Democratic Republic of the Congo Population: 75,507,308

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 Background
Established as a Belgian colony in 1908, the then-Republic of the Congo gained its independence in 1960, but its early years were marred by political and social instability. Col. Joseph MOBUTU seized power and declared himself president in a November 1965 coup. He subsequently changed his name - to MOBUTU Sese Seko - as well as that of the country - to Zaire. MOBUTU retained his position for 32 years through several sham elections, as well as through brutal force. Ethnic strife and civil war, touched off by a massive inflow of refugees in 1994 from fighting in Rwanda and Burundi, led in May 1997 to the toppling of the MOBUTU regime by a rebellion backed by Rwanda and Uganda and fronted by Laurent KABILA. He renamed the country the Democratic Republic of the Congo (DRC), but in August 1998 his regime was itself challenged by a second insurrection again backed by Rwanda and Uganda. Troops from Angola, Chad, Namibia, Sudan, and Zimbabwe intervened to support KABILA's regime. In January 2001, KABILA was assassinated and his son, Joseph KABILA, was named head of state. In October 2002, the new president was successful in negotiating the withdrawal of Rwandan forces occupying the eastern DRC; two months later, the Pretoria Accord was signed by all remaining warring parties to end the fighting and establish a government of national unity. A transitional government was set up in July 2003; it held a successful constitutional referendum in December 2005 and elections for the presidency, National Assembly, and provincial legislatures took place in 2006. In 2009, following a resurgence of conflict in the eastern DRC, the government signed a peace agreement with the National Congress for the Defense of the People (CNDP), a primarily Tutsi rebel group. An attempt to integrate CNDP members into the Congolese military failed, prompting their defection in 2012 and the formation of the M23 armed group - named after the 23 March 2009 peace agreements. Renewed conflict has lead to the displacement of large numbers of persons and significant human rights abuses. As of February 2013, peace talks between the Congolese government and the M23 were on-going. In addition, the DRC continues to experience violence committed by other armed groups including the Democratic Forces for the Liberation of Rwanda and Mai Mai groups. In the most recent national elections, held in November 2011, disputed results allowed Joseph KABILA to be reelected to the presidency.

 Geography
Straddles equator; has narrow strip of land that controls the lower Congo River and is only outlet to South Atlantic Ocean; dense tropical rain forest in central river basin and eastern highlands; second largest country in Africa (after Algeria)
Location: Central Africa, northeast of Angola
Geographic coordinates: 0 00 N, 25 00 E
Area: total: 2,344,858 sq km land: 2,267,048 sq km water: 77,810 sq km

Size comparison: slightly less than one-fourth the size of the US
Land Boundaries: total: 10,730 km border countries: Angola 2,511 km (of which 225 km is the boundary of Angola's discontiguous Cabinda Province), Burundi 233 km, Central African Republic 1,577 km, Republic of the Congo 2,410 km, Rwanda 217 km, South Sudan 628 km, Tanzania 459 km, Uganda 765 km, Zambia 1,930 km
Coastline: 37 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive economic zone: boundaries with neighbors
Climate: tropical; hot and humid in equatorial river basin; cooler and drier in southern highlands; cooler and wetter in eastern highlands; north of Equator - wet season (April to October), dry season (December to February); south of Equator - wet season (November to March), dry season (April to October)
Terrain: vast central basin is a low-lying plateau; mountains in east
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Atlantic Ocean 0 m highest point: Pic Marguerite on Mont Ngaliema (Mount Stanley) 5,110 m
Natural resources: cobalt, copper, niobium, tantalum, petroleum, industrial and gem diamonds, gold, silver, zinc, manganese, tin, uranium, coal, hydropower, timber
Land use: arable land: 2.9% permanent crops: 0.32% other: 96.78% (2011)
Irrigated land: 105 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts in south; Congo River floods (seasonal); active volcanoes in the east along the Great Rift Valley volcanism: Nyiragongo (elev. 3,470 m), which erupted in 2002 and is experiencing ongoing activity, poses a major threat to the city of Goma, home to a quarter million people; the volcano produces unusually fast-moving lava, known to travel up to 100 km /hr; Nyiragongo has been deemed a "Decade Volcano" by the International Association of Volcanology and Chemistry of the Earth's Interior, worthy of study due to its explosive history and close proximity to human populations; its neighbor, Nyamuragira, which erupted in 2010, is Africa's most active volcano; Visoke is the only other historically active volcano
