth rate: 4.8% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 8.231 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 13.2%
industry: 23%
services: 63.9% (2005)
Unemployment rate: 6.4% (2012 est.) 6.6% (2011 est.)
Population below poverty line: 15.1% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 1.5%
highest 10%: 42.8% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 52.1 (2009) 57.1 (2000)
Budget: revenues: $58.81 billion
expenditures: $57.38 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 21.9% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 11.9% of GDP (2012 est.) 11.1% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3% (2012 est.) 3.3% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$9.769 billion (2012 est.) -$3.387 billion (2011 est.)
Exports: $78.28 billion (2012 est.) $81.46 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: copper, fruit, fish products, paper and pulp, chemicals, wine
Exports - partners: China 23.9%, US 12.2%, Japan 10.6%, South Korea 5.8%, Brazil 5.5% (2012)
Imports: $74.86 billion (2012 est.) $70.91 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: petroleum and petroleum products, chemicals, electrical and telecommunications equipment, industrial machinery, vehicles, natural gas
Imports - partners: US 21.9%, China 18.2%, Argentina 6.7%, Brazil 6.5% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $41.65 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $41.94 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $104.6 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $96.24 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $192.8 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $162.5 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $91.3 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $70.21 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $270.3 billion (31 December 2011) $341.6 billion (31 December 2010) $209.5 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: Chilean pesos (CLP) per US dollar - 486.49 (2012 est.) 483.67 (2011 est.) 510.25 (2010 est.) 560.86 (2009) 509.02 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 59.75 billion kWh (2010 est.) country comparison to the world: 44
Electricity - consumption: 53.24 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 958 million kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 15.52 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 64.4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 34.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 6,000 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 197,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 150 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 209,600 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 321,700 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 27,290 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 165,900 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 1.779 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 5.318 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 3.458 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 97.97 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 68.76 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 3.366 million (2011)
country comparison to the world: 48
Cellular Phones in use: 22.4 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: privatization began in 1988; most advanced telecommunications infrastructure in South America; modern system based on extensive microwave radio relay facilities; domestic satellite system with 3 earth stations

domestic: number of fixed-line connections have stagnated in recent years as mobile-cellular usage continues to increase, reaching 130 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 56; landing points for the Pan American, South America-1, and South American Crossing/Latin America Nautilus submarine cables providing links to the US and to Central and South America; satellite earth stations - 2 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: national and local terrestrial TV channels, coupled with extensive cable TV networks; the state-owned Television Nacional de Chile (TVN) network is self financed through commercial advertising revenues and is not under direct government control; large number of privately owned TV stations; about 250 radio stations (2007)
Internet country code: .cl
Internet hosts: 2.152 million (2012)
Internet users: 7.009 million (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 481 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 15
Airports (paved runways): total 90
over 3,047 m: 5
2,438 to 3,047 m: 7
1,524 to 2,437 m: 23
914 to 1,523 m: 31
under 914 m: 24 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 391

2,438 to 3,047 m: 5
1,524 to 2,437 m: 11
914 to 1,523 m: 56
under 914 m: 319 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 3,160 km; liquid petroleum gas 781 km; oil 985 km; refined products 722 km (2013)
Railways: total 7,082 km
broad gauge: 3,435 km 1.676-m gauge (850 km electrified)
narrow gauge: 3,647 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 77,764 km
paved: 18,119 km (includes 2,387 km of expressways)
unpaved: 59,645 km (2010)
Merchant marine: total 42

by type: bulk carrier 13, cargo 5, chemical tanker 7, container 2, liquefied gas 1, passenger 3, passenger/cargo 2, petroleum tanker 8, roll on/roll off 1

foreign-owned: 1 (Norway 1)

registered in other countries: 52 (Argentina 6, Brazil 1, Honduras 1, Isle of Man 9, Liberia 9, Panama 14, Peru 6, Singapore 6) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Coronel, Huasco, Lirquen, Puerto Ventanas, San Antonio, San Vicente, Valparaiso
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 Military
Military branches: Army of the Nation, Chilean Navy (Armada de Chile, includes Naval Aviation, Marine Corps, and Maritime Territory and Merchant Marine Directorate (Directemar)), Chilean Air Force (Fuerza Aerea de Chile, FACh), Carabineros Corps (Cuerpo de Carabineros) (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18-45 years of age for voluntary male and female military service, although the right to compulsory recruitment of males 18-45 is retained; service obligation is 12 months for Army and 22 months for Navy and Air Force (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 4,324,732
females age 16-49: 4,251,954 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 3,621,475
females age 16-49: 3,561,099 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 141,500
female: 135,709 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 2.1% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Chile and Peru rebuff Bolivia's reactivated claim to restore the Atacama corridor, ceded to Chile in 1884, but Chile has offered instead unrestricted but not sovereign maritime access through Chile to Bolivian natural gas; Chile rejects Peru's unilateral legislation to change its latitudinal maritime boundary with Chile to an equidistance line with a southwestern axis favoring Peru; in October 2007, Peru took its maritime complaint with Chile to the ICJ; territorial claim in Antarctica (Chilean Antarctic Territory) partially overlaps Argentine and British claims; the joint boundary commission, established by Chile and Argentina in 2001, has yet to map and demarcate the delimited boundary in the inhospitable Andean Southern Ice Field (Campo de Hielo Sur)
Illicit drugs: transshipment country for cocaine destined for Europe and the region; some money laundering activity, especially through the Iquique Free Trade Zone; imported precursors passed on to Bolivia; domestic cocaine consumption is rising, making Chile a significant consumer of cocaine (2008)
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