Bangladesh Population: 163,654,860

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 History
Muslim conversions and settlement in the region now referred to as Bangladesh began in the 10th century, primarily from Arab and Persian traders and preachers. Europeans began to set up trading posts in the area in the 16th century. Eventually the area known as Bengal, primarily Hindu in the western section and mostly Muslim in the eastern half, became part of British India. Partition in 1947 resulted in an eastern wing of Pakistan in the Muslim-majority area, which became East Pakistan. Calls for greater autonomy and animosity between the eastern and western wings of Pakistan led to a Bengali independence movement. That movement, led by the Awami League (AL) and supported by India, won independence for Bangladesh in 1971, although at least 300,000 civilians died in the process. The post-independence, AL government faced daunting challenges and in 1975 was overthrown by the military, triggering a series of military coups that resulted in a military-backed government and subsequent creation of the Bangladesh Nationalist Party (BNP). That government also ended in a coup in 1981, followed by military-backed rule until democratic elections in 1991. The BNP and AL have alternately held power since then, with the exception of a military-backed, emergency caretaker regime that suspended parliamentary elections planned for January 2007 in an effort to reform the political system and root out corruption. That government returned the country to fully democratic rule in December 2008 with the election of the AL and Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA. With the help of international development assistance, Bangladesh has made great progress in food security since independence, and the economy has grown at an average of about 6 percent over the last two decades.

 Geography
Most of the country is situated on deltas of large rivers flowing from the Himalayas: the Ganges unites with the Jamuna (main channel of the Brahmaputra) and later joins the Meghna to eventually empty into the Bay of Bengal
Location: Southern Asia, bordering the Bay of Bengal, between Burma and India
Geographic coordinates: 24 00 N, 90 00 E
Area: total: 143,998 sq km
land: 130,168 sq km
water: 13,830 sq km

Size comparison: slightly smaller than Iowa
Land Boundaries: total: 4,246 km
border countries: Burma 193 km, India 4,053 km
Coastline: 580 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
contiguous zone: 18 nm
exclusive economic zone: 200 nm
continental shelf: up to the outer limits of the continental margin
Climate: tropical; mild winter (October to March); hot, humid summer (March to June); humid, warm rainy monsoon (June to October)
Terrain: mostly flat alluvial plain; hilly in southeast
Elevation extremes: lowest point: Indian Ocean 0 m
highest point: Keokradong 1,230 m
Natural resources: natural gas, arable land, timber, coal
Land use: arable land: 52.97%
permanent crops: 6.25%
other: 40.78% (2011)
Irrigated land: 50,500 sq km (2008)
Natural hazards: droughts; cyclones; much of the country routinely inundated during the summer monsoon season
Current Environment Issues: many people are landless and forced to live on and cultivate flood-prone land; waterborne diseases prevalent in surface water; water pollution, especially of fishing areas, results from the use of commercial pesticides; ground water contaminated by naturally occurring arsenic; intermittent water shortages because of falling water tables in the northern and central parts of the country; soil degradation and erosion; deforestation; severe overpopulation
International Environment Agreements: party to: Biodiversity, Climate Change, Climate Change-Kyoto Protocol, Desertification, Endangered Species, Environmental Modification, Hazardous Wastes, Law of the Sea, Ozone Layer Protection, Ship Pollution, Wetlands
signed, but not ratified: none of the selected agreements
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 People
Nationality: noun: Bangladeshi(s)
adjective: Bangladeshi
Ethnic groups: Bengali 98%, other 2% (includes tribal groups, non-Bengali Muslims) (1998)
Languages: Bangla (official, also known as Bengali), English
Religions: Muslim 89.5%, Hindu 9.6%, other 0.9% (2004)
Population: 163,654,860 (July 2013 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 33% (male 27,393,912/female 26,601,199)
15-24 years: 18.8% (male 14,337,930/female 16,377,785)
25-54 years: 37.6% (male 29,091,046/female 32,455,670)
55-64 years: 5.7% (male 4,775,062/female 4,625,192)
65 years and over: 4.9% (male 3,918,341/female 4,078,723) (2013 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 53.3 %
youth dependency ratio: 46 %
elderly dependency ratio: 7.3 %
potential support ratio: 13.6 (2013)
Median age: total: 23.9 years
male: 23.4 years
female: 24.4 years (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.59% (2013 est.)
Birth rate: 22.07 births/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Death rate: 5.67 deaths/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Net migration rate: -0.52 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2013 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 28.4% of total population (2011)
rate of urbanization: 2.96% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: DHAKA (capital) 15.391 million; Chittagong 4.816 million; Khulna 1.636 million; Rajshahi 853,000 (2011)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.04 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.03 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.9 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 1.05 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.96 male(s)/female
total population: 0.95 male(s)/female (2013 est.)
Mother's mean age at first birth: 18.1 (2007 est.)
Maternal mortality rate: 240 deaths/100,000 live births (2010)
Infant mortality rate: total: 47.3 deaths/1,000 live births
male: 49.79 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 44.71 deaths/1,000 live births (2013 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 70.36 years
male: 68.48 years
female: 72.31 years (2013 est.)
Total fertility rate: 2.5 children born/woman (2013 est.)
Contraceptive prevalence rate: 61.2% (2011/12)
Health expenditures: 3.5% of GDP (2010)
Physicians density: 0.3 physicians/1,000 population (2007)
Hospital bed density: 0.3 beds/1,000 population (2005)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 85% of population
rural: 80% of population
total: 81% of population

