Aruba Population: 113,648

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 History
Discovered and claimed for Spain in 1499, Aruba was acquired by the Dutch in 1636. The island's economy has been dominated by three main industries. A 19th century gold rush was followed by prosperity brought on by the opening in 1924 of an oil refinery. The last decades of the 20th century saw a boom in the tourism industry. Aruba seceded from the Netherlands Antilles in 1986 and became a separate, autonomous member of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. Movement toward full independence was halted at Aruba's request in 1990.

 Geography
A flat, riverless island renowned for its white sand beaches; its tropical climate is moderated by constant trade winds from the Atlantic Ocean; the temperature is almost constant at about 27 degrees Celsius (81 degrees Fahrenheit)
Location: Caribbean, island in the Caribbean Sea, north of Venezuela
Geographic coordinates: 12 30 N, 69 58 W
Area: total: 180 sq km
land: 180 sq km
water: 0 sq km

Size comparison: slightly larger than Washington, DC
Land Boundaries: 0 km
Coastline: 68.5 km
Maritime claims: territorial sea: 12 nm
Climate: tropical marine; little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: flat with a few hills; scant vegetation
Elevation extremes:
Natural resources: NEGL; white sandy beaches foster tourism
Land use: agricultural land: 11.1% arable land 11.1%; permanent crops 0%; permanent pasture 0% forest: 2.3%
other: 86.6% (2011 est.)
Irrigated land: NA
Natural hazards: hurricanes; lies outside the Caribbean hurricane belt and is rarely threatened
Current Environment Issues: NA
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 People
Nationality: noun: Aruban(s)
adjective: Aruban; Dutch
Ethnic groups: Dutch 82.1%, Colombian 6.6%, Venezuelan 2.2%, Dominican 2.2%, Haitian 1.2%, other 5.5%, unspecified 0.1% (2010 est.)
Languages: Papiamento (official) (a creole language that is a mixture of Portuguese, Spanish, Dutch, English, and, to a lesser extent, French, as well as elements of African languages and the language of the Arawak) 69.4%, Spanish 13.7%, English (widely spoken) 7.1%, Dutch (official) 6.1%, Chinese 1.5%, other 1.7%, unspecified 0.4% (2010 est.)
Religions: Roman Catholic 75.3%, Protestant 4.9% (includes Methodist 0.9%, Adventist 0.9%, Anglican 0.4%, other Protestant 2.7%), Jehovah's Witness 1.7%, other 12%, none 5.5%, unspecified 0.5% (2010 est.)
Population: 113,648 (July 2016 est.)
Age structure: 0-14 years: 17.66% (male 10,068/female 9,999)
15-24 years: 13.03% (male 7,441/female 7,366)
25-54 years: 42.16% (male 23,068/female 24,847)
55-64 years: 14.01% (male 7,398/female 8,525)
65 years and over: 13.14% (male 5,853/female 9,083) (2016 est.)
Dependency ratios: total dependency ratio: 44%
youth dependency ratio: 26.4%
elderly dependency ratio: 17.6%
potential support ratio: 5.7% (2015 est.)
Median age: total: 39.1 years
male: 37.3 years
female: 40.9 years (2016 est.)
Population growth rate: 1.3% (2016 est.)
Birth rate: 12.5 births/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Death rate: 8.3 deaths/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Net migration rate: 8.8 migrant(s)/1,000 population (2016 est.)
Urbanization: urban population: 41.5% of total population (2015)
rate of urbanization: -0.28% annual rate of change (2010-15 est.)
Major urban areas - population: ORANJESTAD (capital) 29,000 (2014)
Sex ratio: at birth: 1.02 male(s)/female
0-14 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
15-24 years: 1.01 male(s)/female
25-54 years: 0.93 male(s)/female
55-64 years: 0.87 male(s)/female
65 years and over: 0.64 male(s)/female
total population: 0.9 male(s)/female (2016 est.)
Infant mortality rate: total: 11 deaths/1,000 live births male: 14.5 deaths/1,000 live births
female: 7.5 deaths/1,000 live births (2016 est.)
Life expectancy at birth: total population: 76.8 years male: 73.7 years
female: 79.9 years (2016 est.)
Total fertility rate: 1.84 children born/woman (2016 est.)
Drinking water source: improved:
urban: 98.1% of population
rural: 98.1% of population
total: 98.1% of population

unimproved:
urban: 1.9% of population
rural: 1.9% of population
total: 1.9% of population (2015 est.)
Sanitation facility access: improved:
urban: 97.7% of population
rural: 97.7% of population
total: 97.7% of population

