Burundi Population: 10,888,321

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 History
Burundi's first democratically elected president was assassinated in October 1993 after only 100 days in office, triggering widespread ethnic violence between Hutu and Tutsi factions. More than 200,000 Burundians perished during the conflict that spanned almost a dozen years. Hundreds of thousands of Burundians were internally displaced or became refugees in neighboring countries. An internationally brokered power-sharing agreement between the Tutsi-dominated government and the Hutu rebels in 2003 paved the way for a transition process that led to an integrated defense force, established a new constitution in 2005, and elected a majority Hutu government in 2005. The government of President Pierre NKURUNZIZA, who was reelected in 2010, continues to face many political and economic challenges.

 Geography
Landlocked; straddles crest of the Nile-Congo watershed; the Kagera, which drains into Lake Victoria, is the most remote headstream of the White Nile
Location: Central Africa, east of Democratic Republic of the Congo
Geographic coordinates: 3 30 S, 30 00 E
Area: total: 27,830 sq km
land: 25,680 sq km
water: 2,150 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Maryland
Land Boundaries: total: 974 km
border countries: Democratic Republic of the Congo 233 km, Rwanda 290 km, Tanzania 451 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: equatorial; high plateau with considerable altitude variation (772 m to 2,670 m above sea level); average annual temperature varies with altitude from 23 to 17 degrees centigrade but is generally moderate as the average altitude is about 1,700 m; average annual rainfall is about 150 cm; two wet seasons (February to May and September to November), and two dry seasons (June to August and December to January)
Terrain: hilly and mountainous, dropping to a plateau in east, some plains
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Lake Tanganyika 772 m
highest point: Heha 2,670 m
Natural resources: nickel, uranium, rare earth oxides, peat, cobalt, copper, platinum, vanadium, arable land, hydropower, niobium, tantalum, gold, tin, tungsten, kaolin, limestone
Land use: arable land: 33.06%
permanent crops: 14.37%
other: 52.57% (2011)
Irrigated land: 214.3 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: flooding; landslides; drought
Current Environment Issues: soil erosion as a result of overgrazing and the expansion of agriculture into marginal lands; deforestation (little forested land remains because of uncontrolled cutting of trees for fuel); habitat loss threatens wildlife populations
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: Law of the Sea
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 People
Nationality: noun: Burundian(s)
adjective: Burundian
Ethnic groups: Hutu (Bantu) 85%, Tutsi (Hamitic) 14%, Twa (Pygmy) 1%, Europeans 3,000, South Asians 2,000
Languages: Kirundi (official), French (official), Swahili (along Lake Tanganyika and in the Bujumbura area)
Religions: Christian 82.8% (Roman Catholic 61.4%, Protestant 21.4%), Muslim 2.5%, Adventist 2.3%, other 6.5%, unknown 5.9% (2008 census)
Population: 10,888,321 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.6% (male 2,497,999/female 2,469,564)
15-24 years: 19.7% (male 1,071,135/female 1,074,763)
25-54 years: 28.4% (male 1,533,191/female 1,559,661)
55-64 years: 3.8% (male 186,706/female 225,467)
65 years and over: 2.5% (male 108,243/female 161,592) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 88.6 %
youth dependency ratio: 84 %
elderly dependency ratio: 4.5 %
potential support ratio: 22 (2013)
Median age: total: 16.9 years
male: 16.6 years
female: 17.2 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.08% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 40.04 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 9.12 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.17 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 10.9% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 4.45% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: BUJUMBURA (capital) 605,000 (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.98 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.82 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.67 male(s)/female
total population: 0.98 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 21.3 note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 800 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 58.86 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 63.32 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 54.27 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 59.69 years
male: 57.92 years
female: 61.5 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.99 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 21.9% (2010/11)
Health expenditures: 11.6% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.03 physicians/1,000 population (2004)
Hospital bed density: 1.9 beds/1,000 population (2011)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 83% of population
rural: 71% of population
total: 72% of population

unimproved:
urban: 17% of population
rural: 29% of population
total: 28% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 49% of population
rural: 46% of population
total: 46% of population

unimproved:
urban: 51% of population
rural: 54% of population
total: 54% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 3.3% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 180,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 15,000 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 2.9% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 35.2% (2005)
Education expenditures: 6.1% of GDP (2011)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 67.2%
male: 72.9%
female: 61.8% (2010 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 11 years
male: 12 years
female: 11 years (2010)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: Republic of Burundi
conventional short form: Burundi
local long form: Republique du Burundi/Republika y'u Burundi
local short form: Burundi former: Urundi
Government type: republic
Capital: name: Bujumbura
geographic coordinates: 3 22 S, 29 21 E
time difference: UTC+2 (7 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 17 provinces; Bubanza, Bujumbura Mairie, Bujumbura Rural, Bururi, Cankuzo, Cibitoke, Gitega, Karuzi, Kayanza, Kirundo, Makamba, Muramvya, Muyinga, Mwaro, Ngozi, Rutana, Ruyigi
Independence: 1 July 1962 (from UN trusteeship under Belgian administration)
National holiday: Independence Day, 1 July (1962)
Constitution: ratified by popular referendum 28 February 2005
Legal system: mixed legal system of Belgian civil law and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA - Hutu (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Therence SINUNGURUZA - Tutsi (since 29 August 2010); Second Vice President Gervais RUFYIKIRI - Hutu (since 29 August 2010); note - the president is both the chief of state and head of government