unimproved:
urban: 15% of population
rural: 20% of population
total: 19% of population (2010 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 57% of population
rural: 55% of population
total: 56% of population

unimproved:
urban: 43% of population
rural: 45% of population
total: 44% of population (2010 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: less than 0.1% (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: 6,300 (2009 est.)
HIV/AIDS - deaths: fewer than 200 (2009 est.)
Obesity - adult prevalence rate: 1.1% (2008)
Children under the age of 5 years underweight: 41.3% (2007)
Education expenditures: 2.2% of GDP (2009)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 57.7%
male: 62%
female: 53.4% (2011 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 8 years
male: 8 years
female: 8 years (2007)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 9.3%
male: 8%
female: 13.6% (2005)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: People's Republic of Bangladesh
conventional short form: Bangladesh
local long form: Gana Prajatantri Bangladesh
local short form: Bangladesh
former: East Bengal, East Pakistan
Government type: parliamentary democracy
Capital: name: Dhaka
geographic coordinates: 23 43 N, 90 24 E
time difference: UTC+6 (11 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: 7 divisions; Barisal, Chittagong, Dhaka, Khulna, Rajshahi, Rangpur, Sylhet
Independence: 16 December 1971 (from West Pakistan)
National holiday: Independence Day, 26 March (1971); Victory Day; note - March 1971 is the date of the Awami League's declaration of an independent Bangladesh, and 16 December, known as Victory Day, memorializes the military victory over Pakistan and the official creation of the state of Bangladesh
Constitution: enacted 4 November 1972; effective 16 December 1972; suspended following coup of 24 March 1982; restored 10 November 1986; amended many times
Legal system: mixed legal system of mostly English common law and Islamic law
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: President Abdul HAMID (since 24 April 2013); note - Abdul HAMID served as acting president following the death of Zillur RAHMAN in March 2013; HAMID was subsequently elected by the National Parliament and was sworn in 24 April 2013

head of government: Prime Minister Sheikh HASINA (since 6 January 2009)

cabinet: Cabinet selected by the prime minister and appointed by the president (For more information visit the World Leaders website )

elections: president elected by National Parliament for a five-year term (eligible for a second term); last election held on 29 April 2013 (next must be held by 2018)

election results: President Abdul HAMID was elected by the National Parliament unopposed
Legislative branch: unicameral National Parliament or Jatiya Sangsad; 300 seats (45 reserved for women) elected by popular vote from single territorial constituencies; members serve five-year terms

elections: last held on 29 December 2008; note - general elections must be held within 90 days of the expiration of the Parliament or by 24 January 2014 or earlier if Parliament is dissolved before its term expires