unimproved:
urban: 2.3% of population
rural: 2.3% of population
total: 2.3% of population (2015 est.)
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: NA
Education expenditures: 6.1% of GDP (2014)
Literacy: definition: age 15 and over can read and write
total population: 97.5%
male: 97.5%
female: 97.5% (2015 est.)
School life expectancy (primary to tertiary education): total: 14 years male: 13 years
female: 14 years (2012)
Unemployment, youth ages 15-24: total: 28.9% male: 29.9%
female: 27.5% (2010 est.)
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 Government
Country name: conventional long form: none
conventional short form: Aruba
etymology: the origin of the island's name is unclear; according to tradition, the name comes from the Spanish phrase "oro huba" (there was gold), but in fact no gold was ever found on the island; another possibility is the native word "oruba," which means "well situated"
Government type: parliamentary democracy (Legislature); part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Capital: name: Oranjestad
geographic coordinates: 12 31 N, 70 02 W
time difference: UTC-4 (1 hour ahead of Washington, DC, during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)

note: Aruba is one of four constituent parts (countries) of the Kingdom of the Netherlands; the other three parts are the Netherlands, Curacao, and Sint Maarten
Independence: none (part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands)
National holiday: Flag Day, 18 March (1976)
Constitution: previous 1947, 1955; latest drafted and approved August 1985, enacted 1 January 1986 (regulates governance of Aruba, but is subordinate to the Charter for the Kingdom of the Netherlands); note - in October 2010, following dissolution of the Netherlands Antilles, Aruba became a constituent country within the Kingdom of the Netherlands (2016)
Legal system: civil law system based on the Dutch civil code
Suffrage: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: chief of state: King WILLEM-ALEXANDER of the Netherlands (since 30 April 2013); represented by Governor General Fredis REFUNJOL (since 11 May 2004)

head of government: Prime Minister Michiel "Mike" Godfried EMAN (since 30 October 2009)

cabinet: Council of Ministers elected by the Legislature (Staten) elections/appointments: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch for a 6-year term; prime minister and deputy prime minister indirectly elected by the Staten for 4-year tern; election last held on 25 September 2009 (next to be held by September 2013)

election results: Michiel "Mike" Godfried EMAN (AVP) elected prime minister; percent of legislative vote - NA
Legislative branch: description: unicameral Legislature or Staten (21 seats; members directly elected in a single nationwide constituency by proportional representation vote; members serve 4-year terms)

elections: last held on 27 September 2013 (next to be held in 2017)

election results: percent of vote by party - NA; seats by party - AVP 13, MEP 8
Judicial branch: highest court(s): Joint Court of Justice of Aruba, Curacao, Sint Maarten, and of Bonaire, Sint Eustatitus and Saba or "Joint Court of Justice" (sits as a 3-judge panel); final appeals heard by the Supreme Court, in The Hague, Netherlands judge selection and term of office: Joint Court judges appointed by the monarch for life

subordinate courts: Courts in First Instance
Political parties and leaders: Aruban People's Party or AVP [Michiel "Mike" EMAN] People's Electoral Movement Party or MEP [Evelyn WEVER-CROES] Real Democracy or PDR [Andin BIKKER]
Political pressure groups and leaders: other: environmental groups
International organization participation: Caricom (observer), FATF, ILO, IMF, Interpol, IOC, ITUC (NGOs), UNESCO (associate), UNWTO (associate), UPU
National symbol(s): Hooiberg (Haystack) Hill; national colors: blue, yellow, red, white
National anthem: name: "Aruba Deshi Tera" (Aruba Precious Country)
lyrics/music: Juan Chabaya 'Padu' LAMPE/Rufo Inocencio WEVER