head of government: President Pierre NKURUNZIZA - Hutu (since 26 August 2005); First Vice President Therence SINUNGURUZA - Tutsi (since 29 August 2010); Second Vice President Gervais RUFYIKIRI - Hutu (since 29 August 2010)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: the president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); elections last held on 28 June 2010 (next to be held in 2015); vice presidents nominated by the president, endorsed by parliament

election results: Pierre NKURUNZIZA elected president by popular vote; Pierre NKURUNZIZA 91.6%, other 8.4%; note - opposition parties withdrew from the election due to alleged government interference in the electoral process
Legislative branch: bicameral Parliament or Parlement, consists of a Senate (54 seats; 34 members elected by indirect vote to serve five-year terms, with remaining seats assigned to ethnic groups and former chiefs of state) and a National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (minimum 100 seats, 60% Hutu and 40% Tutsi with at least 30% being women; additional seats appointed by a National Independent Electoral Commission to ensure ethnic representation; members are elected by popular vote to serve five-year terms)

elections: last held on 23 July 2010 (next to be held in 2015)

election results: Senate - percent of vote by party - NA%; seats by party - TBD; National Assembly - percent of vote by party - CNDD-FDD 81.2%, UPRONA 11.6%, FRODEBU 5.9%, others 1.3%; seats by party - CNDD-FDD 81, UPRONA 17, FRODEBU 5, other 3
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court (consists of 9 judges and organized into Judicial, administrative, and cassation chambers) judge selection and term of office: judges nominated by the Judicial Service Commission, a 15-member independent body of judicial and legal profession officials); judges appointed by the president with the approval of the Senate; judge tenure NA

subordinate courts: Courts of Appeal; County Courts; Courts of Residence
Political parties and leaders: governing parties: Burundi Democratic Front or FRODEBU [Leonce NGENDAKUMANA] National Council for the Defense of Democracy - Front for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD-FDD [Jeremie NGENDAKUMANA] Union for National Progress (Union pour le Progress Nationale) or UPRONA [Bonaventure NIYOYANKANA] note: a multiparty system was introduced after 1998, included are: National Council for the Defense of Democracy or CNDD [Leonard NYANGOMA] National Resistance Movement for the Rehabilitation of the Citizen or MRC-Rurenzangemero [Epitace BANYAGANAKANDI] Party for National Redress or PARENA [Jean-Baptiste BAGAZA]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Forum for the Strengthening of Civil Society or FORSC [Pacifique NININAHAZWE] (civil society umbrella organization) Observatoire de lutte contre la corruption et les malversations economiques or OLUCOME [Gabriel RUFYIRI] (anti-corruption pressure group) other: Hutu and Tutsi militias (loosely organized)
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CEPGL, COMESA, EAC, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICRM, IDA, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, NAM, OIF, OPCW, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): lion
National anthem: name: "Burundi Bwacu" (Our Beloved Burundi)
lyrics/music: Jean-Baptiste NTAHOKAJA/Marc BARENGAYABO