Current Environment Issues: poaching threatens wildlife populations; water pollution; deforestation; refugees responsible for significant deforestation, soil erosion, and wildlife poaching; mining of minerals (coltan - a mineral used in creating capacitors, diamonds, and gold) causing environmental damage
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Dumping, Ozone Layer Protection, Tropical Timber 83, Tropical Timber 94, Wetlands signed, but not ratified: Environmental Modification
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 People
Nationality: noun: Congolese (singular and plural) adjective: Congolese or Congo
Ethnic groups: over 200 African ethnic groups of which the majority are Bantu; the four largest tribes - Mongo, Luba, Kongo (all Bantu), and the Mangbetu-Azande (Hamitic) make up about 45% of the population
Languages: French (official), Lingala (a lingua franca trade language), Kingwana (a dialect of Kiswahili or Swahili), Kikongo, Tshiluba
Religions: Roman Catholic 50%, Protestant 20%, Kimbanguist 10%, Muslim 10%, other (includes syncretic sects and indigenous beliefs) 10%
Population: 75,507,308 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 43.5% (male 16,549,895/female 16,303,497) 15-24 years: 21.3% (male 8,055,525/female 8,014,205) 25-54 years: 29.1% (male 10,955,261/female 11,003,910) 55-64 years: 3.5% (male 1,247,479/female 1,420,102) 65 years and over: 2.6% (male 822,168/female 1,135,266) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 91.9 % youth dependency ratio: 86.4 % elderly dependency ratio: 5.5 % potential support ratio: 18.2 (2013)
Median age: total: 17.7 years
male: 17.5 years female: 17.9 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 2.54% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 36.34 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 10.54 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.4 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 34.3% of total population (2011) rate of urbanization: 4.19% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: KINSHASA (capital) 8.798 million; Lubumbashi 1.543 million; Mbuji-Mayi 1.488 million; Kananga 878,000; Kisangani 812,000 (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female 0-14 years: 1.02 male(s)/female 15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female 25-54 years: 1 male(s)/female 55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female 65 years and over: 0.72 male(s)/female total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 20.2 (2007 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 540 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 74.87 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 78.56 deaths/1,000 live births female: 71.07 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 56.14 years
male: 54.66 years female: 57.66 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 4.95 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 17.7% (2010)
Health expenditures: 7.9% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.11 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
Hospital bed density: 0.8 beds/1,000 population (2006)
Drinking water source: improved: urban: 79% of population rural: 27% of population total: 45% of population unimproved: urban: 21% of population rural: 73% of population total: 55% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved: urban: 24% of population rural: 24% of population total: 24% of population unimproved: urban: 76% of population rural: 76% of population total: 76% of population (2010 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 1.7% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 28.2% (2007)
Education expenditures: 2.5% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write French, Lingala, Kingwana, or Tshiluba
total population: 66.8% male: 76.9% female: 57% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 8 years
male: 10 years female: 7 years (2011)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Democratic Republic of the Congo conventional short form: DRC local long form: Republique Democratique du Congo local short form: RDC former: Congo Free State, Belgian Congo, Congo/Leopoldville, Congo/Kinshasa, Zaire abbreviation: DRC
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Kinshasa geographic coordinates: 4 19 S, 15 18 E time difference: UTC+1 (6 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 provinces (provinces, singular - province) and 1 city* (ville); Bandundu, Bas-Congo (Lower Congo), Equateur, Kasai-Occidental (West Kasai), Kasai-Oriental (East Kasai), Katanga, Kinshasa*, Maniema, Nord-Kivu (North Kivu), Orientale, Sud-Kivu (South Kivu) note: according to the Constitution adopted in December 2005, the current administrative divisions were to be subdivided into 26 new provinces by 2009 but this has yet to be implemented
Independence: 30 June 1960 (from Belgium)
National holiday: Independence Day, 30 June (1960)
Constitution: 18 February 2006
Legal system: civil legal system based on Belgian version of French civil law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal and compulsory