note: local anthem adopted 1986; as part of the Kingdom of the Netherlands, "Het Wilhelmus" is official (see Netherlands)
Diplomatic representation in the US: none (represented by the Kingdom of the Netherlands); note - there is a Minister Plenipotentiary for Aruba at the Embassy of the Kingdom of the Netherlands
Diplomatic representation from the US: the US does not have an embassy in Aruba; the Consul General to Curacao is accredited to Aruba
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 Economy
Tourism, petroleum bunkering, hospitality, and financial and business services are the mainstays of the small open Aruban economy. Tourist arrivals have rebounded strongly following a dip after the 2008 global financial crisis. Tourism now accounts for a majority of economic activity. Over 1 million tourists per year visit Aruba, with the large majority of those from the US. The rapid growth of the tourism sector has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction continues to boom with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. Aruba is heavily dependent on imports and is making efforts to expand exports to achieve a more desirable trade balance. Almost all consumer and capital goods are imported, with the US, the Netherlands, and Panama being the major suppliers. Aruba weathered two major shocks in recent years: fallout from the global financial crisis, which had its largest impact on tourism, and the closure of its oil refinery in 2009. However, tourism and related industries have continued to grow, and the Aruban government is working to attract more diverse industries. Aruba's banking sector withstood the recession well, and unemployment has significantly decreased. Tourism, petroleum bunkering, hospitality, and financial and business services are the mainstays of the small open Aruban economy. Tourist arrivals have rebounded strongly following a dip after the 2008 global financial crisis. Tourism now accounts for a majority of economic activity. Over 1 million tourists per year visit Aruba, with the large majority of those from the US. The rapid growth of the tourism sector has resulted in a substantial expansion of other activities. Construction continues to boom with hotel capacity five times the 1985 level. Aruba is heavily dependent on imports and is making efforts to expand exports to achieve a more desirable trade balance. Almost all consumer and capital goods are imported, with the US, the Netherlands, and Panama being the major suppliers. Aruba weathered two major shocks in recent years: fallout from the global financial crisis, which had its largest impact on tourism, and the closure of its oil refinery in 2009. However, tourism and related industries have continued to grow, and the Aruban government is working to attract more diverse industries. Aruba's banking sector withstood the recession well, and unemployment has significantly decreased.
GDP (purchasing power parity): GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.516 billion (2009 est.) $2.258 billion (2005 est.) $2.205 billion (2004 est.) GDP (purchasing power parity): $2.516 billion (2009 est.) $2.258 billion (2005 est.) $2.205 billion (2004 est.)
GDP (official exchange rate): GDP (official exchange rate): $2.516 billion (2009 est.) GDP (official exchange rate): $2.516 billion (2009 est.)
GDP - real growth rate: 2.4% (2005 est.) 2.4% (2005 est.)
GDP - per capita (PPP): GDP - per capita (PPP): $25,300 (2011 est.) GDP - per capita (PPP): $25,300 (2011 est.)
GDP - composition, by end use: household consumption: 60.3%
government consumption: 26.2%
investment in fixed capital: 22.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 70.2%
imports of goods and services: -79% (2014 est.) household consumption: 60.3% government consumption: 26.2% investment in fixed capital: 22.3% investment in inventories: 0% exports of goods and services: 70.2% imports of goods and services: -79% (2014 est.)
GDP - composition, by sector of origin: household consumption: 60.3%
government consumption: 26.2%
investment in fixed capital: 22.3%
investment in inventories: 0%
exports of goods and services: 70.2%
imports of goods and services: -79% (2014 est.) household consumption: 60.3% government consumption: 26.2% investment in fixed capital: 22.3% investment in inventories: 0% exports of goods and services: 70.2% imports of goods and services: -79% (2014 est.)
Agriculture - products: aloes; livestock; fish aloes; livestock; fish
Industries: tourism, petroleum transshipment facilities, banking tourism, petroleum transshipment facilities, banking
Industrial production growth rate: NA% NA%
Labor force: 51,610 note: of the 51,610 workers aged 15 and over in the labor force, 32,252 were born in Aruba and 19,353 came from abroad; foreign workers are 38% of the employed population (2007 est.) 51,610 note: of the 51,610 workers aged 15 and over in the labor force, 32,252 were born in Aruba and 19,353 came from abroad; foreign workers are 38% of the employed population (2007 est.)
Labor force - by occupation: agriculture: NA%
industry: NA%
services: NA% note: most employment is in wholesale and retail trade, followed by hotels and restaurants agriculture: NA% industry: NA% services: NA% note: most employment is in wholesale and retail trade, followed by hotels and restaurants
Unemployment rate: 6.9% (2005 est.) 6.9% (2005 est.)
Population below poverty line: NA% NA%
Household income or consumption by percentage share: lowest 10%: NA%
