Botswana Population: 2,209,208

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 History
Formerly the British protectorate of Bechuanaland, Botswana adopted its new name at independence in 1966. More than four decades of uninterrupted civilian leadership, progressive social policies, and significant capital investment have created one of the most stable economies in Africa. The ruling Botswana Democratic Party has won every election since independence; President Ian KHAMA was reelected for a second term in 2014. Mineral extraction, principally diamond mining, dominates economic activity, though tourism is a growing sector due to the country's conservation practices and extensive nature preserves. Botswana has one of the world's highest known rates of HIV/AIDS infection, but also one of Africa's most progressive and comprehensive programs for dealing with the disease.

 Geography
Landlocked; population concentrated in eastern part of the country
Location: Southern Africa, north of South Africa
Geographic coordinates: 22 00 S, 24 00 E
Area: total: 581,730 sq km
land: 566,730 sq km
water: 15,000 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Texas
Land Boundaries: total: 4,347.15 km border countries (4): Namibia 1,544 km, South Africa 1,969 km, Zambia 0.15 km, Zimbabwe 834 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: semiarid; warm winters and hot summers
Terrain: predominantly flat to gently rolling tableland; Kalahari Desert in southwest
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver
Land use: agricultural land: 45.8% arable land 0.6%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 45.2% forest: 19.8%
other: 34.4% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 20 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: periodic droughts; seasonal August winds blow from the west, carrying sand and dust across the country, which can obscure visibility
Current Environment Issues: overgrazing; desertification; limited freshwater resources
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
adjective: Motswana (singular), Batswana (plural)
Ethnic groups: Tswana (or Setswana) 79%, Kalanga 11%, Basarwa 3%, other, including Kgalagadi and white 7%
Languages: Setswana 77.3%, Sekalanga 7.4%, Shekgalagadi 3.4%, English (official) 2.8%, Zezuru/Shona 2%, Sesarwa 1.7%, Sembukushu 1.6%, Ndebele 1%, other 2.8% (2011 est.)
Religions: Christian 79.1%, Badimo 4.1%, other 1.4% (includes Baha'i, Hindu, Muslim, Rastafarian), none 15.2%, unspecified 0.3% (2011 est.)
Population: 2,209,208 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 32.4% (male 364,807/female 350,888)
15-24 years: 21.32% (male 234,251/female 236,650)
25-54 years: 37.61% (male 444,290/female 386,622)
55-64 years: 4.55% (male 45,186/female 55,272)
65 years and over: 4.13% (male 36,216/female 55,026) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 55.3%
youth dependency ratio: 49.7%
elderly dependency ratio: 5.6%
potential support ratio: 17.9% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 23.2 years
male: 23.4 years
female: 23.1 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.19% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 20.7 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 13.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 4.5 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 57.4% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 1.29% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: GABORONE (capital) 247,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.04 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.99 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.15 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.66 male(s)/female
total population: 1.04 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19 (2007 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 129 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 8.6 deaths/1,000 live births male: 8.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 8.3 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 54.5 years male: 56.3 years
female: 52.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.3 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 52.8% note: percent of women aged 12-49 (2007/08)
Health expenditures: 5.4% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.4 physicians/1,000 population (2009)
Hospital bed density: 1.8 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 99.2% of population
rural: 92.3% of population
total: 96.2% of population

unimproved:
urban: 0.8% of population
rural: 7.7% of population
total: 3.8% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 78.5% of population
rural: 43.1% of population
total: 63.4% of population

unimproved:
urban: 21.5% of population
rural: 56.9% of population
total: 36.6% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 22.21% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 348,900 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,200 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 19.5% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 11.2% (2008)
Education expenditures: 9.6% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 88.5%
male: 88%
female: 88.9% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 13 years male: 13 years
female: 13 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 36% male: 29.6%
female: 43.5% (2010 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Botswana
conventional short form: Botswana
local long form: Republic of Botswana
local short form: Botswana
former: Bechuanaland
etymology: the name Botswana means "Land of the Tswana" - referring to the country's major ethnic group
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Gaborone
geographic coordinates: 24 38 S, 25 54 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 10 districts and 6 town councils*; Central, Chobe, Francistown*, Gaborone*, Ghanzi, Jwaneng*, Kgalagadi, Kgatleng, Kweneng, Lobatse*, North East, North West, Selebi-Phikwe*, South East, Southern, Sowa Town*
Independence: 30 September 1966 (from the UK)
National holiday: Independence Day (Botswana Day), 30 September (1966)
Constitution: previous 1960 (preindependence); latest adopted March 1965, effective 30 September 1966; amended several times, last in 2006 (2016)
Legal system: mixed legal system of civil law influenced by the Roman-Dutch model and also customary and common law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI (since 12 November 2014); note - the president is both chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA (since 1 April 2008); Vice President Mokgweetsi Eric MASISI (since 12 November 2014)

