Burkina Faso Population: 19,512,533

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 History
Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) achieved independence from France in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Former President Blaise COMPAORE (1987-2014) resigned in late October 2014 following popular protests against his efforts to amend the Constitution's two-term presidential limit. By mid-November, a framework for an interim government was adopted under the terms of the National Transition Charter. An interim administration, led by President Michel KAFANDO and Prime Minister Yacouba Isaac ZIDA, began organizing presidential and legislative elections planned for October 2015, but these were postponed during a weeklong failed coup in September. The rescheduled elections were held on 29 November, and Roch Marc Christian KABORE was elected president in the first round. Burkina Faso's high population growth and limited natural resources result in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens.

 Geography
Landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black, Red, and White Voltas
Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana
Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 2 00 W
Area: total: 274,200 sq km
land: 273,800 sq km
water: 400 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Colorado
Land Boundaries: total: 3,611 km border countries (6): Benin 386 km, Cote d'Ivoire 545 km, Ghana 602 km, Mali 1,325 km, Niger 622 km, Togo 131 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, phosphates, pumice, salt
Land use: agricultural land: 43% arable land 20.8%; permanent crops 0.3%; permanent pasture 21.9% forest: 20.4%
other: 36.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: 550 sq km (2012)
Natural hazards: recurring droughts
Current Environment Issues: recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective: Burkinabe
Ethnic groups: Mossi 52.5%, Fulani 8.4%, Gurma 6.8%, Bobo 4.8%, Gurunsi 4.5%, Senufo 4.4%, Bissa 3.9%, Lobi 2.5%, Dagara 2.4%, Tuareg/Bella 1.9%, Dioula 0.8%, unspecified/no answer 0.1%, other 7% (2010 est.)
Languages: French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
Religions: Muslim 61.6%, Catholic 23.2%, traditional/animist 7.3%, Protestant 6.7%, other/no answer 0.2%, none 0.9% (2010 est.)
Population: 19,512,533 note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.04% (male 4,402,311/female 4,386,518)
15-24 years: 20.08% (male 1,966,644/female 1,951,722)
25-54 years: 29.28% (male 2,898,407/female 2,813,923)
55-64 years: 3.16% (male 267,763/female 349,433)
65 years and over: 2.44% (male 178,127/female 297,685) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 92.2%
youth dependency ratio: 87.6%
elderly dependency ratio: 4.6%
potential support ratio: 21.7% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 17.2 years
male: 17 years
female: 17.3 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.01% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 41.6 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 11.5 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 29.9% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: 5.87% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: OUAGADOUGOU (capital) 2.741 million (2015)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.77 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.6 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.4 note: median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 371 deaths/100,000 live births (2015 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 73.8 deaths/1,000 live births male: 80.9 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 66.4 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 55.5 years male: 53.4 years
female: 57.6 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 5.79 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 16.2% (2010/11)
Health expenditures: 5% of GDP (2014)
Physicians density: 0.05 physicians/1,000 population (2010)
Hospital bed density: 0.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 97.5% of population
rural: 75.8% of population
total: 82.3% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.5% of population
rural: 24.2% of population
total: 17.7% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 50.4% of population
rural: 6.7% of population
total: 19.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 49.6% of population
rural: 93.3% of population
total: 80.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 0.83% (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 95,300 (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 3,600 (2015 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 5.2% (2014)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 26.2% (2010)
Education expenditures: 3.9% of GDP (2015)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 36%
male: 43%
female: 29.3% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 8 years male: 8 years
female: 7 years (2013)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 3.8% male: 4.6%
female: 2.9% (2006 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Burkina Faso
local long form: none
local short form: Burkina Faso
former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta
etymology: name translates as "Land of the honest (incorruptible) men"
Government type: presidential republic
Capital: name: Ouagadougou
geographic coordinates: 12 22 N, 1 31 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 13 regions; Boucle du Mouhoun, Cascades, Centre, Centre-Est, Centre-Nord, Centre-Ouest, Centre-Sud, Est, Hauts-Bassins, Nord, Plateau-Central, Sahel, Sud-Ouest
Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Republic Day, 11 December (1958); note - commemorates the day that Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community
Constitution: several previous; latest approved by referendum 2 June 1991, adopted 11 June 1991; amended several times, last in 2015 for setting a two-term limit for presidents; note - constitution temporarily suspended between late October and mid-November 2014 (2016)
Legal system: civil law based on the French model and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Roch Marc Christian KABORE (since 29 December 2015)

