Burkina Faso Population: 17,812,961

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 History
Burkina Faso (formerly Upper Volta) achieved independence from France in 1960. Repeated military coups during the 1970s and 1980s were followed by multiparty elections in the early 1990s. Current President Blaise COMPAORE came to power in a 1987 military coup and has won every election since then. Burkina Faso's high population density and limited natural resources result in poor economic prospects for the majority of its citizens.

 Geography
Landlocked savanna cut by the three principal rivers of the Black, Red, and White Voltas
Location: Western Africa, north of Ghana
Geographic coordinates: 13 00 N, 2 00 W
Area: total: 274,200 sq km
land: 273,800 sq km
water: 400 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Colorado
Land Boundaries: total: 3,193 km
border countries: Benin 306 km, Cote d'Ivoire 584 km, Ghana 549 km, Mali 1,000 km, Niger 628 km, Togo 126 km
Coastline: 0 km (landlocked)
Maritime claims: none (landlocked)
Climate: tropical; warm, dry winters; hot, wet summers
Terrain: mostly flat to dissected, undulating plains; hills in west and southeast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Mouhoun (Black Volta) River 200 m
highest point: Tena Kourou 749 m
Natural resources: manganese, limestone, marble; small deposits of gold, phosphates, pumice, salt
Land use: arable land: 20.79%
permanent crops: 0.24%
other: 78.98% (2011)
Irrigated land: 250 sq km (2003)
Natural hazards: recurring droughts
Current Environment Issues: recent droughts and desertification severely affecting agricultural activities, population distribution, and the economy; overgrazing; soil degradation; deforestation
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Marine Life Conservation, Ozone Layer Protection, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Burkinabe (singular and plural)
adjective: Burkinabe
Ethnic groups: Mossi over 40%, other approximately 60% (includes Gurunsi, Senufo, Lobi, Bobo, Mande, and Fulani)
Languages: French (official), native African languages belonging to Sudanic family spoken by 90% of the population
Religions: Muslim 60.5%, Catholic 19%, animist 15.3%, Protestant 4.2%, other 0.6%, none 0.4%
Population: 17,812,961 (July 2013 est.) note: estimates for this country explicitly take into account the effects of excess mortality due to AIDS; this can result in lower life expectancy, higher infant mortality, higher death rates, lower population growth rates, and changes in the distribution of population by age and sex than would otherwise be expected
Age structure: 0-14 years: 45.5% (male 4,062,522/female 4,044,548)
15-24 years: 20% (male 1,794,740/female 1,775,072)
25-54 years: 28.9% (male 2,608,676/female 2,532,406)
55-64 years: 3.1% (male 229,202/female 324,921)
65 years and over: 2.5% (male 168,099/female 272,775) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 92.3 %
youth dependency ratio: 87.6 %
elderly dependency ratio: 4.7 %
potential support ratio: 21.3 (2013)
Median age: total: 17 years
male: 16.8 years
female: 17.1 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 3.06% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 42.81 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 12.21 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: 0 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 26.5% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 6.02% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: OUAGADOUGOU (capital) 2.053 million (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.03 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.69 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.62 male(s)/female
total population: 0.99 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 19.4 note: Median age at first birth among women 25-29 (2010 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 300 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 78.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 85.67 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 70.72 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 54.43 years
male: 52.43 years
female: 56.48 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 6 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 16.2% (2010/11)
Health expenditures: 6.7% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.06 physicians/1,000 population (2008)
Hospital bed density: 0.4 beds/1,000 population (2010)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 95% of population
rural: 73% of population
total: 79% of population

unimproved:
urban: 5% of population
rural: 27% of population
total: 21% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 50% of population
rural: 6% of population
total: 17% of population

unimproved:
urban: 50% of population
rural: 94% of population
total: 83% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: 1.2% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 110,000 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: 7,100 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 2.3% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 26% (2009)
Education expenditures: 4% of GDP (2010)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 28.7%
male: 36.7%
female: 21.6% (2007 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 7 years
male: 7 years
female: 6 years (2011)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 3.8%
male: 4.6%
female: 2.9% (2006)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Burkina Faso
local long form: none
local short form: Burkina Faso former: Upper Volta, Republic of Upper Volta
Government type: parliamentary republic
Capital: name: Ouagadougou
geographic coordinates: 12 22 N, 1 31 W
time difference: UTC 0 (5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 13 regions; Boucle du Mouhoun, Cascades, Centre, Centre-Est, Centre-Nord, Centre-Ouest, Centre-Sud, Est, Hauts-Bassins, Nord, Plateau-Central, Sahel, Sud-Ouest
Independence: 5 August 1960 (from France)
National holiday: Republic Day, 11 December (1958); note - commemorates the day that Upper Volta became an autonomous republic in the French Community
Constitution: approved by referendum 2 June 1991; formally adopted 11 June 1991; last amended January 2002
Legal system: civil law based on the French model and customary law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Blaise COMPAORE (since 15 October 1987)