cabinet: Cabinet appointed by the president elections/appointments: president indirectly elected by the National Assembly for a 5-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019); vice president appointed by the president

election results: Seretse Khama Ian KHAMA elected president; percent of National Assembly vote - NA
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Parliament consists of the National Assembly (63 seats; 57 members directly elected in single-seat constituencies by simple majority vote, 4 nominated by the president and indirectly elected by simple majority vote by the rest of the National Assembly, and 2 ex-officio members - the president and attorney general; elected members serve 5-year terms); note - the House of Chiefs (Ntlo ya Dikgosi), an advisory body to the National Assembly, consists of 35 members - 8 hereditary chiefs from Botswana's principal tribes, 22 indirectly elected by the chiefs, and 5 appointed by the president; the House of Chiefs consults on issues including powers of chiefs, customary courts, customary law, tribal property, and constitutional amendments

elections: National Assembly elections last held on 24 October 2014 (next to be held in October 2019)

election results: percent of vote by party - BDP 46.5%, UDC 30.0%, BCP 20.4%, independent 3.1%; seats by party - BDP 37, UDC 17, BCP 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Court of Appeal, High Court (each consists of a chief justice and a number of other judges as prescribed by the Parliament) judge selection and term of office: Court of Appeal and High Court chief justices appointed by the president and other judges appointed by the president upon the advice of the Judicial Service Commission; all judges appointed to serve until age 70

subordinate courts: Industrial Court (with circuits scheduled monthly in the capital city and in 3 districts); Magistrates Courts (1 in each district); Customary Court of Appeal; Paramount Chief's Court/Urban Customary Court; Senior Chief's Representative Court; Chief's Representative’s Court; Headman's Court
Political parties and leaders: Botswana Alliance Movement or BAM [Ephraim Lepetu SETSHWAELO] Botswana Congress Party or BCP [Dumelang SALESHANDO] Botswana Democratic Party or BDP [Ian KHAMA] Botswana Movement for Democracy or BMD [Ndaba GAOLATLHE] Botswana National Front or BNF [Duma BOKO] Botswana Peoples Party or BPP [Motlatsi MOLAPISI] Umbrella for Democratic Change or UDC [Duma BOKO] (includes BMD, BPP, and BNF)
Political pressure groups and leaders: Society for the Promotion of Ikalanga Language (Kalanga elites) other: diamond mining companies
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, C, CD, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OPCW, SACU, SADC, UN, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): zebra; national colors: blue, white, black
National anthem: name: "Fatshe leno la rona" (Our Land)
lyrics/music: Kgalemang Tumedisco MOTSETE