head of government: Prime Minister Paul Kaba THIEBA (since 6 January 2016)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister elections/appointments: president elected by absolute majority popular vote in two rounds, if needed, for a 5-year term (eligible for a second); election last held on 29 November 2015 (next scheduled for November 2020); prime minister appointed by the president with consent of the National Assembly

election results: Roch Marc Christian KABORE elected president in one round; percent of vote - Roch Marc Christian KABORE 53.5%, Zephirin DIABRE 29.6%, Tahirou BARRY 3.1%. Benewende Stanislas SANKARA 2.8%, other 10.9%
Legislative branch: description: unicameral National Assembly (127 seats; members directly elected in multi-seat constituencies by proportional representation vote to serve 5-year terms)

elections: last held on 29 November 2015 (next to be held in 2020)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - MPP 55, UPC 33, CDP 18, Union for Rebirth/Sankarist Party 5, ADF/RDA 3, other 13
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (consists of NA judges); Council of State (consists of NA judges); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel (consists of the council president and 9 members) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge appointments mostly controlled by the president of Burkina Faso; judges have no term limits; Council of State judge appointment and tenure NA; Constitutional Council judges appointed by the president of Burkina Faso upon the proposal of the minister of justice and the president of the National Assembly; judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of membership renewed every 3 years

subordinate courts: Appeals Court; High Court; first instance tribunals; district courts; specialized courts relating to issues of labor, children, and juveniles; village (customary) courts
Political parties and leaders: African Democratic Rally/Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF/RDA [Gilbert Noel OUEDRAOGO] African People’s Movement or MAP [Victorien TOUGOUMA] Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Achille TAPSOBA] Le Faso Autrement [Ablasse OUEDRAOGO] New Alliance of the Faso or NAFA [Rasmane OUEDRAOGO] New Time for Democracy or NTD [Vincent DABILGOU] Organization for Democracy and Work or ODT [Mahamoudou SAWADOGO] Party for Development and Change or PDC [Saran SEREME] Party for Democracy and Progress-Socialist Party or PDP-PS [Francois O. KABORE] Party for Democracy and Socialism/Metba or PDS/Metba [Philippe OUEDRAOGO] Party for National Renaissance or PAREN [Tahirou BARRY] People's Movement for Progress or MPP [Roch March Christian KABORE] Rally for Democracy and Socialism or RDS [Francois OUEDRAOGO] Rally for the Development of Burkina or RDB [Celestin Saidou COMPAORE] Rally of Ecologists of Burkina Faso or RDEB [Adama SERE] Union for a New Burkina or UBN [Yacouba OUEDRAOGO] Union for Progress and Change or UPC [Zephirin DIABRE] Union for Rebirth - Sankarist Movement or UNIR-MS [Benewende Stanislas SANKARA] Union for the Republic or UPR [Toussaint Abel COULIBALY] Youth Alliance for the Republic and Independence or AJIR [Adama KANAZOE]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Balai Citoyen [Herve KAM] Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Bassolma BAZIE] Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE] Burkinabe Society for Constitutional Law or SBDC [Abdoulaye SOMA] Center for Democratic Governance or CGD [Thomas OUEDRAOGO] Coalition for African Renaissance or CAR [Herve OUATTARA] National Independent Union of Burkinabe Magistrates or SAMAB National Union for Health Workers or SYNTSHA National Union for Primary Education Teachers or SYNATEB other: watchdog/political action groups throughout the country
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (compliant country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICCt, ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINUSMA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): white stallion; national colors: red, yellow, green
National anthem: name: "Le Ditanye" (Anthem of Victory)
lyrics/music: Thomas SANKARA