head of government: Prime Minister Luc-Adolphe TIAO (since 18 April 2011)

cabinet: Council of Ministers appointed by the president on the recommendation of the prime minister (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by popular vote for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); election last held on 21 November 2010 (next to be held in 2015); prime minister appointed by the president with the consent of the legislature

election results: Blaise COMPAORE reelected president; percent of popular vote - Blaise COMPAORE 80.2%, Hama Arba DIALLO 8.2%, Benewende Stanislas SANKARA 6.3%, other 5.3%
Legislative branch: unicameral National Assembly or Assemblee Nationale (127 seats; members are elected by proportional representation in one national constituency of 16 seats, and 45 multi-member constituencies having between 2 and 9 seats with members serving five-year terms)

elections: National Assembly election last held on 2 December 2012 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - CDP 70, ADF-RDA 19, Union for Progress and Reform 19, UPR 4, UNIR-MS 4, CFD-B 3, PDS/Metba 2, other 6
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Appeals or Cour de Cassation (consists of NA judges); Constitutional Council or Conseil Constitutionnel (consists of the council president and 3 judges) judge selection and term of office: Supreme Court judge appointments mostly controlled by the president of Burkina Faso; judge tenure NA; Constitutional Council judges appointed by the president of Burkina Faso upon the proposal of the minister of justice; judges appointed for 9-year terms with one-third of judges renewed every 3 years

subordinate courts: Appeals Court; High Court; first instance tribunals; district courts; specialized courts relating to issues of labor, children, and juveniles; village (customary) courts
Political parties and leaders: African Democratic Rally-Alliance for Democracy and Federation or ADF-RDA [Gilbert OUEDRAOGO] Citizen's Popular Rally or RPC [Antoine QUARE] Coalition of Democratic Forces of Burkina or CFD-B [Zio Eric FRANCOIS] Congress for Democracy and Progress or CDP [Assimi KOUANDA] Democratic and Popular Rally or RDP [Nana THIBAUT] Movement for Tolerance and Progress or MTP [Nayabtigungou Congo KABORE] Party for African Independence or PAI [Soumane TOURE] Party for Democracy and Progress-Socialist Party or PDP-PS [Francois O. KABORE] Party for Democracy and Socialism/Metba or PDS/Metba [Hama Arba DIALLO] Party for National Rebirth or PAREN [Barry TAHIROU] Rally for the Development of Burkina or RDB [Celestin Saidou COMPAORE] Rally of Ecologists of Burkina Faso or RDEB [Ram OUEDRAGO] Republican Party for Integration and Solidarity or PARIS Union for Democracy and Social Progress or UDPS [Fidele HIEN] Union for Progress and Reform or UPC [Zephiron DIABRE] Union for Rebirth - Sankarist Movement or UNIR-MS [Benewende Stanislas SANKARA] Union for the Republic or UPR [Toussaint Abel COULIBALY] Union of Sankarist Parties or UPS [Ernest Nongma OUEDRAOGO]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Burkinabe General Confederation of Labor or CGTB [Tole SAGNON] Burkinabe Movement for Human Rights or MBDHP [Chrysigone ZOUGMORE] Group of 14 February [Benewende STANISLAS] National Confederation of Burkinabe Workers or CNTB [Laurent OUEDRAOGO] National Organization of Free Unions or ONSL [Paul KABORE] other: watchdog/political action groups throughout the country in both organizations and communities
International organization participation: ACP, AfDB, AU, CD, ECOWAS, EITI (candidate country), Entente, FAO, FZ, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (NGOs), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO (correspondent), ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OIF, OPCW, PCA, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNIDO, UNISFA, UNITAR, UNWTO, UPU, WADB (regional), WAEMU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): white stallion
National anthem: name: "Le Ditanye" (Anthem of Victory)
lyrics/music: Thomas SANKARA