Executive branch: chief of state: President Joseph KABILA (since 17 January 2001) head of government: Prime Minister Augustin MATATA PONYO Mapon (since 18 April 2012) cabinet: Ministers of State appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: under the new constitution the president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 28 November 2011 (next to be held in November 2016); prime minister appointed by the president election results: Joseph KABILA reelected president; percent of vote - Joseph KABILA 49%, Etienne TSHISEKEDI 32.3%, other 18.7%; note - election marred by serious voting irregularities note: Joseph KABILA succeeded his father, Laurent Desire KABILA, following the latter's assassination in January 2001; negotiations with rebel leaders led to the establishment of a transitional government in July 2003 with free elections held on 30 July 2006 and a run-off on 29 October 2006 confirming Joseph KABILA as president
Legislative branch: bicameral legislature consists of a Senate (108 seats; members elected by provincial assemblies to serve five-year terms) and a National Assembly (500 seats; 61 members elected by majority vote in single-member constituencies, 439 members elected by open list proportional-representation in multi-member constituencies to serve five-year terms) elections: Senate - last held on 19 January 2007 (next scheduled for 5 June 2013; though likely to be delayed); National Assembly - last held on 28 November 2011 (next to be held in 2016) election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 22, MLC 14, FR 7, RCD 7, PDC 6, CDC 3, MSR 3, PALU 2, independents 26, others 18 (political parties that won a single seat); National Assembly - percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - PPRD 62, UDPS 41, PPPD 29, MSR 27, MLC 22, PALU 19, UNC 17, ARC 16, AFDC 15, ECT 11, RRC 11, independents 16, others 214 (includes numerous political parties that won 10 or fewer seats and 2 constituencies where voting was halted); note - the November 2011 elections were married by violence including the destruction of ballots in two constituencies resulting in the closure of polling sites; election results were delayed three months, stongly contested, and continue to be unresolved
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Justice (organized into legislative and judiciary sections and consists of 26 justices); Constitutional Court (consists of 9 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court of Justice judges nominated by the Judicial Service Council, an independent body of public prosecutors and selected judges of the lower courts; judges tenure NA; Constitutional Court judges - 3 nominated by the president, 3 by the Judicial Service Council, and 3 by the legislature; judges appointed by the president to serve 9-year non-renewable terms subordinate courts: State Security Court; Court of Appeals (organized into administrative and judiciary sections); Tribunal de Grande; magistrates' courts; customary courts
Political parties and leaders: Christian Democrat Party or PDC [Jose ENDUNDO] Congolese Rally for Democracy or RCD [Azarias RUBERWA] Convention of Christian Democrats or CDC Forces of Renewal or FR [Mbusa NYAMWISI] Movement for the Liberation of the Congo or MLC [Jean-Pierre BEMBA] People's Party for Reconstruction and Democracy or PPRD [Joseph KABILA] Social Movement for Renewal or MSR [Pierre LUMBI] Unified Lumumbist Party or PALU [Antoine GIZENGA] Union for the Congolese Nation or UNC [Vital KAMERHE] Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Etienne TSHISEKEDI] Union of Mobutuist Democrats or UDEMO [MOBUTU Nzanga]
Political pressure groups and leaders: FARDC (Forces Armées de la République Démocratique du Congo) - Army of the Democratic Republic of the Congo, which commits atrocities on citizens FDLR (Forces Democratiques de Liberation du Rwanda) - Rwandan militia group made up of some of the perpetrators of Rwanda's Genocide in 1994 CNDP (National Congress for the Defense of the People) - mainly Congolese Tutsis who want refugees returned and more representation in government M23 - rebel group comprised largely from ex-CNDP forces
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, EITI (candidate country), FAO, G-24, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, PCA, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): leopard
National anthem: name: "Debout Congolaise" (Arise Congolese) lyrics/music: Joseph LUTUMBA/Simon-Pierre BOKA di Mpasi Londi note: adopted 1960; the anthem was replaced during the period in which the country was known as Zaire, but was readopted in 1997
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Faida Maramuke MITIFU chancery: Suite 601, 1726 M Street, NW, Washington, DC, 20036 telephone: [1] (202) 234-7690 through 7691 FAX: [1] (202) 234-2609 consulate(s) general: New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador James F. ENTWISTLE embassy: 310 Avenue des Aviateurs, Kinshasa mailing address: Unit 2220, DPO AE 09828 telephone: [243] (081) 556-0151 FAX: [243] (081) 556-0175
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 Economy