highest 10%: NA% lowest 10%: NA% highest 10%: NA%
Budget: revenues: $696.5 million
expenditures: $751.8 million (2016 est.) revenues: $696.5 million expenditures: $751.8 million (2016 est.)
Taxes and other revenues: 27.7% of GDP (2016 est.) 27.7% of GDP (2016 est.)
Public debt: 67% of GDP (2013) 55% of GDP (2012) 67% of GDP (2013) 55% of GDP (2012)
Fiscal year: calendar year calendar year
Inflation rate (consumer prices): Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.8% (2016 est.) 0.5% (2015 est.) Inflation rate (consumer prices): -0.8% (2016 est.) 0.5% (2015 est.)
Exports: $299.9 million (2016 est.) $333.2 million (2015 est.) $299.9 million (2016 est.) $333.2 million (2015 est.)
Exports - commodities: live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery and electrical equipment, transport equipment live animals and animal products, art and collectibles, machinery and electrical equipment, transport equipment
Exports - partners: Colombia 28.2%, Netherlands Antilles 18.1%, US 14.3%, Netherlands 10.1%, Mexico 6.5%, Venezuela 6.3%, Panama 4.1% (2015) Colombia 28.2%, Netherlands Antilles 18.1%, US 14.3%, Netherlands 10.1%, Mexico 6.5%, Venezuela 6.3%, Panama 4.1% (2015)
Imports: $1.294 billion (2016 est.) $1.269 billion (2015 est.) $1.294 billion (2016 est.) $1.269 billion (2015 est.)
Imports - commodities: machinery and electrical equipment, refined oil for bunkering and reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs machinery and electrical equipment, refined oil for bunkering and reexport, chemicals; foodstuffs
Imports - partners: US 55.4%, Netherlands 11.2% (2015) US 55.4%, Netherlands 11.2% (2015)
Debt - external: $693.2 million (31 December 2014 est.) $666.4 million (31 December 2013 est.) $693.2 million (31 December 2014 est.) $666.4 million (31 December 2013 est.)
Exchange rates: Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.79 (2016 est.) 1.79 (2015 est.) 1.79 (2014 est.) 1.79 (2013 est.) 1.79 (2012 est.) Aruban guilders/florins per US dollar - 1.79 (2016 est.) 1.79 (2015 est.) 1.79 (2014 est.) 1.79 (2013 est.) 1.79 (2012 est.)
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 Energy
Electricity - production: 900 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - consumption: 800 million kWh (2014 est.)
Electricity - exports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - imports: 0 kWh (2013 est.)
Electricity - installed generating capacity: 300,000 kW (2014 est.)
Electricity - from fossil fuels: 90.6% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from nuclear fuels: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from hydroelectric plants: 0% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Electricity - from other renewable sources: 9.4% of total installed capacity (2012 est.)
Crude oil - production: 0 bbl/day (2015 est.)
Crude oil - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - imports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Crude oil - proved reserves: 0 bbl (1 January 2016 es)
Refined petroleum products - production: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - consumption: 7,500 bbl/day (2014 est.)
Refined petroleum products - exports: 0 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Refined petroleum products - imports: 7,661 bbl/day (2013 est.)
Natural gas - production: 1 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - consumption: 1 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - exports: 1 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - imports: 1 cu m (2013 est.)
Natural gas - proved reserves: 0 cu m (1 January 2014 es)
Carbon dioxide emissions from consumption of energy: 900,000 Mt (2013 est.)
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 Communications
Cellular Phones in use: total: 141,000 subscriptions per 100 inhabitants: 126 (July 2015 est.)
Telephone system: general assessment: modern fully automatic telecommunications system

domestic: increased competition through privatization has increased mobile-cellular teledensity to over 125 per 100 persons; 3 mobile-cellular service providers are now licensed

international: country code - 297; landing site for the PAN-AM submarine telecommunications cable system that extends from the US Virgin Islands through Aruba to Venezuela, Colombia, Panama, and the west coast of South America; extensive interisland microwave radio rela (2015)
Broadcast media: 2 commercial TV stations; cable TV subscription service provides access to foreign channels; about 20 commercial radio stations broadcast (2007)
Internet country code: .aw
Internet users: total: 99,000 percent of population: 88.7% (July 2015 est.)
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 Transportation
Airports: 1 (2013)
Airports (paved runways): total 1

2,438 to 3,047 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways:
Ports and terminals: major seaport(s): Barcadera, Oranjestad oil terminal(s): Sint Nicolaas cruise port(s): Oranjestad
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 Military
Defense is the responsibility of the Netherlands; the Aruba security services focus on organized crime and terrorism
Military branches: no regular military forces (2011)
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 Transnational Issues
Disputes - International: none
Illicit drugs: transit point for US- and Europe-bound narcotics with some accompanying money-laundering activity; relatively high percentage of population consumes cocaine
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