election results: percent of vote by party - AL 49%, BNP 33.2%, JP 7%, JIB 4.6%, other 6.2%; seats by party - AL 230, BNP 30, JP 27, JIB 2, other 11
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Bangladesh (organized into the Appellate Division with 7 justices and the High Court Division with 99 justices) judge selection and term of office: chief justice and justices appointed by the president; justices serve until retirement at age 67

subordinate courts: civil courts include: Assistant Judge's Court; Joint District Judge's Court; Additional District Judge's Court; District Judge's Court; criminal courts include: Court of Sessions; Court of Metropolitan Sessions; special courts/tribunals; Metropolitan Magistrate Courts; Magistrate Court
Political parties and leaders: Awami League or AL [Sheikh HASINA] Communist Party of Bangladesh or CPB [Manjurul A. KHAN] Bangladesh Nationalist Party or BNP [Khaleda ZIA] Bikalpa Dhara Bangladesh or BDB [Badrudozza CHOWDHURY] Islami Oikya Jote or IOJ [multiple leaders] Jamaat-e-Islami Bangladesh or JIB [Matiur Rahman NIZAMI] Jatiya Party or JP (Ershad faction) [Hussain Mohammad ERSHAD] Liberal Democratic Party or LDP [Oli AHMED]
Political pressure groups and leaders: Advocacy to End Gender-based Violence through the MoWCA (Ministry of Women's and Children's Affairs) Ain o Salish Kendro (Law and Order Center) Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee or BRAC Bangladesh Center for Worker Solidarity Federation of Bangladesh Chambers of Commerce and Industry Odikhar (Human Rights) other: associations of madrassa teachers; business associations, including those intended to promote international trade; development and advocacy NGOs associated with the Grameen Bank; environmentalists; Islamist groups; labor rights advocacy groups; nongovernmental organizations focused on poverty, alleviation, and socioeconomic international trade; religious leaders; tribal groups and advocacy organizations; union leaders
International organization participation: ADB, ARF, BIMSTEC, C, CD, CICA (observer), CP, D-8, FAO, G-77, IAEA, IBRD, ICAO, ICC (national committees), ICRM, IDA, IDB, IFAD, IFC, IFRCS, IHO, ILO, IMF, IMO, IMSO, Interpol, IOC, IOM, IPU, ISO, ITSO, ITU, ITUC (NGOs), MIGA, MINURSO, MONUSCO, NAM, OIC, OPCW, PCA, SAARC, SACEP, UN, UNAMID, UNCTAD, UNESCO, UNHCR, UNIDO, UNIFIL, UNISFA, UNMIL, UNMISS, UNMIT, UNOCI, UNWTO, UPU, WCO, WFTU (NGOs), WHO, WIPO, WMO, WTO
National symbol(s): Bengal tiger
National anthem: name: "Amar Shonar Bangla" (My Golden Bengal)
lyrics/music: Rabindranath TAGORE

note: adopted 1971; Rabindranath TAGORE, a Nobel laureate, also wrote India's national anthem
Diplomatic representation in the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Akramul QADER
chancery: 3510 International Drive NW, Washington, DC 20008
telephone: [1] (202) 244-0183
FAX: [1] (202) 244-7830/2771
consulate(s) general: Los Angeles, New York
Diplomatic representation from the US: chief of mission: Ambassador Dan W. MOZENA
embassy: Madani Avenue, Baridhara, Dhaka 1212
mailing address: G. P. O. Box 323, Dhaka 1000
telephone: [880] (2) 885-5500
FAX: [880] (2) 882-3744
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 Economy
In real terms Bangladesh's economy has grown 5.8% per year since 1996 despite political instability, poor infrastructure, corruption, insufficient power supplies, and slow implementation of economic reforms. Bangladesh remains a poor, overpopulated, and inefficiently-governed nation. Although more than half of GDP is generated through the service sector, 45% of Bangladeshis are employed in the agriculture sector with rice as the single-most-important product. Bangladesh's growth was resilient during the 2008-09 global financial crisis and recession. Garment exports, totaling $12.3 billion in FY09 and remittances from overseas Bangladeshis, totaling $11 billion in FY10, accounted for almost 12% of GDP.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $311 billion (2012 est.) $293.3 billion (2011 est.) $275.4 billion (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $122.7 billion (2012 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 6.1% (2012 est.) 6.5% (2011 est.) 6.4% (2010 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $2,100 (2012 est.) $2,000 (2011 est.) $1,900 (2010 est.)