The economy of the Democratic Republic of the Congo - a nation endowed with vast natural resource wealth - is slowly recovering after decades of decline. Systemic corruption since independence in 1960, combined with country-wide instability and conflict that began in the mid-90s has dramatically reduced national output and government revenue and increased external debt. With the installation of a transitional government in 2003 after peace accords, economic conditions slowly began to improve as the transitional government reopened relations with international financial institutions and international donors, and President KABILA began implementing reforms. Progress has been slow to reach the interior of the country although clear changes are evident in Kinshasa and Lubumbashi. An uncertain legal framework, corruption, and a lack of transparency in government policy are long-term problems for the mining sector and for the economy as a whole. Much economic activity still occurs in the informal sector and is not reflected in GDP data. Renewed activity in the mining sector, the source of most export income, has boosted Kinshasa's fiscal position and GDP growth in recent years. The global recession cut economic growth in 2009 to less than half its 2008 level, but growth returned to around 7% per year in 2010-12. The DRC signed a Poverty Reduction and Growth Facility with the IMF in 2009 and received $12 billion in multilateral and bilateral debt relief in 2010, but the IMF at the end of 2012 suspended the last three payments under the loan facility - worth $240 million - because of concerns about the lack of transparency in mining contracts. In 2012, the DRC updated its business laws by adhering to OHADA, the Organization for the Harmonization of Business Law in Africa. The country marked its tenth consecutive year of positive economic expansion in 2012.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $28.03 billion (2012 est.) $26.17 billion (2011 est.) $24.48 billion (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $17.7 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 7.1% (2012 est.) 6.9% (2011 est.) 7.2% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $400 (2012 est.) $400 (2011 est.) $300 (2010 est.) note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 64.5% government consumption: 12% investment in fixed capital: 18.3% investment in inventories: 1% exports of goods and services: 58.5% imports of goods and services: -53.3% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 64.5% government consumption: 12% investment in fixed capital: 18.3% investment in inventories: 1% exports of goods and services: 58.5% imports of goods and services: -53.3% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, sugar, palm oil, rubber, tea, cotton, cocoa, quinine, cassava (manioc), bananas, plantains, peanuts, root crops, corn, fruits; wood products
Industries: mining (copper, cobalt, gold, diamonds, coltan, zinc, tin, tungsten), mineral processing, consumer products (textiles, plastics, footwear, cigarettes), metal products, processed foods and beverages, timber, cement, commercial ship repair
Industrial production growth rate: NA%
Labor force: 35.86 million (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA%
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 71% (2006 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.3% highest 10%: 34.7% (2006)
Budget: revenues: $5.009 billion expenditures: $5.537 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 28.3% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 10.5% (2012 est.) 15.5% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$2.2 billion (2012 est.) -$831 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $8.872 billion (2012 est.) $9.472 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: diamonds, copper, gold, cobalt, wood products, crude oil, coffee
Exports - partners: China 53.4%, Zambia 24.5%, Belgium 5.6% (2012)
Imports: $8.187 billion (2012 est.) $8.916 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, mining and other machinery, transport equipment, fuels
Imports - partners: South Africa 21.4%, China 15.1%, Belgium 7.9%, Zambia 7.5%, Zimbabwe 6.1%, Kenya 5.1%, France 4.9% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.633 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $1.268 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $6.089 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $5.448 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Congolese francs (CDF) per US dollar - 920.25 (2012 est.) 916.25 (2011 est.) 905.91 (2010 est.) 472.19 (2009) 559 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 7.75 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 99