note: adopted 1962
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Angele NIYUHIRE
chancery: Suite 408, 2233 Wisconsin Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20007
telephone: [1] (202) 342-2574
FAX: [1] (202) 342-2578
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador [vacant]; Charge d'Affaires Samuel R. WATSON
embassy: Avenue des Etats-Unis, Bujumbura mailing address: B. P. 1720, Bujumbura
telephone: [257] 22-207-000
FAX: [257] 22-222-926
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 Economy
Burundi is a landlocked, resource-poor country with an underdeveloped manufacturing sector. The economy is predominantly agricultural; agriculture accounts for just over 30% of GDP and employs more than 90% of the population. Burundi's primary exports are coffee and tea, which account for 90% of foreign exchange earnings, though exports are a relatively small share of GDP. Burundi's export earnings - and its ability to pay for imports - rests primarily on weather conditions and international coffee and tea prices. An ethnic-based war that lasted for over a decade resulted in more than 200,000 deaths, forced more than 48,000 refugees into Tanzania, and displaced 140,000 others internally. Only one in two children go to school, and approximately one in 15 adults has HIV/AIDS. Food, medicine, and electricity remain in short supply. Less than 2% of the population has electricity in its homes. Burundi's GDP grew around 4% annually in 2006-12. Political stability and the end of the civil war have improved aid flows and economic activity has increased, but underlying weaknesses - a high poverty rate, poor education rates, a weak legal system, a poor transportation network, overburdened utilities, and low administrative capacity - risk undermining planned economic reforms. The purchasing power of most Burundians has decreased as wage increases have not kept up with inflation. Burundi will remain heavily dependent on aid from bilateral and multilateral donors - foreign aid represents 42% of Burundi''s national income, the second highest rate in Sub-Saharan Africa. Burundi joined the East African Community in 2009, which should boost Burundi's regional trade ties, and also in 2009 received $700 million in debt relief. Government corruption is hindering the development of a healthy private sector as companies seek to navigate an environment with ever changing rules.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $5.578 billion (2012 est.) $5.363 billion (2011 est.) $5.148 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $2.475 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 4% (2012 est.) 4.2% (2011 est.) 3.8% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $600 (2012 est.) $600 (2011 est.) $600 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 1.7% of GDP (2012 est.) 1.7% of GDP (2011 est.) 0.3% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 91.8%
government consumption: 12.1%
investment in fixed capital: 21.8%
investment in inventories: -4.5%
exports of goods and services: 8%
imports of goods and services: -29.1% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 91.8%
government consumption: 12.1%
investment in fixed capital: 21.8%
investment in inventories: -4.5%
exports of goods and services: 8%
imports of goods and services: -29.1% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: coffee, cotton, tea, corn, sorghum, sweet potatoes, bananas, cassava (manioc); beef, milk, hides
Industries: light consumer goods such as blankets, shoes, soap, and beer; assembly of imported components; public works construction; food processing
Industrial production growth rate: 4% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 4.245 million (2007)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 93.6%
industry: 2.3%
services: 4.1% (2002 est.)
Unemployment rate: NA%
Population below poverty line: 68% (2002 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4.1%
highest 10%: 28% (2006)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 42.4 (1998)
Budget: revenues: $767.6 million
expenditures: $865.8 million (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 31% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 50.8% of GDP (2012 est.) 55.7% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 18% (2012 est.) 9.7% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$337.4 million (2012 est.) -$253.4 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $127.1 million (2012 est.) $124 million (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: coffee, tea, sugar, cotton, hides
Exports - partners: Germany 14.8%, Pakistan 9.1%, China 8.7%, Austria 7.5%, Sweden 7.2%, Belgium 5.1%, France 4.7%, Rwanda 4.4%, US 4.1% (2012)
Imports: $810 million (2012 est.) $771.7 million (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital goods, petroleum products, foodstuffs
Imports - partners: Saudi Arabia 16.3%, China 7.9%, Uganda 7.7%, Belgium 7%, Kenya 6.7%, Zambia 6.6%, India 5.5%, Singapore 5.1% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $308.8 million (31 December 2012 est.) $295.5 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $639.7 million (31 December 2012 est.) $627.7 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Burundi francs (BIF) per US dollar - 1,442.51 (2012 est.) 1,261.07 (2011 est.) 1,230.8 (2010 est.) 1,230.18 (2009) 1,198 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 127 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 189
Electricity - consumption: 198.1 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 80 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 52,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 1.9% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 98.1% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 2,290 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 1,334 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 527,800 Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 30,000 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 176
Cellular Phones in use: 1.915 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: sparse system of open-wire, radiotelephone communications, and low-capacity microwave radio relays

domestic: telephone density one of the lowest in the world; fixed-line connections stand at well less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage is increasing but remains at roughly 20 per 100 persons

international: country code - 257; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Indian Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: state-controlled La Radiodiffusion et Television Nationale de Burundi (RTNB) operates the lone TV station and the only national radio network; about 10 privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters are available in Bujumbura (2007)
Internet country code: .bi
Internet hosts: 229 (2012)
Internet users: 157,800 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 7 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 165
Airports (paved runways): total 1
over 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 6

914 to 1,523 m: 4
under 914 m: 2 (2013)
Heliports: 1 (2012)
Roadways: total 12,322 km
paved: 1,286 km
unpaved: 11,036 km (2004)
Waterways: (mainly on Lake Tanganyika between Bujumbura, Burundi's principal port, and lake ports in Tanzania, Zambia, and the Democratic Republic of Congo) (2011)
Ports and terminals: lake port(s): Bujumbura (Lake Tanganyika)
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 Military
Military branches: National Defense Forces (Forces de Defense Nationale, FDN): Army (includes maritime wing, Air Wing), National Gendarmerie (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; the armed forces law of 31 December 2004 did not specify a minimum age for enlistment, but the government claimed that no one younger than 18 was being recruited; mandatory retirement age 45 (enlisted), 50 (NCOs), and 55 (officers) (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 2,182,327
females age 16-49: 2,202,125 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 1,398,769
females age 16-49: 1,481,417 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 117,956
female: 116,956 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 5.9% of GDP (2006 est.)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Burundi and Rwanda dispute two sq km (0.8 sq mi) of Sabanerwa, a farmed area in the Rukurazi Valley where the Akanyaru/Kanyaru River shifted its course southward after heavy rains in 1965; cross-border conflicts persist among Tutsi, Hutu, other ethnic groups, associated political rebels, armed gangs, and various government forces in the Great Lakes region
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 41,349 (Democratic Republic of the Congo) (2012) IDPs: 78,800 (the majority are ethnic Tutsi displaced by inter-communal violence that broke out after the 1993 coup and fighting between government forces and rebel groups; no new displacements since 2008 when the last rebel group laid down its arms) (2012)
stateless persons: 1,302 (2012)
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