note: data are in 2012 US dollars
Gross national saving: 25.9% of GDP (2012 est.) 25% of GDP (2011 est.) 26.7% of GDP (2010 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 75%
government consumption: 5.7%
investment in fixed capital: 25.4%
investment in inventories: 4.2%
exports of goods and services: 25%
imports of goods and services: -35.3% (2012 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 75%
government consumption: 5.7%
investment in fixed capital: 25.4%
investment in inventories: 4.2%
exports of goods and services: 25%
imports of goods and services: -35.3% (2012 est.)
Agriculture - products: rice, jute, tea, wheat, sugarcane, potatoes, tobacco, pulses, oilseeds, spices, fruit; beef, milk, poultry
Industries: jute, cotton, garments, paper, leather, fertilizer, iron and steel, cement, petroleum products, tobacco, drugs and pharmaceuticals, ceramics, tea, salt, sugar, edible oils, soap and detergent, fabricated metal products, electricity and natural gas
Industrial production growth rate: 9.5% (2012 est.)
Labor force: 77 million note: extensive export of labor to Saudi Arabia, Kuwait, UAE, Oman, Qatar, and Malaysia; workers' remittances were $10.9 billion in FY09/10 (2012 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: 45%
industry: 30%
services: 25% (2008)
Unemployment rate: 5% (2012 est.) 5% (2011 est.) note: about 40% of the population is underemployed; many participants in the labor force work only a few hours a week, at low wages
Population below poverty line: 31.5% (2010 est.)
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: 4%
highest 10%: 27% (2010 est.)
Distribution of family income - Gini index: 33.2 (2005) 33.6 (1996)
Budget: revenues: $14.03 billion
expenditures: $19.69 billion (2012 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 11.4% of GDP (2012 est.)
Public debt: 31.7% of GDP (2012 est.) 34.6% of GDP (2011 est.)
Fiscal year: 1 July - 30 June
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): 8.7% (2012 est.) 10.7% (2011 est.)
Current account balance: -$941.9 million (2012 est.) $243.6 million (2011 est.)
Exports: $26.25 billion (2012 est.) $24.54 billion (2011 est.)
Exports - commodities: garments, knitwear, agricultural products, frozen food (fish and seafood), jute and jute goods, leather
Exports - partners: US 16.7%, Germany 12.5%, UK 8.4%, France 5% (2012)
Imports: $34.56 billion (2012 est.) $32.61 billion (2011 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and equipment, chemicals, iron and steel, textiles, foodstuffs, petroleum products, cement
Imports - partners: China 19.5%, India 13.4%, Singapore 4.9%, Malaysia 4.7%, South Korea 4.1% (2012)
Reserves of foreign exchange and gold: $12.75 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $9.192 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Debt - external: $28.07 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $29.12 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - at home: $6.64 billion (31 December 2012 est.) $6.166 billion (31 December 2011 est.)
Stock of direct foreign investment - abroad: $108 million (31 December 2012 est.) $107 million (31 December 2011 est.)
Market value of publicly traded shares: $23.55 billion (31 December 2011) $15.68 billion (31 December 2010) $7.068 billion (31 December 2009)
Exchange rates: taka (BDT) per US dollar - 81.863 (2012 est.) 74.152 (2011 est.) 69.649 (2010 est.) 69.04 (2009) 68.554 (2008)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 35.7 billion kWh (2009 est.) country comparison to the world: 62
Electricity - consumption: 34.83 billion kWh (2009 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2010 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 5.819 million kW (2009 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 95.8% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 4% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 0.3% of total installed capacity (2009 est.)
Crude oil - production: 5,200 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 26,460 bbl/day (2009 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 28 million bbl (1 January 2012 est.)
Refined petroleum products - production: 24,790 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 108,900 bbl/day (2011 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 2,928 bbl/day (2010 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 77,340 bbl/day (2008 est.)
Natural gas - production: 20.13 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 20.13 billion cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 0 cu m (2010 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 183.7 billion cu m (1 January 2012 est.)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 56.74 million Mt (2010 est.)
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 Communications
Telephones in use: 977,700 (2011)
country comparison to the world: 79
Cellular Phones in use: 84.369 million (2011)
Telephone system: general assessment: inadequate for a modern country; introducing digital systems; trunk systems include VHF and UHF microwave radio relay links, and some fiber-optic cable in cities