Electricity - consumption: 6.588 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 887 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - imports: 105 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 2.475 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 1.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 98.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 20,160 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 11,000 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 180 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 10,240 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 11,500 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 991.1 million cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 2.804 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 57,000 (2011) country comparison to the world: 161
Cellular Phones in use: 15.645 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: barely adequate wire and microwave radio relay service in and between urban areas; domestic satellite system with 14 earth stations; inadequate fixed line infrastructure domestic: state-owned operator providing less than 1 fixed-line connection per 1000 persons; given the backdrop of a wholly inadequate fixed-line infrastructure, the use of mobile-cellular services has surged and mobile teledensity is roughly 20 per 100 persons international: country code - 243; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: state-owned TV broadcast station with near national coverage; more than a dozen privately owned TV stations with 2 having near national coverage; 2 state-owned radio stations are supplemented by more than 100 private radio stations; transmissions of at least 2 international broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .cd
Internet hosts: 2,515 (2012)
Internet users: 290,000 (2008)
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 Transportation
Airports: 198 (2013) country comparison to the world: 27
Airports (paved runways): total 26
over 3,047 m: 3 2,438 to 3,047 m: 3 1,524 to 2,437 m: 17 914 to 1,523 m: 2 under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 172
1,524 to 2,437 m: 20 914 to 1,523 m: 87 under 914 m: 65 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 62 km; oil 77 km; refined products 756 km (2013)
Railways: total 4,007 km
narrow gauge: 3,882 km 1.067-m gauge (858 km electrified); 125 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 153,497 km
paved: 2,794 km unpaved: 150,703 km (2004)
Waterways: 15,000 km (including the Congo, its tributaries, and unconnected lakes) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 1
by type: petroleum tanker 1 foreign-owned: 1 (Republic of the Congo 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Banana river or lake port(s): Boma, Bumba, Kinshasa, Kisangani, Matadi, Mbandaka (Congo); Kindu (Lualaba); Bukavu, Goma (Lake Kivu); Kalemie (Lake Tanganyika)
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 Military
Military branches: Armed Forces of the Democratic Republic of the Congo (Forces d'Armees de la Republique Democratique du Congo, FARDC): Army, National Navy (La Marine Nationale), Congolese Air Force (Force Aerienne Congolaise, FAC) (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18-45 years of age for voluntary and compulsory military service (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 15,980,106 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 10,168,258 females age 16-49: 10,331,693 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 877,684 female: 871,880 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.2% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: heads of the Great Lakes states and UN pledged in 2004 to abate tribal, rebel, and militia fighting in the region, including northeast Congo, where the UN Organization Mission in the Democratic Republic of the Congo (MONUC), organized in 1999, maintains over 16,500 uniformed peacekeepers; members of Uganda's Lords Resistance Army forces continue to seek refuge in Congo's Garamba National Park as peace talks with the Uganda government evolve; the location of the boundary in the broad Congo River with the Republic of the Congo is indefinite except in the Pool Malebo/Stanley Pool area; Uganda and DRC dispute Rukwanzi Island in Lake Albert and other areas on the Semliki River with hydrocarbon potential; boundary commission continues discussions over Congolese-administered triangle of land on the right bank of the Lunkinda River claimed by Zambia near the DRC village of Pweto; DRC accuses Angola of shifting monuments
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 50,736 (Rwanda); 9,368 (Burundi) (2012); 69,500 (Central African Republic) (2013) IDPs: 2,665,021 (fighting between government forces and rebels since mid-1990s; most IDPs are in eastern provinces) (2012)
Illicit drugs: one of Africa's biggest producers of cannabis, but mostly for domestic consumption; traffickers exploit lax shipping controls to transit pseudoephedrine through the capital; while rampant corruption and inadequate supervision leaves the banking system vulnerable to money laundering, the lack of a well-developed financial system limits the country's utility as a money-laundering center (2008)
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Source: CIA - The World Factbook
 

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