note: adopted 1966
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador David John NEWMAN (since 3 August 2015)
chancery: 1531-1533 New Hampshire Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20036
telephone: [1] (202) 244-4990
FAX: [1] (202) 244-4164
consulate(s) general: Atlanta
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Earl R. MILLER (since 30 January 2015)
embassy: Embassy Drive, Government Enclave (off Khama Crescent), Gaborone
mailing address: Embassy Enclave, P. O. Box 90, Gaborone
telephone: [267] 395-3982
FAX: [267] 318-0232
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 Economy
Botswana has maintained one of the world's highest economic growth rates since independence in 1966. Diamond mining has fueled much of the expansion and currently accounts for one quarter of GDP, approximately 85% of export earnings, and about one-third of the government's revenues. Tourism is the secondary earner of foreign exchange and many Batswana engage in subsistence farming and cattle raising. Through fiscal discipline and sound management, Botswana transformed itself from one of the poorest countries in the world to a middle-income country with a per capita GDP of $17,700 in 2015. Two major investment services rank Botswana as the best credit risk in Africa. Botswana's economy is highly correlated with global economic trends because of its heavy reliance on a single luxury export. According to official government statistics, unemployment is 19.5%, but unofficial estimates run much higher. De Beers, a major international diamond company, signed a 10-year deal with Botswana in 2012 and moved its rough stone sorting and trading division from London to Gaborone in 2013. The move was geared to support the development of Botswana's nascent downstream diamond industry. Following the 2008 global recession Botswana’s economy recovered in 2010. However, the Government of Botswana estimates the economy grew by only 1% in 2015. This was primarily due to the downturn in the global diamond market; water and power shortages also played a role. In October 2015 President Ian KHAMA announced a stimulus plan to boost the economy through projects in agricultural production, construction, manufacturing, and tourism development. In 2016, Botswana entered its fourth year of drought, detrimental to Botswana’s small, but vital agriculture sector. The prevalence of HIV/AIDS is second highest in the world and threatens the country's impressive economic gains.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $36.51 billion (2016 est.) $35.4 billion (2015 est.) $35.49 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $10.95 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 3.1% (2016 est.) -0.3% (2015 est.) 3.2% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $16,900 (2016 est.) $16,600 (2015 est.) $16,900 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 35.3% of GDP (2016 est.) 39.1% of GDP (2015 est.) 46.3% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 46.1%
government consumption: 17.1%
investment in fixed capital: 29.5%
investment in inventories: 6.9%
exports of goods and services: 52.4%
imports of goods and services: -52% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 46.1%
government consumption: 17.1%
investment in fixed capital: 29.5%
investment in inventories: 6.9%
exports of goods and services: 52.4%
imports of goods and services: -52% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: livestock, sorghum, maize, millet, beans, sunflowers, groundnuts
Industries: diamonds, copper, nickel, salt, soda ash, potash, coal, iron ore, silver; livestock processing; textiles
Industrial production growth rate: 2.5% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 1.177 million (2016 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA%
Unemployment rate: 20% (2013 est.) 17.8% (2009 est.)
Population below poverty line: 30.3% (2003 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA%
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 60.5 (2009)
Budget: revenues: $4.69 billion
expenditures: $5.306 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 42.8% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 21% of GDP (2016 est.) 19.6% of GDP (2015 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 April - 31 March
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.4% (2016 est.) 3.1% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: $447 million (2016 est.) $1.043 billion (2015 est.)
Exports: $6.448 billion (2016 est.) $6.274 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: diamonds, copper, nickel, soda ash, meat, textiles
Imports: $7.194 billion (2016 est.) $7.09 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: foodstuffs, machinery, electrical goods, transport equipment, textiles, fuel and petroleum products, wood and paper products, metal and metal products
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $7.622 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $7.546 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $2.386 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $2.221 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $4.588 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $4.107 billion (31 December 2011 est.) $4.076 billion (31 December 2010 est.)
Exchange rates: pulas (BWP) per US dollar - 10.21 (2016 est.) 10.1263 (2015 est.) 10.1263 (2014 est.) 8.9761 (2013 est.) 7.62 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 2.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 3.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 1.7 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 100,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 100% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 23,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 22,400 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 4.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 3.475 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 159 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: Botswana is participating in regional development efforts; expanding fully digital system with fiber-optic cables linking the major population centers in the east as well as a system of open-wire lines, microwave radio relays links, and radiotelephone com

domestic: fixed-line teledensity has declined in recent years and now stands at roughly 7 telephones per 100 persons; mobile-cellular teledensity now pushing 160 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 267; international calls are made via satellite, using international direct dialing; 2 international exchanges; digital microwave radio relay links to Namibia, Zambia, Zimbabwe, and South Africa; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian (2015)
Broadcast media: 2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; privately owned satellite TV subscription service is available; 2 state-owned national radio stations; 3 privately owned radio stations broadcast locally (2007)
Internet country code: .bw
Internet users: total: 600,000 percent of population: 27.5% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 74 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 10
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 64

1,524 to 2,437 m: 5
914 to 1,523 m: 46
under 914 m: 13 (2013)
Railways: total 888 km

narrow gauge: 888 km 1.067-m gauge (2014)
Roadways: total 17,916 km


note: includes 8,916 km of Public Highway Network roads (6,116 km paved and 2,800 km unpaved) and 9,000 km of District Council roads (2011)
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 Military
Military branches: Botswana Defense Force (BDF): Ground Forces Command, Air Wing Command, Defense Logistics Command, Special Forces Group (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 is the legal minimum age for voluntary military service; no conscription (2012)
Military expenditures: 2% of GDP (2013) 2.31% of GDP (2012) 2.43% of GDP (2011) 2.31% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
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