note: adopted 1974; also known as "Une Seule Nuit" (One Single Night); written by the country's president, an avid guitar player
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador (vacant); Charge d'Affaires Seydou SINKA (since 1 November 2014)
chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Andrew YOUNG (since September 2016)
embassy: Rue 15.873, Avenue Sembene Ousmane, Ouaga 2000, Secteur 15
mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - US Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC 20521-2440
telephone: [226] 25-49-53-00
FAX: [226] 25-49-56-28
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 Economy
Burkina Faso is a poor, landlocked country that depends on adequate rainfall. About 80% of the population is engaged in subsistence farming and cotton is the main cash crop. The country has few natural resources and a weak industrial base. Cotton and gold are Burkina Faso’s key exports - gold has accounted for about three-quarters of the country’s total export revenues. Burkina Faso’s economic growth and revenue depends on global prices for the two commodities. The Burkinabe economy experienced high levels of growth over the last few years, and the country has seen an upswing in gold exploration, production, and exports. Burkina Faso experienced a number of public protests over the high cost of living, corruption, and other socioeconomic issues in 2013, while the fall of the COMPAORE government in 2014 and failed coup in September 2015 disrupted economic activity and strained government finances. A new three-year IMF program was approved in 2013 to focus on improving the quality of public investment and ensuring inclusive growth. Political insecurity in neighboring Mali, unreliable energy supplies, and poor transportation links pose long-term challenges.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $32.99 billion (2016 est.) $31.35 billion (2015 est.) $30.14 billion (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $12.01 billion (2015 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 5.2% (2016 est.) 4% (2015 est.) 4% (2014 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,800 (2016 est.) $1,800 (2015 est.) $1,700 (2014 est.)

note: data are in 2016 dollars
Gross national saving: 8.2% of GDP (2016 est.) 7.7% of GDP (2015 est.) 11.7% of GDP (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 45.1%
government consumption: 22%
investment in fixed capital: 28.7%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 34.5%
imports of goods and services: -31% (2016 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 45.1%
government consumption: 22%
investment in fixed capital: 28.7%
investment in inventories: 0.7%
exports of goods and services: 34.5%
imports of goods and services: -31% (2016 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock
Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold
Industrial production growth rate: 4.2% (2016 est.)
Labor force: 7.692 million note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2013 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 90% industry and
services: 10% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: 77% (2004)
Population below poverty line: 46.7% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 32.2% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 39.5 (2007) 48.2 (1994)
Budget: revenues: $2.442 billion
expenditures: $2.779 billion (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 20.3% of GDP (2016 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 1.4% (2016 est.) 1% (2015 est.)
Current account balance: -$723 million (2016 est.) -$706 million (2015 est.)
Exports: $2.771 billion (2016 est.) $2.515 billion (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: gold, cotton, livestock
Exports - partners: Switzerland 53.3%, India 14.5% (2015)
Imports: $2.872 billion (2016 est.) $2.863 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum
Imports - partners: Cote dIvoire 23.1%, France 11.1%, Togo 7.5%, China 4.8%, Ghana 4.6% (2015)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $333.4 million (31 December 2016 est.) $259.6 million (31 December 2015 est.)
Debt - external: $3.092 billion (31 December 2016 est.) $2.669 billion (31 December 2015 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 605.7 (2016 est.) 591.45 (2015 est.) 591.45 (2014 est.) 494.42 (2013 est.) 510.53 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 700 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 1.2 billion kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 600 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 300,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 86.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 13.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 22,000 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 20,890 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.4 million Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 14.447 million subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 76 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: system includes microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations

domestic: fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, fostered by multiple providers, is increasing steadily from a low base

international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2015)
Broadcast media: 2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; state-owned radio runs a national and regional network; substantial number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters available in Ouagadougou (2007)
Internet country code: .bf
Internet users: total: 2.156 million percent of population: 11.4% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 23 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 21

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Railways: total 622 km

narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge

note: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote d'Ivoire (2014)
Roadways: total 15,272 km


note: does not include urban roads (2010)
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 Military
Military branches: Army, Air Force of Burkina Faso (Force Aerienne de Burkina Faso, FABF), National Gendarmerie (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women may serve in supporting roles (2013)
Military expenditures: 1.39% of GDP (2012) 1.34% of GDP (2011) 1.39% of GDP (2010)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: adding to illicit cross-border activities, Burkina Faso has issues concerning unresolved boundary alignments with its neighbors; demarcation is currently underway with Mali; the dispute with Niger was referred to the ICJ in 2010, and a dispute over several villages with Benin persists; Benin retains a border dispute with Burkina Faso around the town of Koualou
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 32,017 (Mali) (2016)
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