domestic: fixed-line teledensity remains only about 1 per 100 persons; mobile-cellular telephone subscribership has been increasing rapidly and now exceeds 50 telephones per 100 persons

international: country code - 880; landing point for the SEA-ME-WE-4 fiber-optic submarine cable system that provides links to Europe, the Middle East, and Asia; satellite earth stations - 6; international radiotelephone communications and landline service to neighboring countries (2011)
Broadcast media: state-owned Bangladesh Television (BTV) operates 1 terrestrial TV station, 3 radio networks, and about 10 local stations; 8 private satellite TV stations and 3 private radio stations also broadcasting; foreign satellite TV stations are gaining audience share in the large cities; several international radio broadcasters are available (2007)
Internet country code: .bd
Internet hosts: 71,164 (2012)
Internet users: 617,300 (2009)
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 Transportation
Airports: 18 (2013)
country comparison to the world: 139
Airports (paved runways): total 16
over 3,047 m: 2
2,438 to 3,047 m: 2
1,524 to 2,437 m: 6
914 to 1,523 m: 1
under 914 m: 5 (2013)
Airports (unpaved runways): total 2

1,524 to 2,437 m: 1
under 914 m: 1 (2013)
Heliports: 3 (2013)
Pipelines: gas 2,950 km (2013)
Railways: total 2,622 km
broad gauge: 946 km 1.676-m gauge
narrow gauge: 1,676 km 1.000-m gauge (2008)
Roadways: total 21,269 km
paved: 1,063 km
unpaved: 20,206 km (2010)
Waterways: 8,370 km (includes up to 3,060 km of main cargo routes; the network is reduced to 5,200 km in the dry season) (2011)
Merchant marine: total 62

by type: bulk carrier 25, cargo 28, chemical tanker 1, container 5, petroleum tanker 3

foreign-owned: 8 (China 1, Singapore 7)

registered in other countries: 10 (Comoros 1, Hong Kong 1, Panama 5, Saint Vincent and the Grenadines 1, Sierra Leone 1, Singapore 1) (2010)
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Chittagong
river port(s): Mongla Port (Sela River)
container port(s): Chittagong (1,392,104) (2011)
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 Military
Military branches: Bangladesh Defense Force: Bangladesh Army (Sena Bahini), Bangladesh Navy (Noh Bahini, BN), Bangladesh Air Force (Biman Bahini, BAF) (2013)
Military service age and obligation: 16-19 years of age for voluntary military service; Bangladeshi birth and 10th grade education required; initial obligation 15 years (2012)
Manpower available for military service: males age 16-49: 36,520,491 (2010 est.)
Manpower fit for military service: males age 16-49: 30,486,086
females age 16-49: 35,616,093 (2010 est.)
Manpower reaching militarily significant age annually: male: 1,606,963
female: 1,689,442 (2010 est.)
Military expenditures: 1.4% of GDP (2012)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: Bangladesh referred its maritime boundary claims with Burma and India to the International Tribunal on the Law of the Sea; Indian Prime Minister Singh's September 2011 visit to Bangladesh resulted in the signing of a Protocol to the 1974 Land Boundary Agreement between India and Bangladesh, which had called for the settlement of longstanding boundary disputes over undemarcated areas and the exchange of territorial enclaves, but which had never been implemented; Bangladesh struggles to accommodate 29,000 Rohingya, Burmese Muslim minority from Arakan State, living as refugees in Cox's Bazar; Burmese border authorities are constructing a 200 km (124 mi) wire fence designed to deter illegal cross-border transit and tensions from the military build-up along border
Refugees and internally displaced persons: refugees (country of origin): 230,674 (Burma) (2012) IDPs: undetermined (land conflicts, religious persecution) (2012)
Illicit drugs: transit country for illegal drugs produced in neighboring countries
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