note: adopted 1974; also known as "Une Seule Nuit" (One Single Night), Burkina Faso's anthem was written by the country's president, an avid guitar player
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Seydou BOUDA
chancery: 2340 Massachusetts Avenue NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 332-5577
FAX: [1] (202) 667-1882
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Thomas DOUGHERTY
embassy: 602 Avenue Raoul Follereau, Koulouba, Secteur 4 mailing address: 01 B. P. 35, Ouagadougou 01; pouch mail - US Department of State, 2440 Ouagadougou Place, Washington, DC 20521-2440
telephone: [226] 50-49-53-00
FAX: [226] 50-49-56-28
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 Economy
Burkina Faso is a poor, landlocked country that relies heavily on cotton and gold exports for revenue. The country has few natural resources and a weak industrial base. About 90% of the population is engaged in subsistence agriculture, which is vulnerable to periodic drought. Cotton is the main cash crop. Since 1998, Burkina Faso has embarked upon a gradual privatization of state-owned enterprises and in 2004 revised its investment code to attract foreign investment. As a result of this new code and other legislation favoring the mining sector, the country has seen an upswing in gold exploration and production. By 2010, gold had become the main source of export revenue. Gold mining production doubled between 2009 and 2010. Two new mining projects were launched in the third quarter of 2011. Local community conflict persists in the mining and cotton sectors, but the Prime Minister has made efforts to defuse some of the economic cause of public discontent, including announcing income tax reductions, reparations for looting victims, and subsidies for basic food items and fertilizer. An IMF mission to Burkina Faso in October 2011 expressed general satisfaction with the measures. The risk of a mass exodus of the 3 to 4 million Burinabe who live and work in Cote d'Ivoire has dissipated, and trade, power, and transport links are being restored. Burkina Faso experienced a severe drought in 2011, which decimated grazing land and decreased harvests, creating food insecurity and damaging the country's agricultural base.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $24.69 billion (2012 est.) $22.86 billion (2011 est.) $21.95 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $10.46 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 8% (2012 est.) 4.2% (2011 est.) 7.9% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $1,400 (2012 est.) $1,300 (2011 est.) $1,300 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 8.8% of GDP (2012 est.) 16.7% of GDP (2011 est.) 17.4% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 62.8%
government consumption: 13.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.9%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 29.7%
imports of goods and services: -27.2% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 62.8%
government consumption: 13.9%
investment in fixed capital: 20.9%
investment in inventories: -0.1%
exports of goods and services: 29.7%
imports of goods and services: -27.2% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: cotton, peanuts, shea nuts, sesame, sorghum, millet, corn, rice; livestock
Industries: cotton lint, beverages, agricultural processing, soap, cigarettes, textiles, gold
Industrial production growth rate: 6.5% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 6.668 million note: a large part of the male labor force migrates annually to neighboring countries for seasonal employment (2007)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 90% industry and
services: 10% (2000 est.)
Unemployment rate: 77% (2004)
Population below poverty line: 46.7% (2009 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 2.9%
highest 10%: 32.2% (2009 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 39.5 (2007) 48.2 (1994)
Budget: revenues: $2.26 billion
expenditures: $2.311 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 21.6% of GDP (2012 est.)
Fiscal year: calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 3.8% (2012 est.) 2.8% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$481.1 million (2012 est.) -$125.8 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $2.177 billion (2012 est.) $2.207 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: gold, cotton, livestock
Exports - partners: China 26%, Turkey 24.9%, Belgium 5.2% (2012)
Imports: $2.694 billion (2012 est.) $2.242 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: capital goods, foodstuffs, petroleum
Imports - partners: Cote dIvoire 17.8%, France 14.8%, Ghana 5.1%, Togo 4.8% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $1.025 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $957 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $2.586 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $2.42 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $NA
Exchange rates: Communaute Financiere Africaine francs (XOF) per US dollar - 510.53 (2012 est.) 471.87 (2011 est.) 495.28 (2010 est.) 472.19 (2009) 447.81 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 664.4 million kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 156
Electricity - consumption: 762.5 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 144.6 million kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 252,000 kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 87.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 12.7% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 9,960 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 12,540 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 1.441 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 141,500 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 136
Cellular Phones in use: 7.682 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: system includes microwave radio relay, open-wire, and radiotelephone communication stations; in 2006 the government sold a 51 percent stake in the national telephone company and ultimately plans to retain only a 23 percent stake in the company

domestic: fixed-line connections stand at less than 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular usage, fostered by multiple providers, is increasing rapidly from a low base

international: country code - 226; satellite earth station - 1 Intelsat (Atlantic Ocean) (2011)
Broadcast media: 2 TV stations - 1 state-owned and 1 privately owned; state-owned radio runs a national and regional network; substantial number of privately owned radio stations; transmissions of several international broadcasters available in Ouagadougou (2007)
Internet country code: .bf
Internet hosts: 1,795 (2012)
Internet users: 178,100 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 23 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 133
Airports (paved runways): total 2
over 3,047 m: 1
2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 21

1,524 to 2,437 m: 3
914 to 1,523 m: 13
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Railways: total 622 km

narrow gauge: 622 km 1.000-m gauge

note: another 660 km of this railway extends into Cote d'Ivoire (2008)
Roadways: total 15,272 km


note: does not include urban roads (2010)
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 Military
Military branches: Army, Air Force of Burkina Faso (Force Aerienne de Burkina Faso, FABF), National Gendarmerie (2011)
Military service age and obligation: 18 years of age for voluntary military service; no conscription; women may serve in supporting roles (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 3,735,735 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 2,366,168
females age 16-49: 2,367,673 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 193,905
female: 191,662 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.1% of GDP (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: adding to illicit cross-border activities, Burkina Faso has issues concerning unresolved boundary alignments with its neighbors; demarcation is currently underway with Mali, the dispute with Niger was referred to the ICJ in 2010, and a dispute over several villages with Benin persists; Benin retains a border dispute with Burkina Faso around the town of Koualou
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 49,975 (Mali) (2013)
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